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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #8179 - שַׁעַר
1a) gate (of entrance)
1b) gate (of space inside gate, i.e. marketplace, public meeting place)
1b1) city, town
1c) gate (of palace, royal castle, temple, court of tabernacle)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
שַׁעַר comm. (fem. Isaiah 14:31 compare Nehemiah 3:16).
(1) a gate. (Syr. and Chald. with the letters transposed תְּרַע, ܬܰܪܥܐܳ), whether of a camp, Exodus 32:26, 27 Exodus 32:27 or of a city, Genesis 23:18; Joshua 2:7 or of a temple, Ezekiel 8:5, 10:19 or of a palace, Esther 2:19, 21 (whence שַׁעַר used of the palace itself, Esther 4:2, compare תְּרַע). שַׁעֲרֵי הָאָרֶץ the gates of a land are the entrances of a land, places where enemies might enter, Jeremiah 15:7; Nahum 3:13 בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ within thy gates, i.e. in thy cities, Deuteronomy 12:12, 14:27 and even בְּאַחַד שְׁעָרֶיךָ in one of thy cities, Deuteronomy 17:2 compare 1 Kings 8:37; 2 Chronicles 6:28. At the gates of cities there was the forum (רְחֹב, compare amongst other passages, Nehemiah 8:16), where trials were held, and the citizens assembled, some of them for business, and some to sit at leisure, to look on, and converse (Genesis 19:1; Ruth 4:11; Proverbs 31:23; Lamentations 1:4); whence בַּשַּׁעַר in the gate, often for in the forum, in judgment, Deuteronomy 25:7; Job 5:4, 31:21 Proverbs 22:22; Isaiah 29:21; Amos 5:10, 12, 15 ישְׁבֵי שַׁעַר those who sit in the gate, i.e. persons of leisure, idlers, Psalms 69:13; Ruth 3:11 כָּל־שַׁעַר עַמִּי “all the assembly of my people.”
The following were the names of the gates in the walls of Jerusalem
(a) שַׁעַר הָעַיִן the gate of the fountain, so called from the fountain Gihon, on the west side of the city, near the foot of Mount Zion, Nehemiah 2:14, 3:15 12:37. Going from this towards the north
(b) שַׁעַר הָאַשְׁפֹּת the dunghill-gate, Nehemiah 2:13, 3:14 12:31 contr. שׁ׳ הָשְׁפּוֹת Nehemiah 3:13 Josephus calls it (Bell. Jud. v. 4, § 2), the gate of the Essenes.
(c) שַׁעַר הַגַּיְא the gate of the valley, Nehemiah 2:13, 15 3:13 2 Chronicles 33:14. On the north side of the city there followed
(d) שַׁעַר הַפִּנָּה Jerem. 31:38 2 Chronicles 26:9 and שַׁעַר הַפִּנִּים the gate of the mural towers, Zechariah 14:10.
(e) שׁ׳ אֶפְרַיִם Nehemiah 8:16 also called שׁ׳ בִּנְיָמִין Jeremiah 37:13, 38:7 Zechariah 14:10 (the way from it leading to both these tribes), with a forum near it (Nehemiah 8:16).-Next this on the eastern side of the city was
(f) שׁ׳ הַיְשָׁנָה the old gate, Nehemiah 3:6, 12:39 prob. the same as is called שַׁעַר הָרִאשׁוֹן Zechariah 14:10. Then
(g) שׁ׳ הַדָּגִים the fish-gate, prob. so called from the fish which were there offered for sale, Nehemiah 3:3, 12:39 Zephaniah 1:10.
(h) שׁ׳ הַצֹּאן the sheep-gate, Nehemiah 3:1, 12:39, near the temple, so called from the sheep for sacrifice in the temple, which were offered for sale in the forum of this gate.
(1) שׁ׳ הַמִּפְקָד Vulg. porta judicialis, Nehemiah 3:31 (which others take to be one of the gates of the temple).
(k) the horse-gate, Nehemiah 3:28; Jeremiah 31:40.
(l) the water-gate, so called from the brook Kedron, Nehemiah 3:26, 12:37 which some suppose to be the same as
(m) שַׁעַר הַחַרְסוּת the pottery-gate, Jeremiah 19:2, through which they went to the valley of Hinnom, which is no doubt to be sought on the south-east side of the city. On the south side of the city, the walls were built on the edge of the steep side of Mount Zion, in which therefore there were no gates. The inner-gate (שׁ׳ הַתָּוֶךְ), Jeremiah 39:3, seems to have led from the higher city to the lower. See concerning the whole subject, Bachiene, Descr. Palæstinæ, ii. § 94-107; J. E. Faber, Archäologie der Hebräer, i. p. 336, seqq.; Rosenm. Alterthumskunde, it. 2, p. 216, seqq. Certain other gates were not in the walls of the city, but in the outer wall of the temple; see סוּר, שַׁלֶּכֶת.
(2) a measure, -fold, see the root No. I., 2, Genesis 26:12, מֵאָה שְׁעָרִים a hundred measures, a hundred-fold, i.e. ἑκατονπλασίως.
the Week of Proper 9 / Ordinary 14