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D. Instructive Contrasts chs. 28-29
Most of the proverbs in this section are couplets, and most of them set forth a truth by means of a contrast.
When wickedness abounds in a land, there is usually a high rate of turnover in the leadership (Proverbs 28:2 a). The Northern Kingdom of Israel is a prime example. Nevertheless, a single wise ruler can bring stability to a land (Proverbs 28:2 b). God blessed the Southern Kingdom of Judah with relative stability because of David’s godly leadership.
"To continue in office the son must uphold what is known to be right and not tolerate legal offenses either in himself or in his subjects." [Note: Waltke, The Book . . . 31, p. 408.]
When authorities discover a person who gets rich by charging exorbitant interest, and they bring him to justice, they usually turn his money over to others who are trustworthy and less greedy. This illustrates the fact that a person who amasses a fortune dishonestly often loses it eventually.
Sometimes rich people think they are wise because they have accumulated much money (cf. 1 Timothy 6:17). However a wise person, even a poor wise man, can see that that is not the ultimate reason he is rich.
Fearing sin is in view here, not having a timid disposition or fearing God. [Note: Ross, p. 1106.] The contrast of hardening the heart supports this view.
The evil eye represents the wicked purposes or intent of a person. In this case it is a selfish desire to get rich. The person with the evil eye is misanthropic, whereas the person with the good eye (Proverbs 22:9) is philanthropic. [Note: McKane, p. 627.] The person in view here fails to look far into the future when he will be in need before God, if not before men. Avarice leads to poverty.
Those who give to the poor will not lack what they need, which is God’s blessing. They may also receive the blessing of other people and material benefits that God promised generous Israelites. We may supply the idea of blessing to the first statement legitimately, since the contrast is with curses in the second statement.
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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Proverbs 28". "Dr. Constable's Expository Notes". https://studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26