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Bible Commentaries

Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures

John 19

Verses 1-16

Jesus’ Trials In John 18:1 to John 19:16 a we have the account of Jesus standing before the High Priests (John 18:12-27) and before Pilate (John 18:28 to John 19:16 a). Peter denies Jesus three times while He stood before Annas and Caiaphas.

Outline Here is a proposed outline:

1. Jesus before the High Priest & Peter’s Denials John 18:12-27

2. Jesus before Pilate John 18:28 to John 19:16 a

John 18:12-27 Jesus before the High Priest and Peter’s three denials (Matthew 26:57-75 , Mark 14:53-72 , Luke 22:54-71 ) John 18:12-27 tells us of Jesus’ first trial before the high priest with Peter’s three denials woven within this event.

John 18:15 “And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple” - Comments - This disciple who followed Jesus stayed with Him until the end. No other disciple went that far. Jesus' followers went from the multitudes, to the 70, to the 12, to 3 in garden, to 1, with Simon Peter following.

Scholars believe that this other disciple was John, the author of this Gospel.

John 18:18 Comments - Jesus will use a fire of coals by the sea of Tiberias to minister to Peter and help him reconcile his sin with God. Such a setting will automatically bring Peter back to the fire of coals the night he denied Jesus. Many of us have been hurt emotionally, and we find certain places difficult to return and visit because it stirs up painful memories. By the sea of Tiberias Jesus takes Peter back to the fire of coals in order to bring him through a healing process.

John 21:8-9, “And the other disciples came in a little ship; (for they were not far from land, but as it were two hundred cubits,) dragging the net with fishes. As soon then as they were come to land, they saw a fire of coals there, and fish laid thereon, and bread.”

John 18:28 /John 19:16 a Jesus before Pilate (Matthew 27:1-2 ; Matthew 27:11-31 , Mark 15:1-20 , Luke 23:1-5 ; Luke 23:13-25 ) John 18:28 to John 19:16 a tells us the story of Jesus’ second trial before Pontus Pilate at which time He was scourged. Matthew’s Gospel adds the story of Judas Iscariot hanging himself (Matthew 27:3-10) and Luke adds the account of Jesus before Herod (Luke 23:6-12).

John 18:28 Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.

John 18:28 Word Study on “the hall of judgment” The Greek word “praetorium” ( πραιτω ́ ριον ) (G4232) is translated “judgment hall” in the KJV in Acts 23:35. The Enhanced Strong says this word is used 8 times in the New Testament, being translated in the KJV as, “judgment hall 4, hall of judgment 1, common hall 1, praetorium 1, palace 1.” The word “praetorium” is of Latin origin, and according to Lightfoot it properly means, “the general’s tent,” or “the head-quarters in a camp.” [254] BDAG says it originally referred to “the praetor’s tent in camp, with its surroundings,” but that this word was later used to refer to the residence of Roman governor, who presided over a province. The ISBE says that the Romans customarily seized the existing palaces of local kings or princes and made it into their official “praetorium.” According to BDAG, the “praetorium” mentioned in the Gospels where Jesus was tried refers either to Herod’s palace located in the western part of the city of Jerusalem, or “to the fortress Antonia” located “northwest of the temple area.” (see Matthew 27:27, Mark 15:16, John 18:28 a,b, John 18:33; John 19:9) In Acts 23:35 Paul’s trial would have taken place in Herod’s palace in Caesarea, which was used as the residence of the Roman governor. Thus, these palaces were used to hear disputes by the governor and pass judgment. Regarding the use of this word in Philippians 1:13, since Paul’s imprisonment is generally believed to be in Rome, Lightfoot supports the popular view that the word “praetorium” refers more specifically to “the imperial guard,” rather than to a building. Lightfoot believes that “in Rome itself a ‘praetorium’ would not have been tolerated.” He thus translates this word as “the imperial guards.” [255]

[254] J. B. Lightfoot, Paul’s Epistle to the Philippians (London: MacMillan and Co., c1868, 1903), 99.

[255] J. B. Lightfoot, Paul’s Epistle to the Philippians (London: MacMillan and Co., c1868, 1903), 101-102.

John 18:32 “signifying what death He should die” - Comments - That is, Jesus told his disciples that he would be delivered to the Gentiles in order to suffer death by the Romans through crucifixion, and not by the Jews through stoning.

Matthew 20:18-19, “Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be betrayed unto the chief priests and unto the scribes, and they shall condemn him to death, And shall deliver him to the Gentiles to mock, and to scourge, and to crucify him : and the third day he shall rise again.”

Matthew 26:1-2, “And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished all these sayings, he said unto his disciples, Ye know that after two days is the feast of the passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified .”

John 3:14, “And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up :”

John 8:28, “Then said Jesus unto them, When ye have lifted up the Son of man , then shall ye know that I am he, and that I do nothing of myself; but as my Father hath taught me, I speak these things.”

John 12:32-33, “And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me. This he said, signifying what death he should die .”

John 18:32 Comments The Author’s Commentary Scholars popularly believe that John 3:16-21 contains a commentary on the discourse between Jesus and Nicodemus recorded in John 3:1-20. The author pauses from his narrative to give his readers the reason for God’s offer of eternal life, which comes from His love for mankind. John the apostle pauses a number of times in his Gospel to make such comments. For example, we see a similar commentary in John 3:31-36 as the author explains the words of John the Baptist recorded in John 3:27-30. Also, in John 18:9 the author makes comments in John 18:9; John 18:32 and John 19:35-37 of fulfilled prophecy in the midst of the narrative story of Jesus’ arrest, trial, and crufixion.

John 18:36 Comments Jesus was arrested by the Jewish by the Jewish leaders on the basis that He was instigating a rebellion against Rome, as other Jewish rebels had done at this time in Jewish history under oppressive Roman rule. Thus, Jesus tells Pilate that if He were a leader of a band of rebels, then He would have fought against His arrest.

John 18:37 Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice.

John 19:1 Comments - Pilate scourged Jesus in hopes of releasing Him. After the scourging, the Jews still insisted on His crucifixion.

Luke 23:16, “I will therefore chastise him, and release him.”

Luke 23:20, “Pilate therefore, willing to release Jesus, spake again to them.”

John 19:5 Comments Pilate may have looked at the Lord Jesus Christ in pity after such a bloody scourging and said, “Behold the man,” meaning, “How can you crucify this man after such a scourging. Look at His condition. Is not this enough punishment?”

John 19:11 “therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin” - Comments - Since God has given leaders authority to make judgment, the sin lies with those who deliver someone for judgment.

John 19:13 Comments - Everett F. Harrison says the Greek word λιθο ́ στρωτος means, “paved with stones,” while the Aramaic equivalent is Gabbatha ( Γαββαθα ), which means, “ridge, high ground.” This courtyard would have been destroyed or buried in A.D. 66-70 during the siege of Jerusalem. He says although many scholars had speculated for years that Pilate’s “praetorium” was at the Herodian palace to the west of the temple area, no pavement had ever been excavated there. He says the discovery of “a large pavement at the Castle of Antonia located at the northwest corner of the temple precincts” justifies the Aramiac name Gabbatha, since this is an accurate description of this pavement “with respect to the surrounding terrain.” [256]

[256] Everett F. Harrison, Introduction to the New Testament (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, c1964, 1971), 228-29.

Verses 1-42

The Seventh Miracle (Glorificatin): The Witness of the Old Testament Scriptures - The seventh miracle is the miracle of the Resurrection, found in John 11:55 to John 20:29, which offers God’s children the resurrection and future glorification. This passage of Scripture serves as the strongest testimony of the deity of Jesus Christ. Embedded within this seventh miracle narrative are seven events of Christ’s Passion that were predicted in the Old Testament Scriptures. Each of these events is supported by Old Testament quotations declaring their fulfillment.

John 11:55 to John 20:29 offers nine references as a testimony that Jesus fulfilled Old Testament Scriptures (John 12:13; John 12:15; John 12:38; John 12:40; John 13:18, John 15:25, John 19:24; John 19:36-37). These nine references are structured with two pairs, so that there are seven distinct Old Testament Scripture witnesses to the Passion of Jesus Christ. Although the first eleven chapters of John also make two references to Old Testament fulfillment (John 1:23, John 2:17), these two statements do not serve the same structural role as the seven testimonies given in the last section of miracles. Therefore, this passage places much emphasis on the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy as a testimony to the deity of Jesus. After the first Old Testament prophecy, the author of John explains the importance of recording these testimonies from the Old Testament to testify that His Passion was a fulfillment of Scripture (John 12:16).

John 12:16, “These things understood not his disciples at the first: but when Jesus was glorified, then remembered they that these things were written of him , and that they had done these things unto him.”

Outline Here is a proposed outline:

1. Prologue to the Last Passover Feast John 11:55-57

2. His Anointing at Bethany John 12:1-11

3. His Triumphant Entry & Last Public Appearance John 12:12-50

4. The Last Supper John 13:1 to John 17:26

5. Jesus’ Betrayal and Arrest John 18:1-11

6. Jesus’ Trials John 18:12 to John 19:16 a

7. Jesus’ Crucifixion & Burial John 19:16-42

Verses 16-22

Jesus is Crucified In John 19:16-22 we have Mark’s account of the crucifixion of the Lord Jesus Christ.

Crucifixion in the Ancient World - References to impalement and crucifixion in ancient history are too numerous to mention them all. These most cruel forms of punishment were used for perhaps a thousand years, from the sixth century B.C. by the Persians until fourth century A.D. when Constantine abolished its practice throughout the Roman Empire. Perhaps the earliest references to crucifixion and impalement as a form of capital punishments are recorded by the Greek historian Herodotus (484-425 B.C.), who says the Persians practiced it against their enemies and other condemned of crimes. Although the Persians may have not have been the first to use this cruel form of punishment, they certainly appear to be the first to use it extensively. Herodotus makes numerous references to the Persian practice of impalement and crucifixion, with most gruesome event taking place when King Darius of Persian subdued the Babylonians a second time in 519 B.C. by crucifying three thousand chief men among them on one occasion (3.159). [257]

[257] “Crucifixion,” in Encyclopædia Britannica [on-line]; accessed December 21, 2011; available at http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/144583/crucifixion; Internet.

“…and with that he took the Magians who interpreted dreams and had persuaded him to let Cyrus go free, and impaled [ ἀνασκολοπίζω ] them.” ( Herodotus 1.128) [258]

[258] Herodotus I, trans. A. D. Godley, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, c1920, 1975), 167.

“Having killed him (in some way not worth the telling) Oroetes then crucified [ ἀνασταυρόω ] him.” ( Herodotus 3.125) [259]

[259] Herodotus II, trans. A. D. Godley, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, c1928), 155.

“When the Egyptian chirurgeons who had till now attended on the king were about to be impaled [ ἀνασκολοπίζω ] for being less skilful than a Greek, Democedes begged their lives of the king and saved them.” ( Herodotus 3.132) [260]

[260] Herodotus II, trans. A. D. Godley, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, c1928), 163.

“For he had raped the virgin daughter of Zopyrus son of Megabyzus; and when on this charge he was to be impaled [ ἀνασκολοπίζω ] by King Xerxes…But Xerxes did not believe that Sataspes spoke truth, and as the task appointed Mas unfulfilled he impaled [ ἀνασκολοπίζω ] him, punishing him on the charge first brought against him.” ( Herodotus 4.43) [261]

[261] Herodotus II, trans. A. D. Godley, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, c1928), 241-243.

“Artaphrenes, viceroy of Sardis and Harpagus who had taken Histiaeus, impaled [ ἀνασκολοπίζω ] his body on the spot, and sent his head embalmed to king Darius at Susa.” ( Herodotus 6.30) [262]

[262] Herodotus III, trans. A. D. Godley, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, c1938), 175-177.

“Their captain was the viceroy from Cyme in Aeolia, Sandoces son of Thamasius; he had once before this, being then one of the king's judges, been taken and crucified [ ἀνασταυρόω ] by Darius because he had given unjust judgment for a bribe.” ( Herodotus 7.194) [263]

[263] Herodotus III, trans. A. D. Godley, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, c1938), 511.

“Thus was Babylon the second time taken. Having mastered the Babylonians, Darius destroyed their walls and reft away all their gates, neither of which things Cvrus had done at the first taking of Babylon; moreover he impaled [ ἀνασκολοπίζω ] about three thousand men that were chief among them.” ( Herodotus 3.159) [264]

[264] Herodotus II, trans. A. D. Godley, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, c1928), 193-195.

The Greek historian Thucydides (460-396 B.C.) records the use of impalement during the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.) by the Persians, which suggests the introduction of this form of punishment to the Greek by the Persians.

“…for the Persians were unable to capture him, both on account of the extent of the marsh and because the marsh people are the best fighters among the Egyptians. Inaros, however, the king of the Libyans, who had been the originator of the whole movement in Egypt, was taken by treachery and impaled.” ( Thucydides 1.110) [265]

[265] Thucydides, vol. 1, trans. Charles Forster Smith, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, c1956), 185.

The Greek general Alexander the Great adopted crucifixion as a form of punishment against his enemies in his conquests. The Roman historian Curtius Rufus (flourished A.D. 41-54) says Alexander the Great crucified two thousand citizens of Tyre along the shore of the Mediterranean Sea after having conquered them.

“Then a sorrowful spectacle to the victors caused by the wrath of the king, two thousand suffering (his) madness which were killed, fixed to a cross [crux] along the enormous distance of the seashore. He spared the ambassadors of the Carthaginians…” (author’s translation) (Quintus Curtius Rufus , Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great 4.4.18) [266]

[266] Quintus Curtius Rufus, Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great, trans. William Henry Crosby (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1969), 45.

The Romans adopted crucifixion into their judicial system. The Roman statesman Cicero (106-43 B.C.) describes crucifixion as the worst form of capital punishment that should be reserved for all but Roman citizens, and he condemns those Roman officials who performed it upon their own citizens.

“The Roman people will give credit to those Roman knights who, when they were produced as witnesses before you originally, said that a Roman citizen, one who was offering honourable men as his bail, was crucified by him in their sight.” (Cicero, Against Verrem 1.5) [267]

[267] C. D. Yonge, The Works of Philo Judaeus, the Contemporary of Josephus, vol. 1 (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1854), 137.

“The punishments of Roman citizens are driving him mad, some of whom he has delivered to the executioner, others he has put to death in prison, others he has crucified while demanding their rights as freemen and as Roman citizens.” (Cicero, Against Verrem 2.1.3) [268]

[268] C. D. Yonge, The Works of Philo Judaeus, the Contemporary of Josephus, vol. 1 (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1854), 154.

“I will produce, also, citizens of Cosa, his fellow-citizens and relations, who shall teach you, though it is too late, and who shall also teach the judges, (for it is not too late for them to know them,) that that Publius Gavius whom you crucified was a Roman citizen, and a citizen of the municipality of Cosa, not a spy of runaway slaves.” (Cicero, Against Verrem 2.5.63) [269]

[269] C. D. Yonge, The Works of Philo Judaeus, the Contemporary of Josephus, vol. 1 (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1854), 535.

“Then you might remit some part of the extreme punishment. Did he not know him? Then, if you thought fit, you might establish this law for all people, that whoever was not known to you, and could not produce a rich man to vouch for him, even though he were a Roman citizen, was still to be crucified.” (Cicero, Against Verrem 2.5.65) [270]

[270] C. D. Yonge, The Works of Philo Judaeus, the Contemporary of Josephus, vol. 1 (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1854), 537.

The Romans appear to have taken crucifixion to its fullest extent of torment. The Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnasus (60-7 B.C.) tells us that the Romans combined scourging and various forms of torture as a prerequisite to crucifixion.

“And straightway all those whom the informers declared to have been concerned in the conspiracy were either seized in their houses or brought in from the country, and after being scourged and tortured they were all crucified.” (Dionysius of Halicarnasus, Roman Antiquities 5.51.3) [271]

[271] Dionysius of Halicarnasus, The Roman Antiquities of Dionysius of Halicarnasus, vol. 3, trans. Earnest Cary, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, c1940), 153.

“When the plot was revealed, the ringleaders were arrested and after being scourged were led away to be crucified.” (Dionysius of Halicarnasus, Roman Antiquities 12.6.7) [272]

[272] Dionysius of Halicarnasus, The Roman Antiquities of Dionysius of Halicarnasus, vol. 7, trans. Earnest Cary, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, c1950), 221.

The Roman philosopher Seneca (4 B.C. to A.D. 65) tells us that the Romans experimented with a variety of methods for crucifying men in an effort to inflict maximum suffering.

“I see before me crosses not all alike, but differently made by different peoples: some hang a man head downwards, some force a stick upwards through his groin, some stretch out his arms on a forked gibbet.” ( Dialogues 6, To Marcia, On Consolations) [273]

[273] Aubrey Stewart, L. Anneaus Seneca: Minor Dialogues (London: George Bell and Sons, 1889), 192.

The Roman historian Appian (A. D. 95-165) tells us that the Roman general Crassus crucified six thousand men in 71 B.C. after crushing a slave rebellion led by Spartacus. He stretched these crosses along the main road leading to Rome so that everyone may see and fear the Romans. [274]

[274] William Bodham Donne, “Spartacus,” in Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. 3, ed. William Smith (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1849), 892.

“They divided themselves in four parts, and continued to fight until they all perished except 6000, who were captured and crucified along the whole road from Capua to Rome.” ( The Civil Wars 1.120) [275]

[275] Appian’s Roman History, vol. 3, trans. Horace White, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, 1964), 223-225.

The Assyrian satirist Lucian (A.D. 125-180) reflects the Roman’s passion for the most extreme forms of punishment in his work The Fisherman.

“But how are we to punish him, to be sure? Let us invent a complex death for him, such as to satisfy us all; in fact he deserves to die seven times over for each of us. PHILOSOPHER I suggest he be crucified. ANOTHER Yes, by Heaven; but flogged beforehand. ANOTHER Let him have his eyes put out long beforehand.. ANOTHER Let him have that tongue of his cut off, even longer beforehand.” (Lucian, The Fisherman 2) [276]

[276] Lucian, vol. 3, trans. A. M. Harmon, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, 1960), 5.

The Jewish historian Josephus (A.D. 37-100) makes many references to the Roman practice of crucifixion against the Jewish people. His description of the thousands of crucifixions that the Romans performed upon the Jews during the siege of Jerusalem is perhaps the most horrific of his many references.

“…after they had fought, they thought it too late to make any supplications for mercy; so they were first whipped, and then tormented with all sorts of tortures before they died, and were then crucified before the wall of the city. This miserable procedure made Titus greatly to pity them, while they caught every day five hundred Jews; nay, some days they caught more…So the soldiers out of the wrath and hatred they bore the Jews, nailed those they caught, one after one way, and another after another, to the crosses, by way of jest; when their multitude was so great, that room was wanting for the crosses, and crosses wanting for the bodies.” (Josephus, Wars 5.11.1)

“Whereupon Eleazar besought them not to disregard him, now he was going to suffer a most miserable death, and exhorted them to save themselves, by yielding to the Roman power and good fortune, since all other people were now conquered by them.” (Josephus, Wars 7.6.4)

The Roman philosopher Seneca (4 B.C. to A.D. 65) gives one of the most vivid descriptions of what a person suffers during a crucifixion in ancient literature:

“But what sort of life is a lingering death? Can anyone be found who would prefer wasting away in pain dying limb by limb, or letting out his life drop by drop, rather than expiring once for all? Can any man by found willing to be fastened to the accursed tree, long sickly, already deformed, swelling with ugly tumors on chest and shoulders, and drawing the breath of life amid long drawn-out agony? I think he would have many excuses for dying even before mounting the cross!” ( Epistle 101.14). [277]

[277] Seneca, vol. 4 , Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales, vol. 3, trans. Richard M. Gumere, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, 1971), 167.

The Roman jurist Julius Paulus (2 nd to 3 rd c. A.D.) considered crucifixion as the most extreme of all punishments.

“Every one should abstain not only from divination but also from the books teaching that science. If slaves consult a soothsayer with reference to the life of their master, they shall be subjected to extreme punishment, that is to say, to crucifixion; and if those who are consulted give any answer, they shall either be sentenced to the mines, or deported to an island.” ( The Civil Law 5.21.4) [278]

[278] S. P. Scott, The Civil Law (Cincinnati, Ohio: The Central Trust Company 1932) [on-line]; accessed 17 January 2011; available at http://webu2.upmf-grenoble.fr/Haiti/Cours/Ak/Anglica/Paul5_Scott.htm#21; Internet.

The legal reforms of Constantine led to the abolishment of crucifixion and replaced it more humane forms of capital punishment (Eusebius, Life of Constantine 4.26) ( PG 20, cols. 1173-1178). [279]

[279] Albert de Broglie, “The First Christian Emperors,” (130-190). in The Christian Remembrancer (vol. 50 July-Decemeber) (London: J. and C. Mozley, 1860), 169; Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol. 3 (New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1891), 108.

John 19:17 “And he bearing his cross” Comments - Scholars tell us that Roman law required the criminal to carry his own cross to the place of his punishment. [280]

[280] John Gill, John, in John Gill’s Expositor, in e-Sword, v. 7.7.7 [CD-ROM] (Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005), comments on John 19:17.

John 19:17 “went forth into a place called the place of a skull” Comments - Jesus went forth without the city in order that He might sanctify the people with His own blood.

Hebrews 13:11-13, “For the bodies of those beasts, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned without the camp . Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate . Let us go forth therefore unto him without the camp , bearing his reproach.”

This passage in Hebrews refers to the Mosaic Law:

Exodus 29:14, “But the flesh of the bullock, and his skin, and his dung, shalt thou burn with fire without the camp : it is a sin offering.”

Leviticus 4:1-21

Leviticus 9:9-11, “And the sons of Aaron brought the blood unto him: and he dipped his finger in the blood, and put it upon the horns of the altar, and poured out the blood at the bottom of the altar: But the fat, and the kidneys, and the caul above the liver of the sin offering, he burnt upon the altar; as the LORD commanded Moses. And the flesh and the hide he burnt with fire without the camp .”

Leviticus 16:27, “And the bullock for the sin offering, and the goat for the sin offering, whose blood was brought in to make atonement in the holy place, shall one carry forth without the camp ; and they shall burn in the fire their skins, and their flesh, and their dung.”

Numbers 19:1-3, “And the LORD spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, This is the ordinance of the law which the LORD hath commanded, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring thee a red heifer without spot, wherein is no blemish, and upon which never came yoke: And ye shall give her unto Eleazar the priest, that he may bring her forth without the camp, and one shall slay her before his face:”

Under the Mosaic Law, judgment against people was always done without the camp:

Leviticus 24:14, “ Bring forth him that hath cursed without the camp ; and let all that heard him lay their hands upon his head, and let all the congregation stone him.”

John 19:17 “which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha” Word Study on “Golgotha” BDAG says the Greek word “ Γολγοθα ” (G1115) is a transliteration of the Hebrew word גֻּלְגֹּלֶת (H1538), which means, “the skull (as round),” and implied, “the head (in enumeration of persons)” ( Strong). The Hebrew word גֻּלְגֹּלֶת is used 12 times in the Old Testament. Note:

Exodus 38:26, “A bekah for every man , that is, half a shekel, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for every one that went to be numbered, from twenty years old and upward, for six hundred thousand and three thousand and five hundred and fifty men.”

Numbers 1:2, “Take ye the sum of all the congregation of the children of Israel, after their families, by the house of their fathers, with the number of their names, every male by their polls ;”

2 Kings 9:35, “And they went to bury her: but they found no more of her than the skull , and the feet, and the palms of her hands.”

1 Chronicles 10:10, “And they put his armour in the house of their gods, and fastened his head in the temple of Dagon.”

Verses 16-42

Outline Here is a proposed outline:

1. Jesus is Crucified John 19:16-22

2. Fifth Scripture Fulfilled Cast Lots for Garment John 19:23-24

3. Jesus’ Mother at the Cross John 19:25-27

4. Jesus’ Death John 19:28-30

5. Sixth Scripture Fulfilled No bones broken John 19:31-36

6. Seventh Scripture Fulfilled His side pierced John 19:37

Verses 23-24

Fifth Scripture Fulfilled: Cast Lots for Garment - In John 19:23-24 John the apostle records the fifth Old Testament prophecy fulfilled during Jesus’ Passion, which tells of the casting of lots for His garments.

John 19:23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.

John 19:23 Comments The ancient practice of casting lots was not restricted to the Jewish culture under the Mosaic Law. The books Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Nahum provide us with references in the Old Testament Scriptures to the custom of casting of lots by someone other than the people of Israel, being practiced among the Babylonians (Obadiah 1:11), the Ninevites (Nahum 3:10), and among the sailors (Jonah 1:7), which Adam Clarke suggests to be Phoenicians based on Ezekiel 27:12. [281]

[281] Adam Clarke, The Book of the Prophet Jonah, in Adam Clarke's Commentary, Electronic Database (Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc., 1996), in P.C. Study Bible, v. 3.1 [CD-ROM] (Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc., 1993-2000), notes on Jonah 1:3.

Joel 3:3, “And they have cast lots for my people; and have given a boy for an harlot, and sold a girl for wine, that they might drink.”

Obadiah 1:11, “In the day that thou stoodest on the other side, in the day that the strangers carried away captive his forces, and foreigners entered into his gates, and cast lots upon Jerusalem, even thou wast as one of them.”

Nahum 3:10, “Yet was she carried away, she went into captivity: her young children also were dashed in pieces at the top of all the streets: and they cast lots for her honourable men, and all her great men were bound in chains.”

Jonah 1:7, “And they said every one to his fellow, Come, and let us cast lots, that we may know for whose cause this evil is upon us. So they cast lots, and the lot fell upon Jonah.”

Ezekiel 27:12, “Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kind of riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy fairs.”

The Roman soldiers who crucified Jesus Christ cast lots at the foot of the Cross (Matthew 27:35, Mark 15:24, Luke 23:34, John 19:24). The Roman statesman Cicero (106-43 B.C.) makes numerous references to the widespread practice of casting lots among the ancient cultures in his work de divination. [282] The Jewish historian Josephus (A.D. 37-100) mentions the practice of casting lots among the Roman soldiers who had encompassed the city of Jerusalem under Titus. [283] The Roman historian Suetonius (A.D. 70-130) mentions this ancient practice among Roman leaders by appointing men to tasks by casting lots, as well as casting lots as a form of divination. [284]

[282] For example, Cicero writes, “But what nation is there, or what state, which is not influenced by the omens derived from the entrails of victims, or by the predictions of those who interpret prodigies, or strange lights, or of augurs, or astrologers, or by those who expound lots (for these are about what come under the head of art); or, again, by the prophecies derived from dreams, or soothsayers (for these two are considered natural kinds of divination)?” ( de divination 1.6) Cicero also writes, “What, now, is a lot? Much the same as the game of mora, or dice, l and other games of chance, in which luck and fortune are all in all, and reason and skill avail nothing. These games are full of trick and deceit, invented for the object of gain, superstition, or error.” ( de divination 2.41) See Cicero, The Treatises of M. T. Cicero on the Nature of the Gods; on Divination; on Fate; on the Republic; on the Laws; and on Standing for the Consulship, trans. C. D. Yonge (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1853), 146-147, 235.

[283] Josephus writes, “They also cast lots among themselves who should be upon the watch in the nighttime, and who should go all night long round the spaces that were interposed between the garrisons.” ( Wars 5.12.2)

[284] For example, Suetonius writes, “When later, on his way to Illyricum, he [Tiberius] visited the oracle of Geryon near Patavium, and drew a lot which advised him to seek an answer to his inquiries by throwing golden dice into the fount of Aponus, it came to pass that the dice which he threw showed the highest possible number and even to-day those very dice may be seen under the water.” ( Lives of the Twelve Caesars: Tiberius) Suetonius, The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by Suetonius, trans. Joseph Gavorse (New York: Modern Library, 1931), 130-131.

John 19:24 “that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots” Old Testament Quotes in the New Testament - This verse is quoted from Psalms 22:18.

Psalms 22:18, “They part my garments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture.”

Verses 25-30

John 19:25 Comments Scholars generally agree that the prophecy of Simeon in the Temple was fulfilled when Mary stood at the cross of Jesus watching her son die. A. T. Robertson says that this is the time when Luke 2:35 was fulfilled.

Luke 2:35, “(Yea, a sword shall pierce through thy own soul also,) that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed.”

God always prepares us for difficulties that will take place in the future by giving us words to strengthen us and to prepare us for that time and season. Thus, God gave Mary words that would one day serve to strengthen her during the most difficult moment in her life, which was the crucifixion of her beloved Son on Calvary. In the same way, Jesus gave Peter a prophecy about his future suffering and death in order to strengthen him.

John 21:18-19, “Verily, verily, I say unto thee, When thou wast young, thou girdedst thyself, and walkedst whither thou wouldest: but when thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee, and carry thee whither thou wouldest not. This spake he, signifying by what death he should glorify God. And when he had spoken this, he saith unto him, Follow me.”

John 19:25-27 Jesus’ Mother at the Cross In John 19:25-27 we have the record of Jesus handing over the care of His mother to John the apostle.

John 19:26 When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son!

John 19:26 Comments One Catholic tradition tells us that John the apostle remained in Jerusalem and cared for the mother of our Lord Jesus Christ until her death about fifteen years after the Crucifixion of Jesus. Adam Clarke says:

“ John was banished by the Roman emperor, Domitian, to the isle of Patmos, in the Aegean Sea: but his successor Nerva having recalled all the exiles banished by Domitian, John returned to Ephesus, where he died, aged upward of one hundred years. The holy Virgin is said to have lived with him till her death, which took place about fifteen years after the crucifixion.” [285]

[285] Adam Clarke, The Preacher’s Manual: Including Clavis Biblica, and A Letter to a Methodist Preacher (New York: G. Lane and P. P. Sandford, 1842), 37.

John 19:26-27 Comments In many cultures, especially the African culture and even the Asian culture, the terms for “father, mother, brother, and sister” are used loosely, and often refer to distant relatives. This is in contrast to the modern American culture where these words are used exclusively for the immediate family members. Most likely, these terms were also used loosely in the Jewish culture of Jesus’ day.

Note also in the biography of John the apostle that he was very likely a close relative of Jesus. Therefore, it was appropriate for Jesus to give John oversight of his mother, using the terms “son and mother” just as they would have been used in his Jewish culture for extended family members.

John 19:28-30 Jesus’ Death In John 19:28-30 we have the account of the death of the Lord Jesus Christ.

John 19:28 Comments The author of the Gospel of John records seven events during the Passion of Jesus Christ that are a direct fulfillment of Old Testament Scripture (John 12:13-15; John 12:38-40; John 13:18; John 15:25; John 19:24; John 19:36-37).

John 19:30 “It is finished” Comments - Billy Brim said that Jesus’ death was not an event, but rather an accomplishment. [286] This was what Jesus Christ was born into this world to do. Note reference verses:

[286] Billye Brim, interviewed by Gloria Copeland, Believer’s Voice of Victory (Kenneth Copeland Ministries, Fort Worth, Texas), on Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California), television program.

Matthew 5:17, “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.”

John 4:34, “Jesus saith unto them, My meat is to do the will of him that sent me, and to finish his work.”

John 5:36, “But I have greater witness than that of John: for the works which the Father hath given me to finish, the same works that I do, bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me.”

John 17:4, “I have glorified thee on the earth: I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do.”

Romans 10:4, “For Christ is the end ( τελος ) of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth.”

Galatians 3:24, “Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”

Hebrews 10:1-10 especially verse 9, “He taketh away the first, that He may establish the second”.

Kenneth Hagin says that the new covenant finished when Jesus ascended on High. [287]

[287] Kenneth Hagin, Zoe: The God-Kind of Life (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c1981, 1982), 43.

Verses 31-36

Sixth Scripture Fulfilled: No Bones Broken - In John 19:31-36 John the apostle records the sixth Old Testament prophecy fulfilled during Jesus’ Passion, which says that none of His bones would be broken.

John 19:31 Comments With the breaking of the legs, the weight of the victim’s body rested entirely upon the arms and hands, making it difficult to breath, thus dying from both loss of blood and asphyxia. [288]

[288] George R. Beasley-Murray, John, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol. 36 (second edition), eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc., 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 3.0b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2004), notes on John 19:31.

John 19:34 “But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side” - Comments - The Shroud of Turin is believed to be the actual burial cloth of the Lord Jesus Christ. In this cloth is the image of a man that has been crucified. The image in this cloth shows someone whose side has been pierced. [289]

[289] Grant R. Jeffery, “The Mysterious Shroud of Turin,” [on-line]; accessed 1 September 2009; available from http://www.grantjeffrey.com/article/shroud.htm; Internet.

John 19:34 “and forthwith came there out blood and water” - Comments - The separate of blood and water in the body of a person takes place after death. Therefore, this was a sign that Jesus had been dead for a while.

John 19:36 Old Testament Quotes in the New Testament - The Old Testament Scripture quoted in John 19:36 is from Psalms 34:20.

Psalms 34:20, “He keepeth all his bones: not one of them is broken.”

According to the Law, the Passover lamb was not to have any of its bones broken. Therefore, Jesus qualified as this sacrificial lamb.

Exodus 12:46, “In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth ought of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof .”

Numbers 9:12, “They shall leave none of it unto the morning, nor break any bone of it : according to all the ordinances of the passover they shall keep it.”

The Shroud of Turin is believed to be the actual burial cloth of the Lord Jesus Christ. In this cloth is the image of a man that has been crucified. This cloth indicates that the legs of this man have not been broken. [290]

[290] Grant R. Jeffery, “The Mysterious Shroud of Turin,” [on-line]; accessed 1 September 2009; available from http://www.grantjeffrey.com/article/shroud.htm; Internet.

Verse 37

Seventh Scripture Fulfilled: His Side Pierced - In John 19:37 John the apostle records the seventh Old Testament prophecy fulfilled during Jesus’ Passion, which says His side would be pierced.

John 19:37 Old Testament Quotes in the New Testament - This is taken from Zechariah 12:10.

Zechariah 12:10, “And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced , and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his firstborn.”

Note also a reference to Jesus' pierced side in John 20:24-27 and Revelation 1:7:

John 20:24-27, “But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came. The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the Lord. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe. And after eight days again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them: then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto you. Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side: and be not faithless, but believing.”

Revelation 1:7, “Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him : and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen.”

Verses 38-42

Jesus’ Burial In John 19:38-42 we have the account of the burial of Jesus Christ.

John 19:38-40 Comments Our Identification with Christ - One preacher noted that when Joseph of Arimathaea and Nicodemus took the body of Jesus Christ and buried it they were performing their own burial service. This is because the Lord gave Paul the apostle the revelation of our identification with Christ Jesus in His crucifixion, death, burial, resurrection, exaltation and authority. Note these passages on our identification with Christ in His crucifixion and burial.

Romans 6:6-12

2 Corinthians 5:14-17

Galatians 2:20, “I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me.”

Colossians 3:3, “For ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God.”

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Bibliographical Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on John 19". Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghe/john-19.html. 2013.