the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #5461 - φωτίζω
- to give light, to shine
- to enlighten, light up, illumine
- to bring to light, render evident
- to cause something to exist and thus come to light and become clear to all
- to enlighten, spiritually, imbue with saving knowledge
- to instruct, to inform, teach
- to give understanding to
fut. φωτίσω 1 Corinthians 4:5 : —
I. abs., shine, give light, ὁ ἄνθραξ [οὐ δύναται] φωτίζειν ὥσπερ ἡ φλόξ Thphr. Ign. 30, cf. Nic. Fr. 74.66.
II trans., illuminate, ὁ ἥλιος φ. τὸν κόσμον D.S. 3.48, cf. Plu. 2.931b (Pass.): — Pass., τὸ φωτιζόμενον, opp. τὸ φωτίζον, ib.936b: opp. σκοτίζομαι, ib.1120e, cf. Luc. Luct. 2, Plot. 2.3.5; of a planet, Cat.Cod.Astr. 11(2).110; πεφωτισμέναι ἡμέραι Orph. Fr. 272.
2. bring to light, make known, τὴν ἑκατέρων αἵρεσιν Plb. 22.5.10, cf. 28.13.10; τὰ κρυπτὰ τοῦ σκότους 1 Corinthians 1:1-31.c., cf. 2 Timothy 1:10 : — Pass., γράμματα ἑαλωκότα καὶ πεφωτισμένα Plb. 30.8.1; φωτισθέντος τοῦ θανάτου Id. 15.25.8.
3. enlighten, instruct, teach, φ. τινάς, πῶς.. LXX 2 Kings 17:28; φ. πάντας, τίς ἡ οἰκονομία Ephesians 3:9.
4. illuminate with spiritual light, ὁ ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ πεφωτισμένος Corp.Herm. 9.3, cf. 13.18 (Pass.). in a special sense, baptize, in Pass., Hebrews 6:4; Hebrews 10:32.
5. throw light upon, illustrate, of commentators, Ὅμηρον D.L. 1.57.
a. properly, to enlighten, light up, illumine: τινα, Luke 11:36: τήν πόλιν, Revelation 21:23 (ἀκτισι τόν κόσμον, of the sun, Diodorus 3, 48; the Sept. for הֵאִיר); ἡ γῆ ἐφωτίσθη ἐκ τῆς δόξης (A. V. was lightened) shone with his glory, Revelation 18:1.
b. to bring to light, render evident: τά κρυπτά τοῦ σκότους, 1 Corinthians 4:5; (Ephesians 3:9 according to the reading of T L brackets WH text (but see c.)) (τήν αἵρεσιν τίνος, the preference, opinion, of one, Polybius 23, 3, 10; τήν ἀλήθειαν, Epictetus diss. 1, 4, 31; πεφωτισμενων τῶν πραγματον ὑπό τῆς ἀληθείας, Lucian, cal. non tem. cred. 32); to cause something to exist and thus to come to light and become clear to all: ζωήν καί ἀφθαρσίαν διά τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, opposed to καταργῆσαι τόν θάνατον, 2 Timothy 1:10.
c. by a use only Biblical and ecclesiastical, to enlighten spiritually, imbue with saving knowledge: τινα, John 1:9; with a saving knowledge of the gospel: hence, φωτισθέντες of those who have been made Christians, Hebrews 6:4; Hebrews 10:32; followed by an indirect question Ephesians 3:9 (see b. above) (Sir. 45:17; for הֵאִיר, Psalm 118:130
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(< φῶς ),
1. intrans., to shine, give light (Arist., Plut., a1.): seq. ἐπί , Revelation 22:5.
(a) to illumine, enlighten (Diod., Plut., al.): c. acc, Luke 11:36, Revelation 21:23; pass., Revelation 18:1. Metaph., of spiritual enlightenment (Psalms 119:130, Sirach 45:17, al.): John 1:9, Ephesians 1:18; Ephesians 3:9, R, txt., Hebrews 6:4; Hebrews 10:32;
(b) to bring to light, make known (Polyb.): 1 Corinthians 4:5, Ephesians 3:9, R, mg., 2 Timothy 1:10 (cf. Kennedy, Sources, 107 f.).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
For this word in its widest sense of the ";terrestrial region,"; cf. P Leid G.14 (B.C. 181–143) ( = I : p. 42) κυριείαν τῶν [ὑ ]πὸ τὸν οὐρανὸν χωρῶ [ν. In P Cairo Zen III. 59451.4 (iii/B.C.) it refers to exemption from compulsory labour κατὰ τὴν χώραν, ";throughout the country"; or ";district,"; and for a similar geographical sense we may refer to P Oxy IV. 709.8 (c. A.D. 50) τοὺς δὲ λοιποὺς τῆς κάτωι χώρας ν ̣[ομοὺς ] εἰς Ἀλεξανδρείαν, with reference to the Delta, and ib. X. 1274.8 (iii/A.D.) βασιλικῇ γραμματείᾳ Ἀλεξανδρέων χώρας,"; basilico-grammateus of the territory of the Alexandrians."; Note also the compd. in P Oxy VI. 936.5 (iii/A.D.) τὸ προσκύνημά σου ποιῶ παρὰ τοῖς ἐπιχωρίοις θεοῖς, ";I perform the act of worship on your behalf to the gods of the country"; (Edd.), a son to his father.
The thought of the ";country"; as opposed to the town (cf. Luk. 21:21, Joh. 4:35, Jas. 5:4) is seen in P Tebt II. 416.11 (iii/A.D.) μὴ οὖν ἀκούσῃς ἀνθ ̣ρ ̣ώπων ὅτι μέλλω μένιν ἐνθάδε, ἐν τ ̣[ά ]χ ̣ι παραγείνομε πρ [ὸ ]̣ς ̣σ ̣ε, εἰς τὴν χώραν, ";do not therefore listen to people who say that I intend to remain here (in Alexandria) : I am coming speedily into the country to you"; (Edd.).
For the metaph. sense ";place,"; ";position,"; which does not occur in the NT, it is sufficient to cite P Oxy XII.1406.9 (A.D. 213–217) α ̣̓[παλλά ]ξεται καὶ εἰς ἄτιμον χώραν [καταστή ?]σεται, ";he shall be deprived of his rank and set in a position of dishonour"; (Edd.), ib. VI. 900.8 (A.D. 322) τοὺς ἐξ ἔθους ταύτην τὴν χώραν ἀποπληροῦντας, ";those who customarily discharge such services"; (Edd.), ib. XIV. 1626.9 (A.D. 325) χώραν μίαν ῥαβδούχου, ";the single post of ῥαβδοῦχος,"; ib. VIII. 1134.8 (A.D. 421) ἀποπληρῶν χώραν προνοητοῦ, ";discharging the function of an agent"; (Ed.).
MGr χώρα : see K. Dieterich in Rhein. Museum N.F. lix. (1904), p. 226 ff.
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