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Bible Commentaries

Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Hosea 13

Verse 1

spake trembling = spake (authoritatively) [there was] attention; as in Joshua's clays (Joshua 4:14 ). Compare Job 29:21-25 .

trembling = panic. Hebrew. r etheth. Occurs only here. Similar to retet, which occurs only in Jeremiah 49:24 ("fear").

exalted himself: carried weight, or was exalted.

offended = trespassed. Hebrew. 'asham. App-44 .

in Baal = with Baal: i.e. with the idolatrous worship of Baal, in Ahab's days.

Verse 2

understanding = notion.

of them = to them: i.e. to the People.

kiss the calves. Kissing was fundamental in all heathen idolatry. It is the root of the Latin ad-orare = to [bring something to] the mouth. "A pure lip" (Zephaniah 3:9 ) implies more than language.

Verse 3

dew. Hebrew. t al = the night mist. See note on "Zion", Psalms 133:3 .

the = a.

floor = threshingfloor.

chimney = window, or opening. No word for chimney in Hebrew

Verse 4

Yet I, &c. Supply the connecting thought: "[Ye worship these calves], yet I, even I". &c. Compare Hosea 12:9 . Isaiah 43:11 .

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4 .

from the land of Egypt. Supply the Ellipsis ( App-6 ); "[Who brought thee out] from", &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 20:2 , Exodus 20:3 ).

shalt know no: i.e. didst not, or oughtest not to know.

there is no saviour, &c. Compare Isaiah 43:11 ; Isaiah 45:21 . Supply: "no saviour [was there] beside Me". Compare Acts 4:12 .

Verse 5

I did know thee, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 2:7 ; Deuteronomy 8:15 ; Deuteronomy 32:10 ). Compare Amos 3:2 . The Septuagint reads "I shepherded, or was shepherd to thee", reading re ithika instead of yeda tika : i.e. (Resh = R) for (Daleth = D).

the land of great drought. Compare Deuteronomy 8:15 .

Verse 6

According to their pasture, &c.: i.e. the more I fed them, the more they kicked against Me.

they were filled. Note the Figure of speech Anadiplosis ( App-6 ), repeated for emphasis.

have they forgotten Me. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 8:12-14 ; Deuteronomy 32:15 ).

Verse 7

as a lion. App-92 . Compare Hosea 5:14 .

as a leopard. Compare Jeremiah 5:6

by the way. Some codices, with three early printed editions, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "on the way of Assyria".

will I observe = shall I watch, or lurk.

Verse 8

caul = enclosure (i.e. the pericardium).

the wild beast shall tear them. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:22 ).

Verse 9

thou hast destroyed thyself = the destruction [which thou art suffering] is all thine own. Ref to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:5 . Hebrew. shahath, same word as "corrupted"). App-92 .

but in Me, &c. = for I am thy [true] help.

Verse 10

I will be thy king = Where is thy king? Hebrew. 'ehi = where, as in Hosea 13:14 twice; 'ehi is separated from the following word "king" by the accent zakeph, and connected with 'epho' = now. It therefore means "Where now is thy king? (Hoshea)": the answer being "in prison" (see 2 Kings 17:4 ).

where is any other that may save thee . . . ? = to save thee, or that he may save thee.

Verse 11

I gave thee, &c. Reference to 1 Samuel 8:7 ; 1Sa 10:19 ; 1 Samuel 15:22 , 1 Samuel 15:23 ; 1 Samuel 16:1 . Compare Hosea 10:3 . Or, literally "I give . . . and take him away", referring to a continued act, the violent deaths of Israel's then recent kings: Zachariah murdered by Shallum; Shallum by Menahem; Pekahiah by Pekah; and Pekah by Hoshea, who was now a prisoner in Assyria.

Verse 12

iniquity = perversity. Hebrew. avah. App-44 .

bound up = tied up, as in a bag. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:32 , Deuteronomy 32:35 ). App-92 .

hid = reserved.

Verse 13

shall come, &c. Isaiah 13:8 . Jeremiah 30:6 . Matthew 24:8 .

an unwise son. Note the Figure of speech Meiosis ( App-6 ), for emphasis, meaning a most foolish son.

stay long = linger.

in the place, &c.: i.e. in the act of being born. Compare 2 Kings 19:3 .

children = sons.

Verse 14

ransom = redeem (with power). Hebrew. padah, to redeem by power in virtue of the legal right. See note on Exodus 13:13 .

from = out of.

the power = the hand: i.e. Sheol's power (to keep in its grasp).

the grave = Sheol. See App-35 .

redeem. Hebrew. ga'al, to redeem by purchase by assertion of the kinship right. Hence the other meaning of avenging. See note on Exodus 6:6 .

O death. Figure of speech Apostrophe , for emphasis. Quoted in 1 Corinthians 15:54 , 1 Corinthians 15:55 .

I will be = where [are], &c. See note on Hosea 13:10 .

thy plagues. Hebrew. deber = pestilence. Interpreted in 1 Corinthians 15:55 as "sting". First occurance. Exodus 5:3 .

repentance = compassion [on them], eyes. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6 .

Verse 15

he. i.e. Ephraim.

fruitful. Used by Figure of speech Irony , his name being Ephraim = fruitful. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 41:52 ; Genesis 48:19 ).

an east wind. Hebrew. kadim ; not a scorching wind. shirocco (Genesis 41:6 . Jeremiah 18:17 . Ezekiel 17:10 ; Ezekiel 19:12 ).

wind. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 .

his spring, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 33:28 ).

he shall spoil = he shall plunder. Fulfilled in Shalmaneser shortly after, and since that day this prophecy stands fulfilled. The book ends with hope, in the final section below.

Verse 16

Samaria. See 2 Kings 17:6 .

their. Some codices, with one early printed edition, Aramaean, Septuagint, and Syriac, read "and their".

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Hosea 13". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.