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Bible Commentaries

Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Hosea 12

Verse 1

feedeth on wind. Compare Hosea 8:7 .

wind. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 .

followeth after = pursueth.

daily = all the day long

desolation = violence.

make a covenant, &c. Compare Hosea 5:13 ; Hosea 7:11 .

oil is carried, &c. As a present, to obtain favour and help. Compare Hosea 5:13 .Isaiah 30:2-7 ; Isaiah 57:9 . See 2 Kings 17:4 .

Verse 2

The LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .

punish = visit upon.

Jacob. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , for Israel, especially the natural seed.

according. Some codices, with two early printed editions (one Rabbinic, margin), Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "and according".

recompense = requite, or repay.

Verse 3

He took his brother. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 25:26 ).

took . . . by the heel. Hebrew. 'akab. Hence his name Jacob.

his brother = his very own brother (with ' eth) .

by his strength = in his manhood: i.e. another example, later in life, but of a similar nature.

had power with = contended with ( Oxford Gesenius, p. 40). Hebrew Sarah. (Hence his name Israel). The event is referred to only here, and Genesis 32:28 . See note there.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. (with ' eth) = God Himself. App-4 .

Verse 4

the Angel. Defined in Hosea 12:5 .

prevailed = He (the Angel) overcame him (Jacob). See notes on Genesis 32:28 . Hence the change of Jacob's name to "Israel" = God commands.

he wept: i.e. Jacob. This is the Figure of speech Hysteresis ( App-6 ), by which former histories are supplemented by later Divine inspiration.

He found him: i.e. God found Jacob in Beth-el. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 28:17 , Genesis 28:19 ). Note the implied contrast, Beth-el being now the seat of idolatry.

He spake = Jehovah spake. See next verse.

with us. Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, and Syriac read "with him".

Verse 5

Even, &c. Render: "and Jehovah [is] God ( Elohim ) of the Hosts; Jehovah [is] His memorial [Name]. "This is for strong confirmation.

memorial. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 3:15 ). App-92 .

Verse 6

Therefore, &c. Compare Hosea 14:1 .

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.

wait on thy God = wait for thy God. Ref to Pentateuch (Genesis 49:18 ). Compare Psalms 37:7 . Isaiah 25:9 ; Isaiah 26:8 ; Isaiah 33:2 .Mark 15:43 .Luke 2:25 ; Luke 23:51 .

Verse 7

He is a merchant. Supply the Ellipsis ( App-6 ): [He, Ephraim, is] a merchant. This is the first of two provocations. See the Structure above; and Compare Hosea 12:14 .

the balances of deceit = unjust balances. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 19:36 ).

he loveth to oppress. Money was obtained by oppression. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 6:2 ; Leviticus 19:13 ). App-92 .

oppress = defraud.

Verse 8

labours = toils.

iniquity = perversity. Hebrew. 'avah . App-44 . Not the same word as in Hosea 12:11 .

that were = which [is].

Verse 9

And I, &c. These verses (9, 10) correspond with Hosea 12:14 , and give the cause of the provocation. There is an evident Ellipsis , which may be thus supplied: "And [thou forgettest that] I, Jehovah thy Elohim from the land of Egypt, [that I have promised that] I will yet make thee to dwell in tents as in the Feast of Tabernacles".

dwell in tabernacles. This is again promised in Zechariah 14:16 .

tabernacles. Since the days of Nehemiah 8:17 , the feast is called 'ohalim ( App-40 .), as here, instead of sukkoth, booths. Nehemiah's remark is superfluous unless the laws were ancient.

as in the days, &c. Ref to Pentateuch (Leviticus 23:42 , Leviticus 23:43 ). App-92 .

Verse 10

spoken by the prophets. Compare 2 Kings 17:13 . Heb 1:1 . 2 Peter 1:21 .

Verse 11

Is there iniquity = [Surely Gilead is] iniquity: supplying the Ellipsis ( App-6 ) from the next clause.

iniquity. Hebrew. 'avert. App-44 . Not the same word as Hosea 12:8 .

Gilead . . . Gilgal . . . heaps. Heap of testimony . . . heap of heaps . . . heaps. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia ( App-6 ). Hebrew. Gil'ad . . . Gilgal . . gallim.

Verse 12

fled . . . Syria. Ref to Pentateuch (Genesis 28:5 .Deuteronomy 26:5; Deuteronomy 26:5 ). App-92 .

Syria. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 26:5 ).

Israel served, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 29:18 ).

kept sheep. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 30:31 , the same Hebrew word, shamar) . We may supply the connecting thought: "[yet in after days] Israel was brought out of Egypt . . . and preserved [in the wilderness]".

Verse 13

by a prophet: i.e. Moses. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 12:50 , Exodus 12:51 ; Exodus 13:3 .Numbers 12:6-8 . App-92 . Compare Deuteronomy 18:15 ). preserved = kept, as in Hosea 12:12 .

Verse 14

Ephrairn. As represented by Jeroboam (1 Kings 12:25 , 1 Kings 13:5 ), and Hoshea (2 Kings 17:11-23 ).

He = God.

blood. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), App-6 , for blood-guiltiness.

his reproach. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:37 ).

LORD. Hebrew. 'Adonim. App-4 .

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Hosea 12". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/hosea-12.html. 1909-1922.