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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #3083 - λύτρον
- the price for redeeming, ransom
- paid for slaves, captives
- for the ransom of life
- to liberate many from misery and the penalty of their sins
price of release:
1. ransom, mostly in pl. (later sg., D.S. 20.84, Plu. 2.295c, etc.), τῶν λ. τὴν δεκάτην the tithe of the ransom-money, Hdt. 5.77; Ἕκτορος λύτρα, title of Il. 24 and of play by Aeschylus; λύτρα λαβεῖν τινος receive as ransom for.., Th. 6.5; τῆς θυγατρὸς λύτρα φέρων Pl. R. 393d; λύτρα ἀποδιδόναι, καταθεῖναι, pay ransom, D. 53.11, 13; εἰσενεγκεῖν εἰς λύτρα contribute towards it, ib.7; ἀφιέναι ἄνευ λύτρων release without ransom, X. HG 7.2.16, cf. Aeschin. 2.100, D. 19.169, etc.; δώσουσιν ἕκαστος λύτρα τῆς ψυχῆς αὐτοῦ Κυρίῳ a ransom of his soul, LXX Exodus 30:12; sg. in NT, λ. ἀντὶ πολλῶν Matthew 20:28, Mark 10:45; λ. ὑπὲρ γαμέτου IG 14.607f (Carales); pl., sum paid for manumission of a slave, POxy. 48.6 (i A. D.), etc. sum paid for redemption of a pledge, in pl., PBad. 3.4 (ii B. C.), etc.
2. atonement, τί γὰρ λ. πεσόντος αἵματος; (so Canter for λυγρόν) A. Ch. 48; of blood-money, LXX Exodus 21:30, al.
3. generally, recompense, λύτρον καμάτων for toil, Pi. I. 8(7).1; συμφορᾶς Id. O. 7.77.
II a plant, = λυσιμάχειος, Ps.- Dsc. 4.3.
λύτρον , -ον , τό
a ransom (as for a life, Exodus 21:30; for slaves, Leviticus 19:20; for captives, Isaiah 45:13): ἀντὶ πολλῶν , Matthew 20:28, Mark 10:45 (v. Swete, in l, and for discussion of λ . and its cognates, Westc., He., 295 f.; Deiss., LAE, 331 f.; cf. also ἀντί -λύτρον ).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Deissmann (LAE p. 331 ff.) has shown how readily our Lord’s Saying in Matthew 20:28, Mark 10:45, the only passages where λύτρον occurs in the NT, would be understood by all classes in view of the popular usage of the word in connexion with the purchase money for manumitting slaves. Thus in P Oxy I. 48.6 (A.D. 86) (as amended ib. II. p. 319) we read of a slave Euphrosyne who has been set free ὑπὸ Δία Γῆν Ἥλιον ἐπὶ λύτροι (ς), ";under Zeus, Earth, Sun, for a ransom,"; and similarly ib. 49.8 (A.D. 100) : cf. also ib. IV. 722.30, .40 (A.D. 91 or 107) and Chrest. II. 362.15 (A.D. 211) Ἑλένην. . . ἠλευθέρωσα καὶ ἔσχον ὑπὲρ λύτρ [ω ]ν αὐτῆς δραχμὰς σεβαστὰς δισκειλίας διακοσία [ς. For the singular, which is not so common as the plural, Deissmann (ib. p. 332 n..2) cites from Buresch Aus Lydien, p. 197 the inscr. on a native relief from Köres near Koula in Asia Minor—Γαλλικῷ Ἀσκληπιάς, κώμη Κερυζέων, παιδίσχη Λιογένου λύτρον, ";To Gallicus, Asclepias (village of Ceryza), maidservant of Liogenes (Diogenes?) presents this ransom."; He thinks that the word here means that Asclepias was releasing herself from a vow. The plural may be further illustrated by Syll 325.15 (i/B.C.) τισὶν δὲ τῶν πολειτῶν ε [ἰς ] λύτρα προτιθεὶς ἔδειξεν ἑαυτὸν πρὸς πᾶσαν ἀπάντησιν τῶν σωζο [μέ ]νων εὐομείλητον, ib. 863.4 (Delphi—i/A.D.) ἀπέλυσε Ἀμμία τᾶς παραμονᾶς Σύνφορον, λαβοῦσα λύτρα ἐκ πολεμίων. It may be noted that in the LXX the word is always used to denote an equivalent
[Supplemental from 1930 edition]
The expression λ ]ύρτα ἱεπῶν is found in a private account, P Oxy IV. 784 (i/B.C.).
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
the Week of Proper 15 / Ordinary 20