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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #1945 - ἐπίκειμαι

from (G1909) and (G2749)
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  1. to lie upon or over, rest upon, be laid or placed upon
    1. on the burning coals
  2. metaph.
    1. of things, of the pressure of a violent tempest
    2. of men, to press upon, to be urgent
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 1970 ‑ הָכַר (haw‑kar');  2554 ‑ חָמַס (khaw‑mas');  5414 ‑ נָתַן (naw‑than');  
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Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions



1. serving as Pass. to ἐπιτίθημι, to be laid upon, and so, I. of doors, to be put to or closed (cf. ἐπιτίθημι 11), θύραι δ' ἐπέκειντο φαειναί Od. 6.19: metaph., γλώσσῃ θύραι οὐκ ἐπίκεινται Thgn. 421.

2.. generally, to be placed, lie in or on, c. dat., ἐπισκύνιον ἐπέκειτο προσώπῳ Theoc. 24.118; of troops, ὄχθαις Ἴστρου ἐ. Hdn. 2.9.1.

3.. of islands, νῆσοι ἐπὶ Λήμνῳ (-ου codd.) ἐπικείμεναι lying off Lemnos, Hdt. 7.6; so ἐ. τῇ Θρηΐκῃ ib. 185; ἐπὶ [τῇ Λακαίνῃ χώρῃ ] ib. 235, cf. Th. 4.53: abs., αἱ νῆσοι αἱ ἐπικείμεναι the islands off the coast, Id. 2.14, cf. 4.44; πάσῃ ἐ. τῇ θαλάσσῃ lies right across the sea, of Crete, Arist. Pol. 1271b34; ἡ ἐπικειμένη τινὸς γῆ PTeb. 50.6 (ii B.C.).


1. to be laid upon, ἐμοὶ σφρηγὶς ἐπικείσθω τοῖσδ' ἔπεσι Thgn. 19 (so lit., σφραγὶς οὐκ ἐ. BGU 361 iii 29 (ii A.D.), etc.); ἐπίκειται ἀγνώμων σῇ κεφαλῇ στέφανος Thgn. 1259, cf. X. Oec. 19.13; ἐ. ἐπί τινος Hero Spir. 1.38, al., D.C. 67.16: metaph., κρατερὴ δ' ἐπικείσετ' ἀνάγκη Il. 6.458, cf. 1 Corinthians 9:16; of a duty, οἷς ἐπέκειτο φροντίζειν Plu. 2.786f.

2.. press upon, be urgent in entreaty, Hdt. 5.104; press upon a retreating enemy, attack, Βοιωτοῖσι ib. 81; to be urgent against, Id. 6.49; ἐπεκείμην αὐτοῖς ἐνοχλῶν PLips. 36.7 (iv A.D.): abs., κἀπικείσομαι βαρύς E. Rh. 101; κἀπικείμενος βόα Ar. Eq. 252; Κλέων μ' ὑπετάραττεν ἐπικείμενος Id. V. 1285; ἐ. λαμπρῶς Th. 7.71; πολὺς δ' ἐπέκειτο Theoc. 22.90; of a crowd, ἐ. τινί Luke 5:1.

3.. hang over, τηλικούτων ἐπικειμένων τῷ μοιχεύοντι κακῶν X. Mem. 2.1.5; of penalties, θάνατος ἡ ζημίη ἐπίκειται the penalty imposed is death, Hdt. 2.38, cf. 6.58, Arist. Pol. 1297a18; τῷ ἄρξαντι μεγάλα ἐπιτίμια ἐ. Antipho 4.4.7; ζημία.. ἐπέκειτο στατήρ Th. 3.70; ὁ ἐπικείμενος κίνδυνος Hdn. 1.13.4.

4.. of a name, to be imposed, Pl. Cra. 411c, Prt. 349c.

5.. metaph., σκώμματα ἐπικείμενα suitable to the purpose, pointed, Longin. 34.2.

6.. to be set in authority, ἐπὶ τοῦ πυρός Corp.Herm. 1.13; ἐπικείμενος Ἀλεξανδρείας PLips. 102i8, etc.

III. c. acc. rei, esp. in part., κἀπικείμενον κάρα κυνέας head with helmet set thereon, E. Supp. 716 (dub. constr.); ἐ. κυνῆν τῆς κεφαλῆς Hld. 5.22; στέφανον ἐπικείμενος with a crown on one's head, Plu. Mar 22; ἄπικας ἐπικείμενοι ταῖς κεφαλαῖς D.H. 2.70; σεμνὸν ἐπικειμένη τὸ κάλλος J. AJ 11.6.9; ἀγγέλου ἢ θεράποντος ἐπικείμενος πρόσωπον Plu. Lys. 23; ἐπέκειτο ὠτειλάς he bore scars upon him, App. Mith. 6; ἱερὰν ἐσθῆτα ἐ. Id. BC 4.134; φθίμενος τήνδ' ἐπίκειμαι κόνιν Epigr.Gr. 622.6; κιθάραν.. κόλλοπας ἐπικειμένην fitted with pegs, Luc. Ind. 10: metaph., οἱ κίνδυνον ἐπικείμενοι exposed to.., App. BC 4.124.

Thayer's Expanded Definition

ἐπίκειμαι; imperfect ἐπεκειμην; to lie upon or over, rest upon, be laid or placed upon;

a. properly: ἐπί τίνι, John 11:38; namely, on the burning coals, John 21:9.

b. figuratively, α. of things: of the pressure of a violent tempest, χειμῶνος ἐπικειμένου, Acts 27:20 (Plutarch, Timol. 28, 7); ἀνάγκη μοι ἐπίκειται, is laid upon me, 1 Corinthians 9:16 (Homer, Iliad 6, 458); ἐπικείμενα, of observances imposed on a man by law, Hebrews 9:10 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 635 (589)]. β. of men; to press upon, to be urgent: with the dative of person Luke 5:1; ἐπέκειντο αἰτούμενοι, Luke 23:23 (πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἐπέκειτο ἀξιῶν, Josephus, Antiquities 18, 6, 6; μᾶλλον ἐπέκειντο βλασφημοῦντες, 20, 5, 3).

STRONGS NT 1945a: ἐπικέλλω ἐπικέλλω: (1 aorist ἐπεκειλα); to run a ship ashore, to bring to land; so from Homer, Odyssey 9, 148 down; ἐπέκειλαν (R G ἐπώκειλαν) τήν ναῦν, Acts 27:41 L T Tr WH; but in opposition see Meyer at the passage (Cf. B. D. American edition, p. 3009.)

STRONGS NT 1945b: ἐπικεφάλαιον [ἐπικεφάλαιον, ἐπικεφαλαιου, τό, head-money, poll-tax, (Aristotle, oec. 2, p. 1346{a}, 4 and 1348{a}, 32): Mark 12:14 WH (rejected) marginal reading for κῆνσον (others).]

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

ἐπι -κείμαι ,

[in LXX: Exodus 39:31 (H5414), Job 19:3 (H1970 hi.) Job 21:27 (H2554), 1 Maccabees 6:57, 2 Maccabees 1:21, 3 Maccabees 1:22*;]

to be placed, lie on: John 21:9; seq. ἐπί , c. dat., John 11:38; fig., Hebrews 9:10; ἀνάγκη , 1 Corinthians 9:16; χειμῶν , to threaten, come on: Acts 27:20; of persons, to press upon: Luke 5:1; Luke 23:23.†

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

For the meaning ";lie upon,"; ";cover,"; see P Tebt I. 47.25 (B.C. 113) τοῦ ὕδατος ἐπικειμένου, of the water covering the land at the annual rising of the Nile, P Grenf II. 57.9 (A.D. 168) τὴν ἐπικει [μέν ]ην σποράν : cf. also P Ryl II. 121.11 (ii/A.D.) τ ̣[ὰς ] σφραγεῖδας ἃς ἐπέθηκ [ε ἐπ ]ικεῖνται, ";the seals which he affixed are still in their place"; (Edd.), P Oxy VIII. 1127.24 (A.D. 183) καὶ τὰς ἐπικειμένας θύρας δύο κλεῖν μίαν, ";and the two doors and one key attached"; (Ed.). The sepulchral inscr. Kaibel 622.8 has φθίμενος τήνδ᾽ ἐπίκειμαι κόνιν, ";in death I have this dust laid upon me."; The stronger sense of ";attack"; occurs in P Par 46.8 (B.C. 153) (= Witkowski.2, p. 86) ληστῶν ἐπικειμένων : cf. P Rein 48.8 (ii/A.D.) ὁρῶ σὲ ἐπικείμενόν μοι, ";très irrité contre moi"; (Ed.), P Oxy III. 488.21 (ii/iii A.D.) τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐπικειμένου μοι, ";since the man oppresses me"; (Edd.). The verb is used much as in Luke 5:1 in P Ryl II. 243.7 (ii/A.D.) καὶ νῦν ἐπιστάμεθά σου τὸ σπουδαῖον κ ̣α ̣ὶ ὡς ἐπίκεισαι τοῖς ἔργοις τοῦ κλήρου, ";we now know your zeal and attentiveness to the work of the holding"; (Edd.). See also the late P Lips I. 90.1 (Byz.) σὺν θ (εῷ) ἐπικείμ (ενος) τῆς χειρογραφείας, and P Iand 24.1 (vi/vii A.D.) ὁ ἐπικείμενος τῶν ἀγγαρευτῶν with the editor’s note.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
επεκειντο επέκειντο ἐπέκειντο επεκειτο επέκειτο ἐπέκειτο επέκλυσε επεκοιμήθη επικειμενα επικείμενα ἐπικείμενα επικειμενον επικείμενον ἐπικείμενον επικειμενου επικειμένου ἐπικειμένου επικεισθαι επικείσθαι ἐπικεῖσθαι επίκεισθέ επικειται ἐπίκειται επίκλητοι επίκλητος επικλίναι επίκλινον επικλύζων επικοιμηθήσεται επικοσμηθήναι epekeinto epékeinto epekeito epékeito epikeimena epikeímena epikeimenon epikeímenon epikeimenou epikeiménou epikeisthai epikeîsthai epikeitai epíkeitai
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