the Fourth Week of Lent
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #2980 - λαλέω
- to utter a voice or emit a sound
- to speak
- to use the tongue or the faculty of speech
- to utter articulate sounds
- to talk
- to utter, tell
- to use words in order to declare one's mind and disclose one's thoughts
- to speak
1. talk, chat, prattle, ἕπου καὶ μὴ λάλει Ar. Ec. 1058, cf. V. 1135; ἡ μὲν χελιδὼν τὸ θέρος.. λαλεῖ Philem. 208; λαλεῖς.. ἀμελήσας ἀποκρίνασθαι Pl. Euthd. 287d: c. dat., talk to one, λαλῶν ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς σεαυτῷ Ar. Eq. 348; αὑτοῖς Philem. 11; πρὸς αὑτούς Alex. 9.10; λ. περί τινος Pherecr. 2, Ar. Lys. 627; ὑπέρ τινος Posidipp. 26.3; opp. λέγω, λαλεῖν ἄριστος, ἀδυνατώτατος λέγειν Eup. 95; λαλῶν μὲν.., λέγων δέ.. D. 21.118 (s.v.l.); λαλεῖν τι ἡμῖν ὅπως ἂν ἡμᾶς ὕπνος λάβῃ Thphr. Char. 7.10: hence, generally, talk, speak, S. Ph. 110 (v.l.for λακεῖν) ; καινὴν διάλεκτον λ. Antiph. 171; Ἀττικιστὶ λ. Alex. 195.4. c. metaph., ζωγραφία λαλοῦσα (of poetry), opp. ποίησις σιωπῶσα (of painting), Simon. ap. Plu. 2.346f.
2. talk of, τινα Alciphr. Fr. 5.2; ἀλλήλαις λαλέουσι τεὸν γάμον αἱ κυπάρισσοι Theoc. 27.58; ἅμαξαν Stoic. 2.92: — Pass., πρᾶγμα κατ' ἀγορὰν λαλούμενον Ar. Th. 578.
3. in later writers, = λέγω, speak, λαλεῖ οὐθὲν τῶν ἄλλων ζῴων πλὴν ἀνθρώπου Arist. Pr. 899a1: freq. in LXX, Genesis 12:4, al.; βασιλέως ἐναντίον Ezek. Exag. 118; πρός τινα Acts 3:22, cf. Luc. Vit.Auct. 3, etc.; περὶ τῆς λέξεως Phld. Po. 5.32, cf. Rh. 1.189 S., al.; χειρσὶν ἅπαντα λαλήσας, of a pantomime, IG 14.2124: abs., εἴ τι μὴ λίθος, τοὔργον, ἐρεῖς, λαλήσει Herod. 4.33, cf. 6.61; ἐλάλησεν ὁ κωφός Matthew 9:33 : — Pass., λαληθήσεταί σοι ὅ τι σε δεῖ ποιεῖν it shall be told thee.., Acts 9:6.
II chatter, opp. articulate speech, as of locusts, chirp, Theoc. 5.34; μεσημβρίας λαλεῖν τέττιξ (sc. εἰμί), a very grasshopper to chirp at midday, Aristopho 10.6; ἀνθρωπίνως λ. Strato Com. 1.46.
III of musical sounds, αὐλῷ λαλέω Theoc. 20.29; of trees, v.supr. 1.2; δι'[αὐλοῦ ἢ σάλπιγγος] λ. Arist. Aud. 801a29; of Echo, D.C. 74.14: also c.acc. cogn., μάγαδιν λαλεῖν sound the μάγαδις, Anaxandr. 35.
λαλέω, λαλῶ; imperfect 3 person singular ἐλάλει, plural ἐλάλουν; future λαλήσω; 1 aorist ἐλάλησα; perfect λελάληκα; passive, present λαλοῦμαι; perfect λελάλημαι; 1 aorist ἐλαλήθην; 1 future λαληθήσομαι: (from Sophocles down); found in Biblical Greek much more frequent than in secular authors, in the Sept. times without number for דִּבֵּר or דִּבֶּר, more rarely for אָמַר; properly, to utter a sound (cf. (onomatop. la-la, etc.) German lallen), to emit a voice make oneself heard; hence to utter or form words with the mouth, to speak, having reference to the sound and pronunciation of the words and in general the form of what is uttered. while λεγο refers to the meaning and substance of what is spoken; hence λαλεῖν is employed not only of men, especially when chatting and prattling, but also of animals (of birds, Mosch. 3, 47; of locusts, Theocritus, 5, 34; λαλοῦσι μέν, οὐ φραζουσι δέ, of dogs and apes, Plutarch, mor. ii., p. 909 a.), and so of inanimate things (as trees, Theocritus, 27, 56 (57); of an echo, Dio C. 74, 21, 14). Accordingly, everything λεγόμενον is also λαλούμενον, but not everything λαλούμενον is also λεγόμενον (Eupolis in Plutarch, Alc. 13 λαλεῖν ἄριστος, ἀδυνατωτατος λέγειν); (the difference between the words is evident where they occur in proximity, e. g. Romans 3:19 ὅσα ὁ νόμος λέγει, τοῖς ἐν τῷ νόμῳ λαλεῖ, and the very common ἐλάλησεν ... λέγων, Matthew 13:3, etc.). Moreover, the primary meaning of λαλεῖν, to utter oneself, enables us easily to understand its very frequent use in the sacred writers to denote the utterances by which G o d indicates or gives proof of his mind and will, whether immediately or through the instrumentality of his messengers and heralds. (Perhaps this use may account in part for the fact that, though in classic Greek λαλεῖν is the term for light and familiar speech, and so assumes readily a disparaging notion: in Biblical Greek it is nearly ff not quite free from any such suggestion.) Cf. Day. Schulz die Geistesgaben der ersten Christen, p. 94ff; Tittmann de Synonymis N. T., p. 79f; Trench, Synonyms, § lxxvi.; (and on classical usage Schmidt, Syn. 1:1). But let us look at the N. T. usage in detail:
1. to utter a voice, emit a sound: of things inanimate, as βρονταί, Revelation 10:4; with τάς ἑαυτῶν φωνάς added, each thunder uttered its particular voice (the force and meaning of which the prophet understood, cf. John 12:28f); John 12:3; σάλπιγγος λαλούσης μετ' ἐμοῦ, λέγων (Rec. λέγουσα) followed by direct discourse Revelation 4:1; of the expiatory blood of Christ, metaphorically, to crave the pardon of sins, Hebrews 12:24; of the murdered Abel, long since dead, equivalent to to call for vengeance (see Genesis 4:10, and cf. κράζω, 1 at the end), Hebrews 11:4 according to the true reading λαλεῖ; (G L T Tr WH; the Rec. λαλεῖται must be taken as passive, in the exceptional sense to be talked of, lauded; see below, 5 at the end (πρᾶγμα κατ' ἀγοράν λαλούμενον, Aristophanes Thesm. 578, cf. πάντες αὐτήν λαλοῦσιν, Alciphro fragment 5, ii., p. 222, 10 edition Wagner)).
2. to speak, i. e. to use the tongue or the faculty of speech; to utter articulate sounds: absolutely 1 Corinthians 14:11; of the dumb, receiving the power of speech, Matthew 9:33; Matthew 12:22; Matthew 15:31; Luke 11:14; Revelation 13:15; (τούς (T Tr WH omit)) ἀλάλους λαλεῖν, Mark 7:37; ἐλάλει ὀρθῶς, Mark 7:35; of a deaf-mute man, μή δυνάμενος λαλῆσαι, Luke 1:20 (of idols, στόμα ἔχουσι καί οὐ λαλήσουσι, Psalm 113:13
3. to talk; of the sound and outward form of speech: τῇ ἰδίᾳ διαλέκτῳ, Acts 2:6; ἑτέραις καιναῖς γλώσσαις, Acts 2:4; Mark 16:17 (here Tr text WH text omit καιναῖς), from which the simple γλώσσαις λαλεῖν, and the like, are to be distinguished, see γλῶσσα, 2.
4. to utter, tell: with the accusative of the thing, 2 Corinthians 12:4.
5. to use words in order to declare one's mind and disclose one's thoughts; to speak: absolutely, ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος, Matthew 12:46; Matthew 17:5; Matthew 26:47; Mark 5:35; Mark 14:43; Luke 8:49; Luke 22:47, 60; with the adverbs κακῶς, καλῶς, John 18:23; ὡς νήπιος ἐλάλουν, 1 Corinthians 13:11; ὡς δράκων, Revelation 13:11; στόμα πρός στόμα, face to face (German mündlich), 2 John 1:12 (after the Hebrew of Numbers 12:8); εἰς ἀέρα λαλεῖν, 1 Corinthians 14:9; ἐκ τοῦ περισσεύματος τῆς καρδίας τό στωμα λαλεῖ, out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh, namely, so that it expresses the soul's thoughts, Matthew 12:34; Luke 6:45; ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων λαλεῖν, to utter words in accordance with one's inner character, John 8:44. with the accusative of the thing: τί λαλήσω, λαλήσητε, etc., what I shall utter in speech, etc., John 12:50; Matthew 10:19; Mark 9:6 (here T Tr WH ἀποκριθῇ);
6. Since λαλεῖν, strictly denotes the act of one who utters words with the living voice, when writers speak of themselves or are spoken of by others as λαλοῦντες, they are conceived of as present and addressing their readers with the living voice, Romans 7:1; 1 Corinthians 9:8; 2 Corinthians 11:17, 23; 2 Corinthians 12:19; Hebrews 2:5; Hebrews 6:9; 2 Peter 3:16, or λαλεῖν is used in the sense of commanding, Hebrews 7:14. The verb λαλεῖν is not found in the Epistles to Galatians and 2 Thessalonians. (Compare: διαλαλέω, ἐκλαλέω, καταλαλέω, προσλαλέω, συλλαλέω; cf. the catalog of comp. in Schmidt, Syn., chapter i § 60.)
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λαλέω , -ῶ ,
[in LXX chiefly for H1696 pi., also for H559, etc.;]
1. to utter: of inanimate things, Revelation 4:1; Revelation 10:4; metaph., Hebrews 11:4; Hebrews 12:24.
2. to talk, speak, say: absol., Matthew 9:33; Matthew 12:46, Mark 5:35, Luke 8:49; seq. ὡς , 1 Corinthians 13:11, Revelation 13:11; εἰς , 1 Corinthians 14:9; ἐκ , Matthew 12:34; c. acc rei, Matthew 10:19, Mark 11:23, John 8:30, al.; c. dat. pers., Matthew 12:46, Luke 24:6, Romans 7:1, al.; c. acc rei et dat. pers., Matthew 9:18, John 10:6, al.; c. prep., πρός , μετά , περί , Mark 6:50, Luke 1:19; Luke 2:33, al.; ἐν , ἐξ , ἀπό , Matthew 13:3, John 12:49; John 14:10, al.; λ . τ . λόγον , Mark 8:32, al.; seq. orat. dir. (not cl.), Mark 14:31, Hebrews 5:5; Hebrews 11:18; Hebraistically (Dalman, Words, 25 f.), ἐλάλησε λέγων , Matthew 14:27, John 8:12, Acts 8:26, al.
SYN.. see λέγω G3004.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
In P Amh II. 131.6 (early ii/A.D.) a brother writes to his sister with reference to the management of certain family property, stating that he will remain where he is until he learns that all is safely settled, and adding—ἐλπίζω δὲ θεῶν θελόντων ἐκ τῶν λαλουμένων διαφεύξεσθαι καὶ μετὰ τὴν πεντεκαιδεκάτην ἀναπλεύσειν, ";but I hope, if the gods will, to escape from the talking and after the fifteenth to return home."; See also P Oxy I. 119.5 (ii/iii A.D.) (= Selections, p. 103) where the naughty boy writes to his father—ἢ οὐ θέλις ἀπενέκκειν μετ᾽ ἐσοῦ εἰς Ἀλεξανδρίαν, οὐ μὴ γράψω σε ἐπιστολήν, οὔτε λαλῶ σε, οὔτε υἱγένω σε εἶτα, ";if you refuse to take me along with you to Alexandria, I won’t write you a letter, or speak to you, or wish you health henceforth,"; P Fay 126.4 (ii/iii A.D.) ἤκουσα φίλου τοῦ πατρός μου λαλοῦντος περὶ σοῦ ὅτι πεμψεν (l. ἔπεμψεν) ἐπὶ τὴν πενθερά (l. –ράν) σου χάριν τοῦ κτήματος, ";I heard a friend of my father’s saying about you that be had sent a message to your mother-in-law about the farm"; (Edd.), BGU III. 822.18 (iii/A.D.) ἵνα εὕρωμεν καὶ ἡμῖς εὔλογον λαλῆσαι αὐτῇ, γράψον Κουπανηο ̣ῦτι ἐπιστολήν, and the magic P Lond 121.174 (iii/A.D) (= I. p. 89) a recipe against old women’s garrulity—γραῦν μὴ τὰ πολλὰ λα [λ ]εῖν. This last papyrus shows also the subst. λάλημα (LXX), .661 (= I. p. 105) φίλτρον ἐπὶ λαλήματος κατὰ φίλων. The above exx. all bear out the usual distinction that, while λέγω calls attention to the substance of what is said, the onomatopoetic λαλέω points rather to the outward utterance : cf. McLellan Gospels, p. 383 ff. and Milligan’s note on 1 Thessalonians 1:8. With λαλέω, ";I make known by speaking"; with the further idea of extolling, as in Matthew 26:13 al., cf. the inscr. with reference to a mother and brother—ὧν καὶ ἡ σωφροσύνη κατὰ τὸν κόσμον λελάληται (Archiv v. p. 169, No. 24.8). MGr λαλῶ (-έω), ";speak.";
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Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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