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Bible Commentaries

Trapp's Complete Commentary

Deuteronomy 5

Verse 1

Deu 5:1 And Moses called all Israel, and said unto them, Hear, O Israel, the statutes and judgments which I speak in your ears this day, that ye may learn them, and keep, and do them.

Ver. l. And keep, and do them. ] The difference between divinity and other sciences, is, that it is not enough to learn, but we must keep and do it; as lessons of music must be practised, and a copy not read only, but acted. "Man goeth forth to his work and to his labour until the evening." Psa 104:23 He must arise from the bed of sin, and go forth out of himself, as out of his house to his work and to his labour; "working out his salvation with fear and trembling," Php 2:12 until the evening, till the sun of his llfe be set.

Verse 2

Deu 5:2 The LORD our God made a covenant with us in Horeb.

Ver. 2. God made a covenant with us. ] We also have the covenant, the seals, minister, &c. But, alas, are not these blessings amongst us, as the ark was among the Philistines, rather as prisoners than as privileges, rather in testimonium et ruinam quam salutem?

Verse 3

Deu 5:3 The LORD made not this covenant with our fathers, but with us, [even] us, who [are] all of us here alive this day.

Ver. 3. With our fathers, ] i.e., With our fathers only. Or if it be understood of all the foregoing patriarchs, then it is to be expounded by Galatians 3:17 .

Verse 4

Deu 5:4 The LORD talked with you face to face in the mount out of the midst of the fire,

Ver. 4. Face to face, ] i.e., Openly, and immediately, by himself, and not by a messenger or mediator. Prosper’s conceit was, that the Israelites were called Iudaei, because they received ius Dei.

Verse 5

Deuteronomy 5:5 (I stood between the LORD and you at that time, to shew you the word of the LORD: for ye were afraid by reason of the fire, and went not up into the mount;) saying,

Ver. 5. I stood between the Lord, ] sc., After the decalogue delivered by God himself out of the fire. For of that he might say, as once Joseph did to his brethren, "Behold, your eyes see that it is my mouth that speaketh unto you." Gen 45:12 And as Paul did to Philemon, Phm 1:19 "I Paul," &c., so I the Lord "have written it with mine hand, I will" require "it."

Verse 6

Deu 5:6 I [am] the LORD thy God, which brought thee out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage.

Ver. 6. I am the Lord, &c. ] See Trapp on " Exo 20:1 " &c It is well observed by a reverend writer, a that the two tables of the law are in their object answerable to the two natures of Christ. For God is the object of the one, man of the other: and as they meet together in the person of Christ, so must they be united in the affections of a Christian.

a Mr Ley’s Pattern of Piety.

Verse 12

Deu 5:12 Keep the sabbath day to sanctify it, as the LORD thy God hath commanded thee.

Ver. 12. Keep the Sabbath day. ] In this repetition of the law some things are transposed, and some words changed, haply to confute that superstitious opinion of the Jews, who were ready to dream of miraculous mysteries in every letter.

Verse 15

Deu 5:15 And remember that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt, and [that] the LORD thy God brought thee out thence through a mighty hand and by a stretched out arm: therefore the LORD thy God commanded thee to keep the sabbath day.

Ver. 15. And remember that thou. ] It being a figure of our redemption by Christ, and so a fit subject for Sabbath meditations.

Verse 18

Deu 5:18 Neither shalt thou commit adultery.

Ver. 18. Neither shalt thou commit. ] Or, And thou shalt not commit, &c., and so in the following laws; to teach us that the law is but one copulative, a as the schools speak. For the sanction indeed, it is disjunctive; but for the injunction, it is copulative. The sanction is, Either do this, or die: but the injunction is not, Either do this or that, but Do this and that too. See Mat 23:2-3 Ezekiel 18:10-11 ; Ezekiel 18:13 James 2:10 . Do everything, as well as anything: to leave one sin and not another, is, with Benhadad, to recover of one disease, and to die of another.

a Lex tota est una copulativa.

Verse 22

Deu 5:22 These words the LORD spake unto all your assembly in the mount out of the midst of the fire, of the cloud, and of the thick darkness, with a great voice: and he added no more. And he wrote them in two tables of stone, and delivered them unto me.

Ver. 22. These words the Lord spake. ] If human laws are ευρημα των θεων , the invention of the gods, as Demosthenes calls them, how much rather this perfect law of God that needs no alteration or addition?

Verse 23

Deu 5:23 And it came to pass, when ye heard the voice out of the midst of the darkness, (for the mountain did burn with fire,) that ye came near unto me, [even] all the heads of your tribes, and your elders;

Ver. 23. Even all the heads of your tribes. ] These are called "all Israel," Deu 5:1 as being their representatives.

Verse 25

Deu 5:25 Now therefore why should we die? for this great fire will consume us: if we hear the voice of the LORD our God any more, then we shall die.

Ver. 25. Why should we die? ] But why should they fear to die, since thy had seen that day, that God doth talk with man, and he liveth? It is answered, that they looked upon their present safety as a wonder, but feared what would follow upon such an interview, if continued. And indeed it is still the work of the law to scare men, and to drive them to seek for a Mediator.

We shall die. ] If God himself should speak to us, and from heaven, his stillest rhetoric would be too loud for us.

Verse 27

Deu 5:27 Go thou near, and hear all that the LORD our God shall say: and speak thou unto us all that the LORD our God shall speak unto thee; and we will hear [it], and do [it].

Ver. 27. We will hear it and do it. ] This is well said if as well done. Many can think of nothing but working themselves to life, spinning a thread of their own to climb up to heaven by. But that will never be.

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Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 5". Trapp's Complete Commentary. 1865-1868.