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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1722 - ἐν
- in, by, with etc.
poet. ἐνί, εἰν, εἰνί (Il. 8.199, etc.), forms used by and Lyric Poets as the metre requires, but only as f.l. in Trag., εἰν S. Ant. 1241; εἰνί E. Heracl. 893: Arc. and Cypr. ἰν IG 5(2).3.5, al., Inscr.Cypr. 135.9 H., al. PR WITH DAT. AND ACC. Radical sense, in, into. WITH DAT.
I OF PLACE,
1 in, νήσῳ ἐν ἀμφιρύτῃ Od. 1.50; ἐν δώμασ' ἐμοῖσιν Il. 6.221; ἐνὶ προθύροισιν 11.777; κοίλῃσ' ἐνὶ νηυσί Od. 2.27; with names of cities or islands, as ἐν Ἀθήνῃς, ἐν Τροίῃ, Il. 2.549, 162; ἡ ἐν Κερκύρᾳ ναυμαχία Th. 1.57; ἡ ἐν Σαλαμῖνι μάχη Isoc. 5.147 (but in Att. the Pris sts.omitted, as with Ἐλευσῖνι, Μαραθῶνι; where ἐν is used, it = in the district of.., ὲν Ἐλευσῖνι IG 22.1028.11, ἐμ Μαραθῶνι ib.1243.21): ἐν χερσὶν ἐμῇσι in my arms, Il. 22.426; ἐνὶ θυμῷ Od. 16.331, etc.; ἐν αὑτῷ εἶναι to be in one's senses, be oneself, ἔτ' ἐν σαυτῷ (v.l. - τοῦ) γενοῦ S. Ph. 950; also ἐν αὑτοῦ, cf. signf. 2. ἐν τοῖς ἰχθύσιν in the fish-market, Antiph. 125; ἐν τῷ μύρῳ Ar. Eq. 1375; so ἐν τοῖν δυοῖν ὀβολοῖν ἐθεώρουν ἄν in the two-obol seats, D. 18.28.
2. elliptic, in such phrases as ἐν Ἀλκινόοιο Od. 7.132, cf. Leg.Gort. 2.21, etc.; εἰν Ἀΐδαο Il. 22.389, Att. ἐν Ἅιδου (v. Ἅιδης): later ἐν τοῖς τινός PRLaws 38.1 (iii B. C.), Luke 2:49; ἐν ἡμετέρου Hdt. 1.35, 7.8. δ'; ἐμ Πανδίονος IG 22.1138.8; ἐν Δημοτιωνιδῶν ib.2.841b21; ἐν τῶν πόλεων ib. 12.56.14: mostly with pr.n., but sts. with Appellatives, as, ἐν ἀφνειοῦ πατρός Il. 6.47; ἐν ἀνδρὸς εὐσεβεστάτου E. IA 926; ἐν παιδοτρίβου, ἐν κιθαριστοῦ, at the school of.., Ar. Nu. 973, Pl. Tht. 206a; ἐν γειτόνων (v. γείτων) ἐν αὑτοῦ (αὑτῷ cod. Rav.) Ar. V. 642, cf. Men. Sam. 125; οὐκέτ' ἐν ἐμαυτοῦ ἦν Pl. Chrm. 155d; ἐν ὑμῶν αὐτῶν γένεσθε Lib. Or. 35.15.
3. in, within, surrounded by, οὐρανὸς ἐν αἰθέρι καὶ νεφέλῃσι Il. 15.192; after Hom., of clothing, armour, etc., ἐν ἐσθῆτι Hdt. 2.159; ἐν πεπλώματι S. Tr. 613; ἐν ἔντεσι Pi. O. 4.24; ἐν ὅπλοισι in or under arms, Hdt. 1.13, etc.; also of particular kinds of arms, ἐν τόξοις, ἀκοντίοις, etc., equipped with them, dub.in X. Mem. 3.9.2; ἐν μαχαίρῃ PTeb. 16.14 (ii B. C.); ἐν μεγάλοις φορτίοις βαδίζειν καὶ τρέχειν X. Cyr. 2.3.14; ἐν βαθεῖ πώγωνι Luc. Salt. 5.
4. on, at or by, ἐν ποταμῷ Il. 18.521, Od. 5.466; ἐν ὄρεσσιν 19.205; οὔρεος ἐν κορυφῇς Il. 2.456; ἐν θρόνοις Od. 8.422; νευρὴ ἐν τόξῳ the string on the bow, Il. 15.463; ἐν [ξίφει] ἧλοι 11.29; κατεκλάσθη ἐνὶ καυλῷ ἔγχος was broken off at or by the shaft, 13.608; ἐν πέτροισι πέτρον ἐκτρίβων S. Ph. 296; ἐν οἴνῳ at wine, prob. in Call. Epigr. 23, Luc. Dem.Enc. 15.
5. in the number of, amongst, freq.in Hom., ἐν Δαναοῖσι, προμάχοισι, μέσσοισιν, νεκύεσσι, Il. 1.109, 3.31, 7.384, Od. 12.383, al.; οἴη ἐν ἀθανάτοισιν Il. 1.398; and with Verbs of ruling, ἐν δ' ἄρα τοῖσιν ἦρχ' 13.689; ἀνδράσιν ἐν πολλοῖσι.. ἀνάσσων Od. 19.110; φῦλον ἐν ἀνθρώποισι ματαιότατον Pi. P. 3.21; ἐν τοῖς οἰκείοισιν ἀνὴρ χρηστός S. Ant. 661; ἐν γυναιξὶν ἄλκιμος E. Or. 754: — for ἐν τοῖς c. Sup., V. ὁ. in the presence of, ἐν πᾶσι Od. 2.194; πτωχὸς ὢν ἐν ἐσθλοῖσιν λέγειν E. Fr. 703; λέγοντες ἐν τῷ δήμῳ Pl. R. 565b; μακρηγορεῖν ἐν εἰδόσι Th. 2.36; ἔλεγον ἐν τοῖς τριάκοντα Lys. 12.6; ἐν τοῖς ὄχλοις εἰπεῖν Isoc. 3.21; λέγειν ἐν ἀνδράσιν (of a woman) Lys. 32.11; of a trial, διαγωνίζεσθαι, διαδικάζεσθαι ἔν τισι, Pl. Grg. 464d, Lg. 916b; προὐκαλούμην ἐν τοῖς αὐτοῖς δικασταῖς Antipho 6.23.
6. in one's hands, within one's reach or power, νίκης πείρατ' ἔχονται ἐν ἀθανάτοισι θεοῖσι Il. 7.102; δύναμις γὰρ ἐν ὑμῖν Od. 10.69 (comp. the Homeric phrases θεῶν ἐν γούνασι κεῖται Il. 17.514; ἐν γὰρ χερσὶ τέλος πολέμου 16.630); freq. in Hdt. and Att., ἔστιν ἔν τινι, c. inf., it depends on him to.., rests with him to.., ἔστιν ἐν σοὶ ἢ.. ἤ.. Hdt. 6.109, cf. 3.85, etc.; ταῦτα δ' ἐν τῷ δαίμονι καὶ τῇδε φῦναι χἁτέρᾳ S. OC 1443; ἐν σοὶ γάρ ἐσμεν Id. OT 314; ἐν σοὶ δ' ἐσμὲν καὶ ζῆν καὶ μή E. Alc. 278; ἐν ταῖς ναυσὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων τὰ πράγματα ἐγένετο Th. 1.74; ἐν τῷ θεῷ τὸ τέλος ἦν, οὐκ ἐμοί D. 18.193; also ἐν τούτῳ εἰσὶν πᾶσαι αἱ ἀποδείξεις depend on this, Pl. Prt. 354e; ἐν τούτῳ λύεται ἡ ἀπορία ἢ ἄλλοθι οὐδαμοῦ ib. 321e; ἔν γ' ἐμοί so far as rests with me, S. OC 153 (lyr.); ἐν δὲ σοὶ λελείψομαι E. Hipp. 324; also ἐν ἐμοί in my judgement, S. OC 1214 (lyr.); ἐν θεοῖς καλά in the eyes of the gods, Id. Ant. 925.
7. in respect of, ἐν πάντεσσ' ἔργοισι δαήμονα φῶτα Il. 23.671; ἐν γήρᾳ σύμμετρός τινι in point of age.., S. OT 1112; ἐν ἐμοὶ θρασύς in my case, towards me, Id. Aj. 1315; ἐν θανοῦσιν ὑβριστής ib. 1092; ἡ ἐν τοῖς ὅπλοις μάθησις Pl. La. 190d; also οὐδὲν δεινὸν μὴ ἐν ἐμοὶ στῇ stop with me, Id. Ap. 28b.
8. in a pregnant construction with Verbs of motion, into; implying both motion to and subsequent position in a place, ἐν κονίῃσι χαμαὶ πέσεν fell [to the dust and lay] in it, Il. 4.482, etc.; βάλον ἐν κονίῃσι 5.588; νηῒ δ' ἐνὶ πρύμνῃ ἔναρα θῆκ' 10.570; ἐν χερσὶ τιθέναι 1.441, etc.; ἐν χερσὶ βαλεῖν 5.574; ἐν στήθεσσι μένος βαλεῖν ib. 513; ἐν Τρωσὶν ὄρουσαν 16.258; ἐν χερσὶ πεσέειν 6.81; λέων ἐν βουσὶ θορών 5.161; ἐν δ' οἶνον ἔχευεν ἐν δέπαϊ χρυσέῳ Od. 20.261; ἐν τεύχεσσιν ἔδυνον Il. 23.131: in Trag. and Att., ἐν ποίμναις πίτνων S. Aj. 184 (lyr.), cf. 374 (lyr.); ἐν χωρίῳ ἐμπεπτωκώς Th. 7.87; ἡ ἐν τῷ Σπειραίῳ τῶν νεῶν καταφυγή Id. 8.11; ἐν τόπῳ καταπεφευγέναι Pl. Sph. 260c; ἐν ᾅδου διαπορευθείς Id. Lg. 905b; ῥιπτοῦντες σφᾶς ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ Arr. An. 1.19.4; later, with Verbs of coming and going, διαβάντες ἐν τῇ Σάμῳ Paus. 7.4.3, cf. LXX To. 5.5, Arr. Epict. 1.11.32, etc.: τὸν ἐν Σικελίᾳ πλοῦν is f.l. in Lys. 19.43 codd.
9. πίνειν ἐν ποτηρίῳ to drink from a cup, Luc. DDeor. 6.2; ἐν ἀργύρῳ πίνειν Id. Merc.Cond. 26; ἐν μικροῖς D.L. 1.104.
10. ἄργυρος ἐν ἐκπώμασι silver in the form of plate, Plu. 2.260a; ἐμ φέρνῃ, ἐν θέματι, as a dowry, pledge, PPetr. 1p.37, PTeb. 120.125 (i B. C.).
11. in citations, ἐν τοῦ σκήπτρου τῇ παραδόσει in the passage of the Il. describing this, Th. 1.9, cf. Pl. Tht. 147c, Phlb. 33b.
II OF STATE, CONDITION or POSITION:
1 of outward circumstances, ἐν πολέμῳ Od. 10.553; ἐν δαιτί Il. 4.259; ἐν καρὸς αἴσῃ 9.378; ἐν μοίρῃ Od. 22.54; οὑμὸς ἐν φάει βίος E. Ph. 1281; ἐν γένει εἶναί τινι to be related to.., S. OT 1016; of occupations, pursuits, ἐν φιλοσοφίᾳ εἶναι to be engaged in philosophy, Pl. Phd. 59a, cf. R. 489b; οἱ ἐν ποιήσι γενόμενοι poets, Hdt. 2.82; οἱ ἐν τοῖς πράγμασι ministers of state, Th. 3.28; οἱ ἐν τέλει the magistrates, Id. 7.73, etc.; τοὺς ἐν ταῖς μοναρχίαις ὄντας Isoc. 2.5; ὁ ἐν ταῖς προσόδοις PPetr. 1p.62; ὁ μάντις ἦν ἐν τῇ τέχνῃ in the practice of it, S. OT 562.
2. of inward states, of feeling, etc., ἐν φιλότητι, ἐν δοιῇ, Il. 7.302, 9.230; ἐν φόβῳ γενέσθαι Pl. R. 578e; οὐκ ἐν αἰσχύνῃ τὰ σά E. Ph. 1276; ἐν σιωπῇ τἀμά Id. Ion 1397; ἐν ὀργῇ ἔχειν τινά to make him the object of one's anger, Th. 2.21; ἐν ἔριδι εἶναι ibid.; ἐν αἰτίᾳ σχεῖν τινά to blame him, Hdt. 5.106; ἐν αἰτίᾳ βαλεῖν S. OT 656 (lyr.); ἐν αἰτίᾳ εἶναι to have the blame, X. Mem. 2.8.9, etc.; οἱ ἐν ταῖς αἰτίαις D. Ephesians 2:14.
3. freq. with neut. Adj., ἐν βραχεῖ, = βραχέως, S. El. 673; ἐν τάχει, = ταχέως, Id. OT 765, etc.; ἐν καλῷ ἐστί, = καλῶς ἔχει, E. Heracl. 971; ἐν ἀσφαλεῖ [ ἐστί ] Id. IT 762; ἐν εὐμαρεῖ [ ἐστί ] Id. Hel. 1227; ἐν ἐλαφρῷ ποιήσασθαι Hdt. 3.154; ἐν ἴσῳ, = ἴσως, ἐν ὁμοίῳ, = ὁμοίως, Th. 2.53: less freq. in pl., ἐν ἀργοῖς, = ἀργῶς, S. OT 287; ἐν κενοῖς, = κενῶς, Id. Aj. 971: with a Subst., ἐν δίκᾳ, = δικαίως, opp. παρὰ δίκαν, Pi. O. 2.16, cf. S. Tr. 1069, Ar. Eq. 258, Pl. R. 475c, al.; ἦσαν οὐκέτι ὁμοίως ἐν ἡδονῇ ἄρχοντες Th. 1.99, cf. Pl. Epin. 977b.
III OF THE INSTRUMENT, MEANS or MANNER, ἐν πυρὶ πρήσαντες Il. 7.429; δῆσαι ἐνὶ δεσμῷ 5.386, cf. Od. 12.54, etc.; but in most cases the orig. sense may be traced, to put in the fire and burn, in fetters and bind, etc.; so ἐν πόνοις δαμέντα A. Pr. 425 (lyr.); ἔζευξα πρῶτος ἐν ζυγοῖσι κνώδαλα ib. 462; ἔργον ἐν κύβοις Ἄρης κρινεῖ Id. Th. 414; also ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν or ἐν ὄμμασιν ὁρᾶσθαι, ἰδέσθαι,
1. to see with or before one's eyes, i.e. have the object in one's eye, Il. 3.306, Od. 10.385, etc.; ἔν τε τῇ ὄψει διαγιγνώσκειν καὶ ἐν τῇ ἀκοῇ Pl. Tht. 206a; also ἐν ὠσὶ νωμῶν ὄρνιθας A. Th. 25; also ἐν λιταῖς by prayers, S. Ph. 60; ἐν δόλῳ by deceit, ib. 102; ἐν λόγοις by words, A. Ch. 613 (lyr.); ἀπέκτειναν ἐν τῇ προφάσει ταύτῃ Lys. 13.12, cf. Antipho 5.59; ψαύειν ἐν κερτομίοις γλώσσαις S. Ant. 961 (lyr.); ἐν τοῖς ὁμοίοις νόμοις ποιήσαντες τὰς κρίσεις Th. 1.77; esp. with Verbs of showing, σημαίνειν ἐν ἱεροῖς καὶ οἰωνοῖς X. Cyr. 8.7.3; τὰ πραχθέντα.. ἐν.. ἐπιστολαῖς ἴστε ye know by letters, Th. 7.11; ἐν τῇδε ῥάβδῳ πάντα ποιήσεις Ezek. Exag. 132, cf. PMag.Osl. 1.108.
2. of a personal instrument, ἐν τῷ ἄρχοντι τῶν δαιμονίων ἐκβάλλει τὰ δαιμόνια Matthew 9:34.
OF TIME, ὥρῃ ἐν εἰαρινῇ Il. 16.643; ἐν νυκτί Hdt. 6.69, X. Smp. 1.9; ἐν χρόνῳ μακρῷ S. Ph. 235, OC 88; ἐν τούτῳ (sc. τῷ χρόνῶ)
1. in this space of time, Hdt. 1.126, etc.; ἐν ᾧ (sc. χρόνῳ) during the time that, S. Tr. 929, etc. (also ἐν οἷς Arist. Mu. 391a2); ἐν ὅσῳ Th. 3.28; ἐν ταῖς σπονδαῖς in the time of the truce, X. An. 3.1.1; ἐν τῇ ἑορτῇ Th. 7.73 (but in some phrases the ἐν is omitted, as μυστηρίοις in the course of the mysteries, Ar. Pl. 1013; τραγῳδοῖς at the performance of.., Aeschin. 3.36). ἐν ἄρχοντι Μητροδώρῳ during the archonship of M., IG 7.1773 (Thebes, ii A. D.); ἐν ἄρχοντι Σύλλᾳ ib.3.113.
2. in, within, ἐν ἡμέρῃ Hdt. 1.126; ἐν ἔτεσι πεντήκοντα Th. 1.118; ἐν τρισὶ μησί X. HG 1.1.37, etc.; μυρίαις ἐν ἁμέραις in, i.e. after, countless days, E. Ph. 305 (lyr.); ἐν ἡμέραις πολλαῖς νοσῆσαι Procop. Arc. 9.35.
1. generally, ἐν δυσὶ σταδίοις within two stadia, D.S. 20.74, cf. 19.39, dub. in Th. 6.1.
2. with gen. of price, ἐν δύο ταλάντων LXX 3 Ki. 16.24.
3. amounting to, προῖκα ἐν δραχμαῖς ἐννακοσίαις BGU 970.14 (ii A. D.), etc. WITH Acc., into, on, for, Arc. ἰν, νόμος ἰν ἄματα πάντα IG 5 (2).5; γράψαι ἐν χάλκωμα ib.511; ἐν πελτοφόρας ἀπεγράψατο ib.7.210 (Aegosthenae), etc.; also poet., ἐν πάντα νόμον Pi. P. 2.86.
WITHOUT CASE, AS ADVERB, in the phrase ἐν δέ..,
1 and therein, Il. 9.361; ἐν μέν.. ἐν δέ Od. 13.244.
2. and among them, Il. 2.588, etc.; in Hdt., mostly ἐν δὲ δή.. 3.39, 5.95; or ἐν δὲ καί.. 2.43, 172, 176.
3. and besides, moreover (not in Att. Prose), S. Aj. 675, OT 181 (lyr.), al.; ἐν δ' ὑπέρας τε κάλους τε πόδας τ' ἐνέδησεν ἐν αὐτῇ Od. 5.260.
4. ἔνι, = ἔνεστι, ἔνεισι, Il. 20.248, etc.
POSITION: ἐν freq. stands between its Subst. and the Adj. agreeing therewith, Il. 22.61, B. 5.41, etc.: without an Adj., τῷ δ' ἐν ἐρινεός ἐστι μέγας Od. 12.103: most freq. in Hom. in the form ἐνί, which is then written by anastrophe ἔνι, Il. 7.221, Od. 5.57; in Pi. between Subst. and gen., χόρτοις ἐν λέοντος O. 13.44, al.--One or more independent words sts. come between the Pr and its dat., as in Od. 11.115; also in Prose,
ἐν, a preposition taking the dative after it; Hebrew בְּ; Latinin with abl.; English in, on, at, with, by, among. (Winers Grammar, § 48 a.; Buttmann, 328f (282f)) It is used:
1. of place proper;
a. in the interior of some whole; within the limits of some space: ἐν γαστρί, Matthew 1:18; ἐν Βηθλημ, Matthew 2:1; ἐν τῇ πόλει, Luke 7:37; ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαία, ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ, ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, and innumerable other examples b. in (on) the surface of a place (German auf): ἐν τῷ ὄρει, John 4:20; Hebrews 8:5; ἐν πλαξί, 2 Corinthians 3:3; ἐν τῇ ἀγορά, Matthew 20:3; ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ, Matthew 5:25, etc.
c. of proximity, at, near, by: ἐν ταῖς γωνίαις τῶν πλατειῶν, Matthew 6:5; ἐν τῷ Σιλωάμ, at the fountain Siloam, Luke 13:4; ἐν τῷ γαζοφυλακίῳ, John 8:20 (see B. D. American edition under the word
d. of the contents of a writing, book, etc.: ἐν τῇ ἐπιστολή, 1 Corinthians 5:9; ἐν κεφαλίδι βιβλίου γράφειν, Hebrews 10:7; ἐν τῇ βίβλῳ, τῷ βιβλίῳ, Revelation 13:8; Galatians 3:10; ἐν τῷ νόμῳ, Luke 24:44; John 1:45 (46); ἐν τοῖς προφήταις, in the book of the prophets, Acts 13:40; ἐν Ἠλίᾳ, in that portion of Scripture which treats of Elijah, Romans 11:2, cf. Fritzsche at the passage; (Delitzsch, Brief a. d. Römer, p. 12; Winers Grammar, 385 (360); Buttmann, 331 (285)); ἐν Δαυίδ, in the Psalms of David, Hebrews 4:7 (see Δαβίδ, at the end); ἐν τῷ ὡσεη, in the prophecies of Hosea, Romans 9:25.
2. with the dative of a person, in the person, nature, soul, thought of anyone: thus ἐν τῷ Θεῷ κέκρυπται ἡ ζωή ὑμῶν, it lies hidden as it were in the bosom of God until it shall come forth to view, Colossians 3:3, cf. Ephesians 3:9; ἐν αὐτῷ, i. e. in the person of Christ, κατοικεῖ πᾶν τό πλήρωμαa etc., Colossians 1:19; Colossians 2:3 ((?), 9). phrases in which ἡ ἁμαρτία is said to dwell in men, Romans 7:17f; or ὁ Χριστός (the mind, power, life of Christ) εἶναι, (John 17:26); Romans 8:10; 2 Corinthians 13:5; μένειν, John 6:56; (John 15:4, 5); ζῆν, Galatians 2:20; μορφουσθαι, Galatians 4:19; λαλεῖν, 2 Corinthians 13:3; ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ εἶναι, 1 John 1:10; μένειν, John 5:38; ἐνοικεῖν or οἰκεῖν ὁ λόγος τοῦ Χριστοῦ, Colossians 3:16; τό πνεῦμα (of God, of Christ), Romans 8:9, 11; 1 Corinthians 3:16; 2 Timothy 1:14; τό ἐν τίνι χάρισμα, 1 Timothy 4:14; 2 Timothy 1:6; ἐνεργεῖν ἐν τίνι, Matthew 14:2; Ephesians 2:2; 1 Corinthians 12:6, etc.; ἐνεργεῖσθαι, Colossians 1:29; κατεργάζεσθαι, Romans 7:8. after verbs of revealing, manifesting: ἀποκαλύψαι ἐν ἐμοί, in my soul, Galatians 1:16; φανερόν ἐστιν ἐν αὐτοῖς, Romans 1:19. ἐν ἑαυτῷ, ἐν ἑαυτοῖς, within oneself, i. e. in the soul, spirit, heart: after the verbs εἰδέναι, John 6:61; εἰπεῖν, Luke 7:39; Luke 18:4; ἐμβρίμασθαι, John 11:38; στενάζειν, Romans 8:23; διαλογίζεσθαι, Mark 2:8 (alternating there with ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις, cf. Mark 2:6); Luke 12:17; διαπόρειν, Acts 10:17; λέγειν, Matthew 3:9; Matthew 9:21; Luke 7:49; also 2 Corinthians 1:9; for other examples of divers kinds, see εἰμί, V. 4 e.
3. It answers to the German an (on; often freely to be rendered in the case of, with, etc. Winer's Grammar, § 48, a. 3 a.), when used a. of the person or thing on whom or on which some power is operative: ἵνα οὕτω γένηται ἐν ἐμοί, 1 Corinthians 9:15; ποιεῖν τί ἐν τίνι, Matthew 17:12; Luke 23:31; cf. Matthiae, ii., p. 1341; (Winers Grammar, as above and 218 (204f); Buttmann, 149 (130)).
b. of that in which something is manifest (Winer's Grammar, as above): μανθάνειν ἐν τίνι, 1 Corinthians 4:6; γινώσκειν, Luke 24:35; John 13:35; 1 John 3:19 (examples from the classics are given by Passow, 1:2, p. 908b; (cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word, A. III.)); likewise of that in which a thing is sought: ζητεῖν ἐν τίνι, 1 Corinthians 4:2.
4. with, among, in the presence of, with the dative of person (also often in the classics; cf. Matthiae, ii., p. 1340; Winer's Grammar, 385 (360) and 217f (204)): 1 Corinthians 2:6; ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν, Matthew 21:42; ἐν ἐμοί, in my judgment, 1 Corinthians 14:11; (perhaps add Jude 1:1 L T Tr WH; but cf. 6 b. below). To this head some refer ἐν ὑμῖν, 1 Corinthians 6:2, interpreting it in your assembly, cf. Meyer at the passage; but see 5 d.γ.
5. used of that with which a person is surrounded, equipped, furnished, assisted, or acts (Winers Grammar, § 48, a. 1 b.);
a. in equivalent to among, with collective nouns: ἐν τῷ ὄχλῳ, Mark 5:30 (Winer's Grammar, 414 (386)); ἐν τῇ γενεά ταύτῃ, among the men of this age, Mark 8:38; ἐν τῷ γένει μου, in my nation i. e. among my countrymen, Galatians 1:14; especially with the dative plural of persons, as ἐν ἡμῖν, ἐν ὑμῖν, among us, among you, ἐν ἀλλήλοις, among yourselves, one with another: Matthew 2:6; Matthew 11:11; Mark 9:50; Luke 1:1; John 1:14; John 13:35; Acts 2:29; 1 Corinthians 3:18; 1 Corinthians 5:1, and often.
b. of the garments with (in) which one is clad: ἐν ἐνδύμασι and the like, Matthew 7:15; Mark 12:38; Luke 24:4; John 20:12; Acts 10:30; Hebrews 11:37; James 2:2; Revelation 3:4; ἠμφιεσμένον ἐν ἱματίοις, Matthew 11:8 (T Tr WH omit; L brackets ἱματίοις); Luke 7:23; περιβάλλεσθαι ἐν ἱματίοις, Revelation 3:5; Revelation 4:4 (L WH text omit ἐν).
c. of that which one either leads or brings with him, or with which he is furnished or equipped; especially after verbs of coming (ἐν of accompaniment), where we often say with: ἐν δέκα χιλιάσιν ὑπανταν, Luke 14:31; ἦλθεν ἐν μυριάσι, Jude 1:14; cf. Grimm on 1 Macc. 1:17; ἐισέρχεσθαι ἐν αἵματι, Hebrews 9:25; ἐν τῷ ὕδατι καί ἐν τῷ αἵματι, 1 John 5:6 (i. e. with the water of baptism and the blood of atonement, by means of both which he has procured the pardon of our sins, of which fact we are assured by the testimony of the Holy Spirit); ἐν ῤάβδῳ, 1 Corinthians 4:21; ἐν πληρώματι εὐλογίας, Romans 15:29; φθάνειν ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ, 2 Corinthians 10:14; ἐν πνεύματι καί δυνάμει ἥλιον, imbued or furnished with the spirit and power of Elijah, Luke 1:17; ἐν τῇ βασιλεία αὐτοῦ, furnished with the regal power of the Messiah, possessed of his kingly power (Buttmann, 330 (284)): Matthew 16:28; Luke 23:42 (WH text L marginal reading Tr marginal reading εἰς τήν βασιλείαν). Akin is its use d. of the instrument or means by or with which anything is accomplished, owing to the influence of the Hebrew preposition בְּ much more common in the sacred writers than in secular authors. (cf. Winers Grammar, § 48, a. 3 d.; Buttmann, 181 (157) and 329 (283f), where we say with, by means of, by (through); α. in phrases in which the primitive force of the preposition is discernible, as ἐν πυρί κατακαίειν, Revelation 17:16 (T omits; WH brackets ἐν); ἐν ἅλατι ἁλίζειν or ἀρτύειν, Matthew 5:13; Mark 9:50; Luke 14:34; ἐν τῷ αἵματι λευκάνειν, Revelation 7:14; ἐν αἵματι καθαρίζειν, Hebrews 9:22; ἐν ὕδατι βαπτίζειν, Matthew 3:11, etc. (see βαπτίζω, II.
b. bb.). β. with the dative, where the simple dative of the instrument might have been used, especially in the Revelation: ἐν μάχαιρα, ἐν ῤομφαία ἀποκτείνειν, Revelation 6:8; Revelation 13:10; πατάσσειν, Luke 22:49; ἀπολλυσθαι, Matthew 26:52; καταπατεῖν ἐν τοῖς ποσίν, Matthew 7:6; ἐν βραχίονι αὐτοῦ, Luke 1:51; ἐν δακτύλῳ Θεοῦ, Luke 11:20, and in other examples; of things relating to the soul, as ἐν ἁγιασμῷ, 2 Thessalonians 2:13 (Winer's Grammar, 417 (388)); 1 Peter 1:2; ἐν τῇ παρακλήσει, 2 Corinthians 7:7; ἐν προσευχή, Matthew 17:21 (T WH omit; Tr brackets the verse); εὐλογεῖν ἐν εὐλογία, Ephesians 1:3; δικαιοῦσθαι ἐν τῷ αἵματι, Romans 5:9. γ. more rarely with the dative of person, meaning aided by one, by the intervention or agency of someone, by (means of) one (cf. Winers Grammar, 389 (364); Buttmann, 329f (283f)): ἐν τῷ ἄρχοντι τῶν δαιμονίων, Matthew 9:34; ἐν ἑτερογλώσσοις, 1 Corinthians 14:21; κρίνειν τήν οἰκουμένην ἐν ἀνδρί, Acts 17:31; ἐν ὑμῖν κρίνεται ὁ κόσμος (preceded by οἱ ἅγιοι τόν κόσμον κρινοῦσιν), 1 Corinthians 6:2; ἐργάζεσθαι ἐν τίνι, Sir. 13:4 Sir. 30:13, 34. δ. followed by an infinitive with the article, in that (German dadurch dass), or like the Latin gerund (or English participial noun; cf. Buttmann, 264 (227)): Acts 3:26; Acts 4:30; Hebrews 2:8; Hebrews 8:13.
e. of the state or condition in which anything is done or anyone exists, acts, suffers; out of a great number of examples (see also in γίνομαι, 5 f.; and εἰμί, V. 4 b.) it is sufficient to cite: ἐν βασάνοις, Luke 16:23; ἐν τῷ θανάτῳ, 1 John 3:14; ἐν ζωή, Romans 5:10; ἐν τοῖς δεσμοῖς, Philemon 1:13; ἐν πειρασμοῖς, 1 Peter 1:6; ἐν ὁμοιώματι σαρκός, Romans 8:3; ἐν πολλῷ ἀγῶνι, 1 Thessalonians 2:2; ἐν δόξῃ, Philippians 4:19; 2 Corinthians 3:7f; σπείρεται ἐν φθορά κτλ. it (namely, that which is sown) is sown in a state of corruption, namely, ὅν, 1 Corinthians 15:42f; ἐν ἑτοίμῳ ἔχειν, to be prepared, in readiness, 2 Corinthians 10:6; ἐν ἐκστάσει, Acts 11:5; Acts 22:17; very often so used of virtues and vices, as ἐν εὐσέβεια καί σεμνότητι, 1 Timothy 2:2; ἐν ἁγιασμῷ, 1 Timothy 2:15; ἐν καινότητι ζωῆς, Romans 6:4; ἐν τῇ ἀνοχή τοῦ Θεοῦ, Romans 3:26 (25); ἐν κακία καί φθόνῳ, Titus 3:3; ἐν πανουργία, 2 Corinthians 4:2; also with an adverbial force: as ἐν δυνάμει, powerfully, with power (Winers Grammar, § 51, 1 e.; Buttmann, 330 (284)), Mark 9:1; Romans 1:4; Colossians 1:29; 2 Thessalonians 1:11; κρίνειν ἐν δικαιοσύνη, Acts 17:31; Revelation 19:11; ἐν χαρά, in joy, joyful, Romans 15:32; ἐν ἐκτένεια, Acts 26:7; ἐν σπουδή, Romans 12:8; ἐν χάριτι, Galatians 1:6; 2 Thessalonians 2:16; ἐν τάχει, Luke 18:8; Romans 16:20; Revelation 1:1. (Here perhaps may be introduced the noteworthy adverbial phrase ἐν πᾶσι τούτοις, with all this, Luke 16:26 L marginal reading T Tr marginal reading WH for R G ἐπί πᾶσι τούτοις (see ἐπί, B. 2 d.); also ἐν πᾶσιν, in all things (R. V. withal), Ephesians 6:16 L text T Tr WH.) A similar use occurs in speaking f. of the form in which anything appears or is exhibited, where ἐν may be represented by the German als (English as); twice so in the N. T.: σοφίαν λαλεῖν ἐν μυστηρίῳ (as a mystery (here A. V. in)), 1 Corinthians 2:7; ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ ὑποδείγματι πίπτειν, Hebrews 4:11 ((A. V. after); others regard this as a pregnant construction, the ἐν marking rest after motion (R. V. marginal reading into); cf. Kurtz or Lünem. at the passage; Buttmann, 329 (283); and 7 below); (διδόναι τί ἐν δωρεά, 2 Macc. 4:30; Polybius 23, 3, 4; 26, 7, 5; ἐν μερίδι, Sir. 26:3; λαμβάνειν τί ἐν φερνή, Polybius 28, 17, 9; examples from Plato are given by Ast, Platonic Lexicon, i., p. 702; Latinin mandatis dare i. e. to be considered as orders, Caesar b. g. 1, 43). (Here perhaps may be noticed the apparent use of ἐν to denote the measure or standard (Winers Grammar, § 48, a. 3b.; Bernhardy (1829), p. 211): ἐν μέτρῳ, Ephesians 4:16 (see μέτρον, 2); ἔφερεν ἐν ἑξήκοντα etc. Mark 4:8 WH text (note the εἰς, which see B. II. 3 a.); καρποφοροῦσιν ἐν τριάκοντα etc. Mark 4:20 T Tr text WH text; but some would take ἐν here distributively, cf. Fritzsche on Mark 4:8.) g. of the things in (with) which one is busied: 1 Timothy 4:15; Colossians 4:2; ἐν οἷς, Acts 26:12; ἐν αὐτῷ, in preaching the gospel, Ephesians 6:20; ἐν τῇ ἑορτή, in celebrating the feast, John 2:23 (L Tr brackets ἐν); ἐν τῇ διδαχή, in giving instruction, while teaching, Mark 4:2; Mark 12:38; see εἰμί, V. 4 d.; Passow, i., p. 910b; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, II. 1). h. of that in which anything is embodied or summed up: ἐν αὐτῷ ζωή ἦν, i. e. that life of which created beings were made partakers was comprehended in him, John 1:4; ἐν τούτῳ τῷ λόγῳ ἀνακεφαλαιοῦται, Romans 13:9 (on Ephesians 1:10 see ἀνακεφαλαιόω); πᾶσαν τήν συγγένειαν ἐν ψυχαῖς ἑβδομήκοντα πέντε, comprised in, consisting of, seventy-five souls, Acts 7:14 (Winer's Grammar, 391 (366)).
6. of that in which any person or thing is inherently fixed, implanted, or with which it is intimately connected;
b. of a person to whom another is wholly joined and to whose power and. influence he is subject, so that the former may be likened to the place in which the latter lives and moves. So used in the writings of Paul and of John particularly of intimate relationship with God or with Christ, and for the most part involving contextually the idea of power and blessing resulting from that union thus, εἶναι or μένειν ἐν τῷ πατρί or ἐν τῷ Θεῷ, of Christ, John 10:38; John 14:10f; of Christians, 1 John 3:24; 1 John 4:13, 15f; εἶναι or μένειν in Christ, of his disciples and worshippers, John 14:20; John 15:4f; μένειν ἐν τῷ υἱῷ καί ἐν τῷ πατρί, 1 John 2:24; ἐν Θεῷ, i. e. amplified and strengthened in the fellowship of God and the consciousness of that fellowship, ἐργάζεσθαι τί, John 3:21; παρρησιάζεσθαι, 1 Thessalonians 2:2. Of frequent use by Paul are the phrases ἐν Χριστῷ, ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, ἐν κυρίῳ (cf. Fritzsche, Commentary on Romans, vol. ii., p. 82ff; Winers Grammar, 389 (364); Weiss, Biblical Theol. des N. T. §§ 84 b., 149 c.), ingrafted as it were in Christ, in fellowship and union with Christ, with the Lord: Romans 3:24; Romans 6:11, 23; Romans 8:39; 1 Corinthians 1:4; 2 Corinthians 3:14; Galatians 2:4; Galatians 3:14, 26, 28; Galatians 5:6; Ephesians 1:3 (Rec. omits ἐν); Ephesians 2:6f, 10, 13; 1 Timothy 1:14; 2 Timothy 1:1, 13; 2 Timothy 2:1; 1 Peter 3:16; 1 Peter 5:10; στήκειν ἐν κυρίῳ, Philippians 4:1; ἵνα εὑρεθῶ ἐν αὐτῷ), that I may be found (by God and Christ) most intimately united to him, Philippians 3:9; εἶναι ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ 1 Corinthians 1:30; οἱ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, Romans 8:1; 1 Peter 5:14; κοιμᾶσθαι ἐν Χριστῷ, θνήσκειν ἐν κυρίῳ, to fall asleep, to die, mindful of relationship to Christ and confiding in it (Winer's Grammar, as above), 1 Corinthians 15:18; Revelation 14:13. Since such union with Christ is the basis on which actions and virtues rest, the expression is equivalent in meaning to by virtue of spiritual fellowship or union with Christ; in this sense it is joined to the following words and phrases: πέπεισμαι, Romans 14:14 (Winer's Grammar, as above and 390 note); πεποιθέναι, Galatians 5:10; Philippians 1:14; 2 Thessalonians 3:4; παρρησίαν ἔχειν, Philemon 1:8; ἐλπίζειν, Philippians 2:19; καύχησιν ἔχειν, Romans 15:17; 1 Corinthians 15:31; ἀνῆκεν, Colossians 3:18; τό αὐτό φρονεῖν, Philippians 4:2; ὑπακούειν, Ephesians 6:1 (L omits; Tr WH brackets ἐν κυρίῳ); φῶς, Ephesians 5:8; αὔξει,
c. of that in which other things are contained and upheld, as their cause and origin: ἐν αὐτῷ (i. e., in God) ζῶμεν κτλ. in God is found the cause why we live, Acts 17:28; ἐν αὐτῷ (in Christ, as the divine hypostatic λόγος) ἐκτίσθη τά πάντα, in him resides the cause why all things were originally created, Colossians 1:16 (the cause both instrumental and final as well, for ἐν αὐτῷ is immediately afterward resolved into δἰ αὐτοῦ καί εἰς αὐτόν (cf. Winers Grammar, § 50, 6 and Lightfoot at the passage)); τά πάντα ἐν αὐτῷ συνέστηκε, Colossians 1:17; ἐν Ἰσαάκ κληθήσεται σοι σπέρμα, Romans 9:7; Hebrews 11:18, from Genesis 21:12; ἁγιάζεσθαι ἐν, with the dative of thing, Hebrews 10:10, cf. 1 Corinthians 6:11; ἐν τούτῳ πιστεύομεν, in this lies the reason why we believe, John 16:30, cf. 1 Corinthians 4:4; ἐν ᾧ equivalent to ἐν τούτῳ ὅτι (in that), since: Romans 8:3; Hebrews 2:18; Hebrews 6:17 (see 8 e. below). Closely related is the use of ἐν d. of that which gives opportunity, the occasion: ἔφυγεν ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ (on i. e. at this word; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 48, a. 3 c.), Acts 7:29.
e. after certain verbs denoting an affection, because the affection inheres or resides, as it were, in that to which it relates (cf. Buttmann, 185 (160f); Winers Grammar, 232 (217f)); see εὐδοκέω, εὐδοκία, ἐυφραίνομαι, καυχάομαι, χαίρω, etc.; likewise sometimes after ἐλπίζω, πιστεύω, πίστις (which see in their proper places), because faith and hope are placed in what is believed or hoped for.
7. after verbs implying motion ἐν with the dative is so used as to seem, according to our laws of speech, to be employed for εἰς with the accusative; but it indicates the idea of rest and continuance succeeding the motion; cf. Winers Grammar, § 50, 4; Buttmann, 328f (282f): thus after ἀποστέλλω, Matthew 10:16; Luke 10:3; ἐισέρχεσθαι, Luke 9:46; Revelation 11:11 (not R Tr; WH brackets ἐν); ἐξέρχεσθαι, Luke 7:17; 1 Thessalonians 1:8 (but not after ἔρχεσθαι in Luke 23:42, on which passage see 5 c. above); καταβαίνειν, John 5:4 (R L; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 50, 4 a.); ἐπιστρέψαι ἀπειθεῖς ἐν φρονήσει δικαίων, that they may abide in etc. Luke 1:17; καλεῖν ἐν εἰρήνη, ἐν ἁγιασμῷ, ἐν μία ἐλπίδι, equivalent to εἰς τό εἶναι ἡμᾶς (ὑμᾶς) ἐν etc.: 1 Corinthians 7:15; 1 Thessalonians 4:7; Ephesians 4:4; especially after τιθέναι and ἱσταναι, which words see in their places. On the same use of the preposition, common in Homer, somewhat rare in the classic authors, but recurring frequently in writings of a later age, see Winers Grammar, the passage cited; Passow, i. 2, p. 909a; (cf. Liddell and Scott, under I. 8).
8. Constructions somewhat peculiar:
a. ἐν Αἰγύπτου namely, γῆ (by an ellipsis common in Greek writings, cf. Passow, i. 2, p. 908b; (Liddell and Scott, under I. 2); Winers Grammar, 384 (359); (Buttmann, 171 (149))): Hebrews 11:26 (Lachmann); but see Αἴγυπτος.
b. expressions shaped by the Hebrew idiom: ἀγοράζειν ἐν with the dative of price (for the price is the means by which a thing is bought (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 48, a. 3 e.)), Revelation 5:9 (ἐν ἀργυρίῳ, 1 Chronicles 21:24). ἀλλάσσειν τί ἐν τίνι (see ἀλλάσσω), to exchange one thing for another (properly, to change something and have the exchange in (cf. Winer's Grammar, 388 (363) note; 206 (194))): Romans 1:23, 25 (here μετήλλαξαν. ὄμνυμι ἐν τίνι) בְּ נִשְׁבַּע , cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus iii., p. 1355; (Winers Grammar, § 32, 1 b.; Buttmann, 147 (128))), to swear by (i. e. the name of someone being interposed), or as it were relying on, supported by, someone (cf. Winer's Grammar, 389 (364)): Matthew 5:34-36; Matthew 23:16, 18-22; Revelation 10:6.
c. ὁμολογῶ, ἐν τίνι after the Syriac (B ydw) [
d. on the very common phrase ἐν ὀνόματι τίνος, see ὄνομα (especially 2). (e. the phrase ἐν ᾧ varies in meaning according to the varying sense of ἐν. It may be, α. local, wherein (equivalent to ἐν τούτῳ ἐν ᾧ): Romans 2:1; Romans 14:22; 2 Corinthians 11:12. β. temporal, while (cf. II. below; Winer's Grammar, § 48, a. 2): Mark 2:19; Lukev. 34; John 5:7; Luke 19:13 (Rec. ἕως, which see). γ. instrumental, whereby: Romans 14:21. δ. causal, English in that (see Mätzner, English Gram, translation by Grece, 3:452 — concomitance passing over into causal dependence, or the substratum of the action being regarded as that on which its existence depends; cf. 'in those circumstances I did so and so'), on the ground of this that, because: Romans 8:3, etc.; see in 6 c. above. According to the last two uses, the phrase may be resolved into ἐν τούτῳ ὅτι or ἐν τούτῳ ὁ (cf. Winers Grammar, § 23, 2 b. and b.); on its use see Winers Grammar, 387 (362) note; Buttmann, 331 (284f); Bernhardy (1829), p. 211; especially Fritzsche on Romans, vol. ii., p. 93f.)
II. With the notion of Time ἐν marks a. periods and portions of time in which anything occurs, in, on, at, during: ἐν τῇ ἡμέρα, ἐν τῇ νυκτί, John 11:9f, etc.; ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις, Matthew 3:1, etc.; ἐν σαββάτῳ, Matthew 12:2, and in many other examples; ἐν τῷ δευτέρῳ, at the second time, Acts 7:13; ἐν τῷ καθεξῆς, Luke 8:1; ἐν τῷ μεταξύ, in the meantime (Winer's Grammar, 592f (551)), John 4:31; (ἐν ἐσχάτῳ χρόνῳ, Jude 1:18 Rec.).
b. before substantives signifying an event, it is sometimes equivalent to at the time of this or that event (German bei); thus ἐν τῇ παλιγγενεσία, Matthew 19:28; ἐν τῇ παρουσία αὐτοῦ or μου, 1 Corinthians 15:23; 1 Thessalonians 2:19; 1 Thessalonians 3:13 (Winer's Grammar, § 50, 5); Philippians 2:12; 1 John 2:28; ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει, Matthew 22:28; Mark 12:23; Luke 14:14; Luke 20:33; ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ σάλπιγγι, at (the sounding of) the last trumpet, 1 Corinthians 15:52; ἐν τῇ ἀποκαλύψει of Christ, 2 Thessalonians 1:7; 1 Peter 1:7, 13; 1 Peter 4:13.
c. before infinitives with the article (Buttmann, 263f (226f); Winers Grammar, § 44, 6); before the infinitive present it signifies while, as: Matthew 13:4 (ἐν τῷ σπείρειν); Matthew 13:25 (ἐν ... τῷ καθεύδειν τούς ἀνθρώπους); Matthew 27:12; Mark 6:48; Luke 1:21 (cf. Buttmann, the passage cited);
III. In Composition. Prefixed to adjectives ἐν denotes lying or situated in some place or condition, possessed of or noted for something; as in ἐνάλιος, ἔνδοξος, ἔμφοβος. Prefixed to Verbs it signifies
1. remaining, staying, continuing in some place, state, or condition; as, ἔνειμι, ἐμμένω, ἐνοικέω.
2. motion into something, entering into, mingling in; as, ἐμβαίνω, ἐμβατεύω, ἐγκαλέω (summon to court), ἐγγράφω, ἐγκρύπτω.
3. in ἐμφυσάω, ἐμπρήθω, ἐμπτύω it answers to German an (on). Before beta β', mu μ', pi π, phi Φ, psi Ψ, ἐν changes to εμ(, before gamma γ' kappa κ' xi Ξ chi Χ, to εγγ(, before lambda λ' to ελ(, although this assimilation is neglected also in the older manuscripts (in א not often changed, Scrivener, Collation etc., p. lvi.; "in some words assimilation is constant according to all or at least all primary manuscripts while in a comparatively small number of cases authority is divided. Speaking generally, assimilation is the rule in compounds of ἐν, retention of the nu ν in those of σύν (Prof. Hort). Following manuscript authority T WH write ἐγγράφω, ἐνκαθετος, ἐνκαινια, ἐνκαινίζω, ἐνκατοικέω, ἐνκαυχάομαι, ἐνκεντρίζω, ἐνκρίνω, ἐνπεριπατέω, ἐνπνέω; T ἐνκόπτω; WH ἐνκοπη, ἐνκυος; but L T Tr WH retain ἐγκαλέω, ἔγκλημα, ἐγκομβωμαι, ἐγκράτεια, ἐγκρατεύομαι, ἐγκρατής, ἐγχρίω, ἐλλογέω (ἐλλογάω), ἐμβαίνω, ἐμβάλλω, ἐμβάπτω, ἐμβατεύω, ἐμβλέπω, ἐμβριμάομαι, ἐμμαίνομαι, ἐμπαιγμονῇ, ἐμπαιγμός, ἐμπαίζω, ἐμπαίκτης, ἐμπίπλημι, ἐμπίπτω, ἐμπλέκω, ἐμπλοκή, ἐμπορεύομαι, ἐμπορία, ἐμπόριον, ἔμπορος, ἐμπτύω, ἐμφανής, ἐμφανίζω, ἔμφοβος, ἔμφυτος; L T Tr ἔγκυος; L Tr WH ἐμμένω, ἔμπροσθεν; L Tr ἐγγράφω, ἐγκάθετος, ἐγκαίνια, ἐγκαινίζω, ἐγκακέω, ἐγκαταλείπω, ἐγκατοικέω, ἐγκαυχάομαι, ἐγκεντρίζω, ἐγκοπή, ἐγκόπτω, ἐγκρίνω, ἐμπεριπατέω, ἐμπνέω; T ἐμπιπράω; T WH are not uniform in ἐγκακέω, ἐγκαταλείπω; nor T in ἐμμένω, ἔμπροσθεν; nor WH in ἐγκόπτω. — Add L T Tr WH ἀνέγκλητος, παρεμβάλλω, παρεμβολή. See Gregory in the Proleg. to Tdf: edition 8, p. 76ff; Hort in WHs Appendix, p. 149; Alexander Buttmann (1873) in Studien und Kritiken for 1862, p. 179f; especially Meisterhans, p. 46)
STRONGS NT 1722: ενκ( ενκ(, see εγκ( and under the word ἐν, III. 3.
STRONGS NT 1722: ενπ( ενπ( see εμπ( and under the word ἐν, III. 3 fine print.
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prep. (the most freq. of all in NT), c. dat. (= Heb. בְּ , Lat. in, c. abl.).
I. Of place, c. dat. rei, pers., in, within, on, at, by, among: ἐν τ . πόλει , Luke 7:37; τ . ὀφθαλμῷ , Matthew 7:3; τ . κοιλία , Matthew 12:40; τ . ὄρει , 2 Peter 1:18; τ . θρόνῳ , Revelation 3:21; τ . δεξιᾷ τ . θεοῦ , Romans 8:34; ἐν ὑμῖν , Luke 1:1; of books, ἐν τ . βιβλίῳ , Galatians 3:10; τ . νόμῳ , Matthew 12:5, al.; ἐν τοῖς τ . Πατρός μου , in my Father's house (RV; cf. M, Pr., 103), Luke 2:49; trop., of the region of thought or feeling, ἐν τ . καρδίᾳ . (-αις ), Matthew 5:28, 2 Corinthians 4:6, al.; τ . συνειδήσεσιν , 2 Corinthians 5:11; after verbs of motion, instead of εἰς (constructio prægnans, a usage extended in late Gk. beyond the limits observed in cl.; cf. B1., § 41, 1; M, Th., 12), ἀποστέλλω . . . ἐν , Matthew 10:16; δέδωκεν ἐν τ . χειρί (cf. τιθέναι ἐν χερσί , Hom., Iliad., i, 441, al.), John 3:35; id. after verbs of coming and going (not in cl.), εἰσῆλθε , Luke 9:46; ἐξῆλθεν , Luke 7:17.
II. Of state, condition, form, occupation, etc.: ἐν ζωῇ , Romans 5:10; ἐν τ . θανάτῳ , 1 John 3:14; ἐν πειρασμοῖς , 1 Peter 1:6; ἐν εἰρήνῃ , Mark 5:25; ἐν δόξῃ , Philippians 4:19; ἐν πραΰτητι , James 3:13; ἐν μυστηρίῳ , 1 Corinthians 2:7; ἐν τ . διδαχῇ , Mark 4:2; of a part as contained in a whole, ἐν τ . ἀμπέλῳ , John 15:4; ἐν ἑνὶ σώματι , Romans 12:4; of accompanying objects or persons (simple dat. in cl.), with, ἐν αἵματι , Hebrews 9:25; ἐν δέκα χιλιάσιν , Luke 14:31 (cf. Judges 1:14, Acts 7:14); similarly (cl.), of clothing, armour, arms, ἐν στολαῖς , Mark 12:38; ἐν ἐσθῆτι λαμπρᾷ , James 2:2; ἐν μαχαίρῃ , Luke 22:49; classify under III; ἐν ῥάβδῳ , 1 Corinthians 4:21 (cf. ἐν τόξοις , Xen., Mem., 3, 9, 2); of manner (cl.), ἐν τάχει (= λαχέως ), Luke 18:8 (cf. 131., § 41, 1); of spiritual influence, ἐν πνεύματι , Romans 8:9; ἐν Papyri ἀκαθάρτῳ , Mark 1:23; of the mystical relation of the Christian life and the believer himself, to God and Christ (cf. ICC, Ro., 160 f.; Mayor On Judges 1:1; M, Pr., 103): ἐν Χριστῷ (Ἰησοῦ ), ἐν κυρίῳ , Romans 3:24; Romans 6:11, 1 Corinthians 3:1; 1 Corinthians 4:10, 2 Corinthians 12:2, Galatians 2:17, Ephesians 6:21, Colossians 4:7, 1 Thessalonians 4:16, al.
III. Of the agent, instrument or means (an extension of cl. ἐν of instr.-v. LS, sv. III - corresponding to similar use of Heb. בְּ ), by, with: ἐν ὑμῖν κρίνεται ὁ κόσμος (= cl. παρά , c. dat.), 1 Corinthians 6:2; ἐν τ . ἄρχοντι τ . δαιμονίων , Matthew 9:34; ἐν αἵματι , Hebrews 9:22; ἐν ὕδατι , Matthew 3:11, al.; ἐν μαχαίρᾳ ἀποκτενεῖ (cf. the absol. ἐν μ ., ἐν ῥάβδῳ supr., II, which some would classify here), Revelation 13:10 (cf. 68). Allied to this usage and distinctly Semitic are the following: ἠγόρασας . . . ἐν τ . αἵματι σου (cf. BDB, s.v., III, 3), Revelation 5:9; ὁμολογεῖν ἐν (= Aram. בּ אזדי ; cf. McNeile on Mt, l.c.; M, Pr., 104), Matthew 10:32, Luke 12:8; ὀμνύναι ἐν (= cl. acc, so James 5:12), Matthew 5:34, al.; also at the rate of, amounting to, Mark 4:8 (WH; vv. ll, εἱς , ἓν ), Acts 7:14 (LXX).
IV. Of time,
(a) in or drng a period: ἐν τ . ἡμέρᾳ (νυκτί ), John 11:9, al.; ἐν σαββάτῳ , Matthew 12:2, al.: ἐν τῷ μεταξύ , meanwhile, John 4:31;
(b) at the time of an event: ἐν τ . παρουσίᾳ , 1 Corinthians 15:23; ἐν τ . ἀναστάσει , Matthew 22:28;
(c) c. art. inf.,
(α ) pre. (so sometimes in cl., but not as in NT = ἕως ; v. M, Pr., 214) while: Matthew 13:4, k 6:48, Galatians 4:18, al.;
(β ) aor., when after: Luke 9:36, al.;
(d) within (cl.): Matthew 27:40.
V. In composition:
(a) with adjectives, it signifies usually the possession of a quality, as ἐνάλιος , ἔνδοξος ;
(b) with verbs, continuance in (seq. ἐν ) or motion into (seq. εἱς ), as ἐμμένω ἐμβαίνω .
(ii) Assimilation: ἐν becomes μ - before β , μ , π , φ , ψ ; ἐγ - before γ , κ , ξ , χ ; ἐλ - before λ . But in the older MSS of NT, followed by modern editions, assimilation is sometimes neglected, as in ἐνγράφω , ἐνκαινίζω , etc.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
It is impossible in our limits to deal exhaustively with the extended uses in late Greek of this ";maid-of-all-work"; among the prepositions. Most of these uses, so far as they touch upon points of interpretation in the NT, are referred to in Moulton’s Prolegomena (see Index s.v.), and the evidence there adduced from the Κοινή may be supplemented from the Dissertations by Kuhring and Rossberg (for full titles see ";Abbreviations";). As however these Dissertations are not readily accessible, it may be well with their aid to illustrate the developments of ἐν here, as far as our space permits.
We may begin with its encroachment in Hellenistic upon the use of the simple cases. Thus P Par 63xiii. 3 (B.C. 165) ἐνεσχημένους ἔν τισιν ἀγνοήμασιν may be compared with the Pauline Galatians 5:1 μὴ πάλιν ζυγῷ δουλείας ἐνέχεσθε, and in P Oxy III. 488.17 (ii/iii A.D.) παρέγραψεν. . πλέον τῆς ὑποστάσεώς μου ἐν ὅλῃ ἀρούρῃ μιᾷ καὶ πρὸς κατ᾽ ἔτος, ";registered more than my actual substance by one whole aroura and more each year,"; ἐν is added without materially altering the sense. For this ";usurping"; ἐν Kuhring (p. 12) also quotes P Oxy III. 487.17 (A.D. 156) τὰ ἐκκ (l. ἐκ) τῆς χρίας ἐν ἐμὺ ὀφλήματα ἀποδοῦναι, ";officia mea efficere."; In OGIS 56.7 (B.C. 237) ἐν τῶι ἐν Κανώπωι ἱερῶι, the prepositional phrase represents subj. gen., and in P Petr II. 2 (3).1 (B.C. 260) (= ib. III. 28 (c).1) εἰ ἔρρωσαι καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἄ ]λλοις ἀλύπως ἀπαλλάσσεις, it takes the place of the acc. of respect, if the restoration is to be trusted. On ἐν used in the LXX instead of an acc. after αἱρετίζω, εὐδοκῶ, etc., see Thackeray Gr. i. p. 47.
The question to the oracle P Fay 137.8 (i/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 69) χρημάτισόν μοι, ἦ μείνωι ἐν Βακχιάδι; ";Answer me, Shall I remain in Bacchias?"; may serve to illustrate the ordinary local use of ἐν, within the limits of some space, while the closely related idea of proximity is seen in P Tebt I. 60.88 (B.C. 118) παραδεί (σων) τῶν ἐν περιμέτρῳ τῆς κώ (μης). Interesting confirmation of the RV rendering of Luke 2:49 is afforded by P Oxy III. 523.8 (ii/A.D.) where a certain Antonius invites a friend to dine with him ἐν τοῖς Κλαυδ (ίου) Σαραπίω (νος), ";in the house of Claudius Serapion"; : cf. Rev Lxxxviii. 1 (iii/B.C.) ἐν τοῖς Ἀπολλωνίου τοῦ διοικητοῦ, P Tebt I. 12.3 (B.C. 118) ἐν τοῖς Ἀμεννέως, ";in A.’s office,";and ib. 27.27 (B.C. 113) ἐν τῶι Ὥρ ̣[ου ] βασιλικοῦ γραμματέως.
For ἐν denoting condition, state, we may cite Polycrates’ letter to his father P Petr II. 11 (1).8 (iii/B.C.) γράφε. . ἵνα εἰδῶμεν ἐν οἷς εἶ, and such passages as P Par 63.176 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 34) ἕτερός τις ἐμ βαρυ [τέ ]ραι κείμενος ἐξουσίαι, ";any other persons in high office,"; P Tebt I. 33.4 (B.C. 112) (= Selections, p. 30) ἐν μίζονι ἀξιώματι κα [ὶ ] τιμῆι κείμενος, of a Roman senator, ib. 5.37 (B.C. 118) τὴν ἐν ἀφέσει γῆν, .165 τὴν ἐν ἀρετῆι κειμένην βα (σιλικὴν) γῆν. See also P Petr II. 39(g).16 ἐὰν ἐν δυνατῶι ᾖι. The preposition is used with the verb ἀνδραγαθέω to denote perseverance in a certain course of action in BGU IV. 1205.14 (B.C. 28) ἀνδραγάθι (= -ει) ἐν τῆι ἀριθμήσ [ι ] καὶ ἐ ̣ν ̣ [τ ]ῆι εἰσαγωγῆι, and similarly ib. 1206.13.
P Tebt I. 58.41 (B.C. 111) shows ἐν = ";in the number of";—ἐν οἷς εἰσιν οἱ διὰ τοῦ νομοῦ κω (μο)γρ (αμματεῖς) : cf. P Par 63.99 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 26) ἐν τοῖς ";συμπᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις "; καταριθμεῖσθαι κτλ., ";in the expression ‘all men’ are included,"; etc., and P Petr II. 4 (6).16 (B.C. 255–4) δινὸν γάρ ἐστιν ἐν ὄχλωι ἀτιμάζεσθαι, where the meaning is ";in the presence of"; — ";for it is a dreadful thing to be insulted before a crowd."; From this it is a natural transition to a usage which helps with several NT passages. Thus in P Tebt I. 5.227 (B.C. 118) we have τὰς δὲ πράζεις τῶν ἐν αὐτοῖς, where the editors translate ";but the executions in cases which come before the collectors,"; and in support of this rendering compare ib. 27.99 (B.C. 113) τὸ ἐν αὐτῶι ὀφειλόμενον πρὸς τὴν ἐπιγραφήν, ";the amount owing to the epigraphe in his department,"; ib. 72.832 (B.C. 114–3) ἃς (sc. ἀρούρας) ἐν Μαρρεῖ τοπογραμματεῖ, ib. 120.129 (B.C. 97 or 64) : cf. 1 Corinthians 6:2; 1 Corinthians 14:11, perhaps Judges 1:1. All are cases where παρά c. dat. might equally have been expected in a classical writer : cf. the variant reading in Matthew 21:25. A good parallel to Acts 17:31 is afforded by Syll 850.8 (B.C. 173–2) κριθέντω ἐν ἄνδροις τρίοις οὓς συνείλοντο.
Another abnormal use of ἐν = ";amounting to,"; as in Acts 7:14 (LXX), is seen in BGU III. 970.14 (ii/A.D.) προσηνένκαμεν αὐτῷ προοῖκα ἐν δραχμαῖς ἐννακοσίαις —a passage which also resembles, in its use with a numeral, the difficult ἐν (bis) of Mark 4:8 (WH). [Cannot the εἰς there be ";at all rates up to"; thirty-fold?] Cf. also BGU IV. 1050.8 (marriage-contract—time of Augustus) ἱμάτια γυναικεῖα ἐν ἀργυ (ρίου) δραχμαῖς ἑκατόν, P Oxy IV. 724.7 (A.D. 155) ἐξ ὧν ἔσχες τὴν πρώτην δόσιν ἐν δραχμαῖς τεσσαράκοντα, ib. I. 56.8 (A.D. 211) δανειζομένη. . . ἀργύριον ἔντοκον ἐν δραχμαῖς ἑξακισχειλίαις, and P Grenf II. 77.6 (iii/iv A.D.) (= Selections, p. 120) το ]ὺς μισθοὺς. . ὄντας ἐν δραχμαῖς τριακοσίαις τεσσαράκοντα. Similar are P Oxy IV. 708.4 (A.D. 188) γόμου. . ἐν (πυροῦ)(ἀρτάβαις) ᾽Β, BGU I. 72.11 (A.D. 191) ἐξέκοψαν πλεῖστον τόπον ἐν ἀρούραις πέντε : with which may be compared Ephesians 2:15 τὸν νόμον τῶν ἐντολῶν ἐν δόγμασιν, ";consisting in."; In P Lond 921.9 (ii/iii A.D.) (= III. p. 134) γεγο ̣νέναι ἐν ̣ ἀμπέλῳ = ";to be planted with vines.";
A predicative use of ἐν is seen in P Hib I. 42.10 (B.C. 262) δώσομεν Λευκίωι ἐν ὀφειλήματι, ";as a debt,"; P Petr I. 12.14 (cf. II. p. 22) ὅσα δὲ Ἀξιοθέα προσενήνεγκται ἐμ φερνῆι, ";as dowry,"; and P Tebt I. 120.125 (B.C. 97 or 64) ὧν ἔχωι ἐν θέματι, ";as a pledge.";
The instrumental use of ἐν, as in Luke 22:49, 1 Corinthians 4:21, is now rescued from the list of Hebraisms (cf. Deissmann BS, p. 120) by ";its use in an original Greek document, free from all suspicion of Semitic influence,"; P Tebt I. 16.14 (B.C. 114) ἐν μαχαίρηι, ";armed with a sword"; : see the editors’ note where the following additional passages are cited, ib. 41.5 (c. B.C. 119) Μαρρείους. . σὺν ἄλλοις πλείοσι ἐν μαχαίραις παρ [α ]γινομένου, 45.17 (B.C.113), 46.15 (B.C. 113), P Par 11.4 (B.C. 157) : add P Tebt I. 48.19 (c. B.C. 113) Λύκος σὺν ἄλλοις ἐν ὅπλοις. See also Proleg. pp. 11 f., 61, and the Preface to the 3rd Edit. p. xvii. It should however be noted that Kuhring (p. 43 f.) thinks that ἐν in the above passages is sufficiently explained as ἐν of accompanying circumstances. A good ex. of causal ἐν is afforded by P Par 28.13 (c. B.C. 160) where the Twins describe themselves as διαλυόμεναι ἐν τῷ λιμῷ as compared with ib. 27.14 διαλυόμεναι τῷ λιμῷ, and ib. 26.9 ὑπὸ τῆς λιμοῦ διαλυόμεναι in similar documents. On the other hand, Syll 891.11 (ii/A.D.) quoting the LXX Deuteronomy 28:22 πατάξαι σε Κύριος ἐν ἀπορίᾳ drops the preposition, and cf. C. and B. ii. p. 609, No. 500 (i/B.C.) where φεισάμενον ἐν ἐπιδώσεσιν is followed by μὴ φεισάμενον ἀναλώμασιν. In Exp T xxviii. p. 322 f. Prof. H. A. A. Kennedy has collected a number of instances of this use of ἐν = ";because of,"; ";on account of,"; from the LXX and from the Pauline Epp., e. g. Psa. 30꞉11 [MT Psalms 31:11] ἠσθένησεν ἐν πτωχίᾳ ἡ ἰσχύς μου, ";my strength failed because of my wretchedness,"; Romans 1:24 ἐν ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις τῶν καρδιῶν, ";because of the lusts of their hearts,"; and 1 Corinthians 7:14 ἡγίασται γὰρ ὁ ἀνὴρ ὁ ἄπιστος ἐν τῇ γυναικί, ";for the unbelieving husband is sanctified on account of his wife."; See also Schmid Atticismus, iv. p. 449.
We have seen already (s.v. εἰς) that εἰς and ἐν can be transposed in late Greek, as when ἐν follows a verb of motionin P Par 10.3 (B.C. 145) ἀνακεχώρηκεν ἐν Ἀλεξανδρείᾳ : cf. the late gloss at John 5:4, and for LXX instances see Thackeray Gr. i. p. 25. As paving the way for this usage we may note such a passage as OGIS 90.13 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) τοὺς ἐν ταῖς φυλακαῖς ἀπηγμένους. . . ἀπέλυσε τῶν ἐνκεκλ (η)μένων, where the motion implied by the verb is accompanied by the thought of the rest following on that motion—the men were ";led off"; to prison and remained there until freed from the charges of which they had been convicted. See further Hatzidakis Einl. p. 210 f., and note that Thumb (Neue Jahrb. 1906, p. 253) commenting on Heitmüller’s proof (Im Namen Jesu, Göttingen 1903) that εἰς (τὸ) ὄνομα belonged, in various nuances, to Greek mercantile phraseology, while ἐν (τῷ) ὀνόματι was almost exclusively Jewish, though not foreign to the genius of Greek, observes that the promiscuity of εἰς and ἐν in Hellenistic explains the survival of the more literary archaizing ἐν by the side of the common εἰς.
The temporal use of ἐν to denote the period within which anything is done is naturally very common, e. g. Syll 177.15 (B.C. 303) ἐ [ν ] ἔτεσιν τρίσιν, P Eleph 20.27 (iii/B.C.) ἐν τοῖς καθήκουσιν χρόνοις, P Tebt II. 386.21 (B.C. 12) ἐκτίσω ἐν ἡμέραις τριάκοντα, P Oxy II. 275.40 (A.D. 66) ἕκαστα ποιήσω ἐν τῷ ἐνιαυτῷ ἑνί, and P Tebt II. 591 (ii/iii A.D.) ἐγὼ γὰρ ἠ (l. εἰ) μὴ συνκομίσω τὸν χόρτον ἐν τρίσι ἡμέραις (cf. John 2:21) οὐ δύναμε (l. -μαι) αὐτὰ καταλῖψαι.
For ἐν in adverbial phrases, see P Eleph 10.7 (B.C. 223–2) τῶν λοιπῶν ἐν ἑτοίμωι ὄντων, P Hib I. 47.35 (B.C. 256) ἀπόστειλον. . ἐν τάχει (cf. Luke 18:8, Romans 16:20, Revelation 1:1; Revelation 22:6).
The characteristically Lukan usage of ἐν τῷ followed by an inf. can no longer be ranked as a pure Hebraism, but belongs rather to the category of ";possible but unidiomatic"; Greek (see Proleg. pp. 14, 215, 249), though it should be noted that as yet no parallel has been found for it with the sense ";during"; : see P Par 63.95 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 26) τίς γὰρ οὕτως ἐστὶν ἀνάλητος (?) ἐν τῶι λογίζεσθαι; ";for who is so utterly wanting in reason ?"; and P Oxy IV. 743.35 (B.C. 2) where it is = διὰ τό : ἐν τῷ δέ με περισπᾶσθαι οὐκ ἠδυνάσθην συντυχεῖν Ἀπολλω (νίῳ), ";owing to my worries I was unable to meet A."; (Edd.).
In his monograph Die neutestamentliche Formel ";in Christo Jesu"; (Marburg, 1892) Deissmann has conclusively shown the originality of Paul’s use, though the idea of the mystic indwelling may rightly be traced to the Lord’s own teaching, see SH on Romans 6:11. The Psenosiris letter, P Grenf II. 73.3 (late iii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 117), is addressed Ἀπόλλωνι. . ἀγαπητῷ ἀδελφῷ ἐν Κ (υρί)ῳ, and concludes with the prayer .21 f. ἐρρῶσθαί σε εὔχομαι ἐν Κ (υρί)ῳ Θ (ε)ῷ.
We may conclude with a few miscellaneous examples—P Petr I. 22 (1).4 τοῦ ἐν ταῖς προσόδοις, ";who controls the revenues"; (Ed.), P Lille I. 7.77 (iii/B.C.) ἃ ἐδεδώκειν ἐν φυ (λακῆι), ";had given me to keep,"; P Hib I. 113.15 (c. B.C. 260) ἐν Τοτοῆι Πάσιτος λογευτῆι ὧι μηθὲν ὑπάρχει, ";owed by Totoës son of Pasis, tax-collector, who has no property"; (Edd.), P Par 66.71 (iii/B.C.) λ [οι ]πά, ἀφ᾽ ὧν ἐν τοῖς γεωργο [ῖ ]ς κτλ., a curious usage which Smyly (P Petr III. p. 344) understands as = ";of this remainder (so much) is due from the cultivators,"; P Lond 1171.45 (B.C. 8) (= III. p. 179) ἀνθ᾽ ὧν τῶν ἐπάνωι ἐν ὑπερδαπανήμασι, ";under the head of deficits,"; and from the inscrr. Syll 178.11 (iv/B.C.) καθάπερ καὶ Φίλιππος ἔδωκεν ἐμ πατρικοῖς καὶ αὐτοῖς καὶ ἐκγόνοις, where Dittenberger notes, ";eodem iure ac si a patre hereditatem accepisset.";
In MGr ἐν has been supplanted by εἰς, though it survives as a prefix in such disguised forms as μπίνω, μπάζω, ντρέπομαι.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.