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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1715 - ἔμπροσθεν
- in front, before
- before, i.e. in that local region which is in front of a person or thing
- before, in the presence of, i.e. opposite to, over against one
- before, in the sight of
- before, denoting rank
sts. also ἔμπροσθε Hdt. 5.62, 7.144, al., Isoc. Ephesians 4:10, in Poets metri gr., Hegesipp.Com. 1.20, Nicom.Com. 1.14, A.R. 4.590: neither form in Hom. or Trag., τοὔμπροσθεν dub. in E. Hipp. 1228.
1 of Place, before, in front, Hdt. 7.126, X. Cyr. 4.2.23; τὸ and τὰ ἔ. the front, the foreside, Id. HG 2.3.55, Hdt. 5.62, etc.; εἰς τὸ ἔ. forwards, Id. 4.61; στὰς ἐκ τοῦ ἔ. in front, opposite, X. Cyr. 2.2.6: metaph., εἰστοὔμπ. προελθεῖν Isoc.l.c.
2. of Time, before, of old, Pl. Phdr. 277d, etc.; τὰ ἔ. Id. Grg. 448e; τὰ ἔ. τούτων ῥηθέντα Id. Lg. 773e; οἱ ἔ. our ancestors, Id. Plt. 296a, Hegesipp. l.c.; οἱ ἔ. Χρόνοι PPetr. 2p.19 (iii B. C.), etc.
II as Pr c. gen., before, in front of,
1 of Place, ἐ. αὐτῆς (sc. τῆς νηός) Hdt. 8.87, cf. 2.110, etc.
2. of Time, ἔ. ταύτης (sc. τῆς γνώμης) Id. 7.144; ἔ. εἶναι τῶν πραγμάτων to be beforehand with events, D. 4.39.
3. of Degree, ἔ. τοῦ δικαίου preferred before justice, Id. 56.50.
ἔμπροσθεν (Tdf. in Revelation 4:6 ἐνπροσθεν (see ἐν, III. 3; cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) 8)), adverb of place and of time (from ἐν and πρόσθεν, properly, in the fore part); (from Herodotus down); the Sept. chiefly for לִפְנֵי; before. In the N. T. used only of place;
1. adverbially, in front, before: Revelation 4:6 (opposed to ὄπισθεν, as in Palaeph. 29, 2). before: πορεύεσθαι, to precede, to go before, Luke 19:28; προδραμών ἔμπροσθεν, Luke 19:4 (T WH εἰς τό ἔμπροσθεν, cf. Herodotus 4, 61 (8, 89)), like προπορεύεσθαι ἔμπροσθεν, Xenophon, Cyril 4, 2, 23 (figuratively, Plato, Gorgias, p. 497 a. προιθι εἰς τό ἔμπροσθεν); τά ἔμπροσθεν the things which lie before one advancing, the goal set before one, Philippians 3:13 (14) (opposed to τά ὀπίσω).
2. it serves as a preposition, with the genitive (Buttmann, 319 (274); Winers Grammar, § 54, 6);
a. before, i. e. in that local region which is in front of a person or a thing: Matthew 5:24; Matthew 7:6; Luke 5:19; Luke 14:2; to prostrate oneself ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ποδῶν τίνος, Revelation 19:10; Revelation 22:8; γονυπέτειν ἔμπροσθεν τίνος, Matthew 27:29; πορεύεσθαι ἔμπροσθεν τίνος, to go before one, John 10:4; ἀποστέλλεσθαι ἔμπροσθεν τίνος, to be sent before one, John 3:28; σαλπίζειν ἔμπροσθεν τίνος, Matthew 6:2; τήν ὁδόν κατασκευάσαι, where ἔμπροσθεν τίνος is nearly equivalent to a dative (cf. Buttmann, 172 (150)), Matthew 11:10; Mark 1:2 Rec.; Luke 7:27.
b. before, in the presence of, equivalent to opposite to, over against one: στῆναι, Matthew 27:11; ὁμολογεῖν and ἀρνεῖσθαι (Buttmann, 176 (153)), Matthew 10:32; Matthew 26:70; Luke 12:8,(9 Lachmann); also Galatians 2:14; 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 1 Thessalonians 2:19; 1 Thessalonians 3:9, 13; before one, i. e. at his tribunal: Matthew 25:32; Matthew 27:11; Luke 21:36; Acts 18:17; 2 Corinthians 5:10; 1 Thessalonians 2:19; (1 John 3:19). Here belong the expressions εὐδοκία, θέλημα ἐστι ἔμπροσθεν Θεοῦ, it is the good pleasure, the will of God, Matthew 11:26; Matthew 18:14; Luke 10:21, formed after Chaldean usage; for in 1 Samuel 12:22 the words יְהוָה הואִיל, God wills, Jonathan the targumist renders יְהוָה קֲדָם רַעֲוָא; cf. Fischer, De vitiis lexamples N. T. etc., p. 329f; (cf. Buttmann, 172 (150)). o. before i. e. in the sight of one: Matthew 5:16; Matthew 6:1; Matthew 17:2; Matthew 23:13 (
d. before, denoting rank: γεγονέναι ἔμπροσθεν τίνος, to have obtained greater dignity than another, John 1:15, 30, also
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ἔμ -προσθεν ,
of place (in cl. also of time),
[in LXX chiefly for H6040;]
1. adverbially, before, in front: Luke 19:28; εἰς τὸ ἔ ., Luke 19:4; opp. to ὄπισθεν , Revelation 4:6; opp. to τὰ ὀπίσω , τὰ ἔ ., Philippians 3:13.
2. As prep., before;
(a) in front of: Matthew 5:24; Matthew 6:2; Matthew 7:6; Matthew 11:10; Matthew 27:29, Luke 5:19; Luke 7:27; Luke 14:2, John 3:28; John 10:4, Revelation 19:10; Revelation 22:8;
(b) in the presence of: Matthew 27:11, Galatians 2:14, 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 1 Thessalonians 2:19; 1 Thessalonians 3:9; 1 Thessalonians 3:13; ὁμολουεῖν , ἀρνεῖσθαι (Dalman, Words, 210), Matthew 10:32; Matthew 10:36; Matthew 26:70, Luke 12:8; in forensic sense, Matthew 25:32; Matthew 27:11, Luke 21:36, Acts 18:17, 2 Corinthians 5:10, 1 Thessalonians 2:19, 1 John 3:19; εὐδοκία (θέλημά ) ἐστι ἔ . θεοῦ (a targumic formula; Dalman, Words, 211), Matthew 11:26; Matthew 18:14, Luke 10:21;
(c) in the sight of: Matthew 5:16; Matthew 6:1; Matthew 17:2; Matthew 23:14, Mark 2:12; Mark 9:2, Luke 19:27, John 12:37, Acts 10:4;
(d) of rank and dignity (Dem., Plat., al.; LXX, Genesis 48:20): John 1:15; John 1:30.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
For ἐ. of place, as in all its NT occurrences, cf. P Tebt II. 316ii. 22 (A.D. 99) οἰκοῦμεν δὲ ἐν τῷ ἔνπροσθι ̣ς ̣ (l. ἔμπροσθε) ναυάρχου, ";we live opposite the admiralty"; (Edd.), P Giss I. 99.16 (ii/iii A.D.) τὰ γράμματα ἐ ]ν στή [λαι ]ν δυοῖν [ἔ ]μ ̣προσθε ̣ν ἱδρυμέ [ν ]αιν τοῦ [ν ]εώ, and the magical P Par 574.1229 (iii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 113) βάλε ἔμπροσθεν αὐτοῦ κλῶνας ἐλαίας. The word is very common in the papyri with reference to time, e.g. P Petr II. 8 (1)A. .7 (c. B.C. 250) ἐν τοῖς ἔνπροσθεν χρόνοις, ib. 13 (1).8 (B.C. 258–3) καθὰ καὶ ἔνπροσθεν ἐγένετο, P Ryl II. 157.22 (A.D. 135) τῶν ἔμπροσθεν καὶ τῶν ἐπεσομένων χρόνων. Cf. Michel 978.3 (B.C. 281–0) ἔν τε τῶι ἔμπροσ [θε ]ν χρόνωι. MGr ἐμπρός, (ἐ)μπροστά.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.