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Section IV., Proverbs 25-29.— The title of this section adds to the tradition of a Solomonic collection of proverbs the further tradition of literary activity in the time of Hezekiah. The same general considerations hold good of this section as of Proverbs 10-24. (See Introduction.) It also shows signs of compilation, and falls into two divisions: ( a) Proverbs 25:2 to Proverbs 27:22, and ( b) Proverbs 28 f., separated by a discourse in Proverbs 27:23-27.
Second Division, Proverbs 28 f.— In general character this division resembles Section II., consisting chiefly of antithetic couplets.
Proverbs 28:2 b. The text is uncertain, and various renderings are possible. The translation “ state” is very doubtful. If MT be retained, connect the word for “ state” with the preceding, and translate “ by men of understanding who know what is right it is prolonged.” LXX reads “ Through the sin of the ungodly disputes arise, but a prudent man quenches them,” possibly the original text.
Proverbs 28:3 . A needy man: so MT, but the thought is not in keeping with the conception of the poor in Pr. or in the OT. We should probably read “ a wicked man who,” etc. (LXX), or possibly “ a rich man who,” etc. The simile seems to be that of a heavy unseasonable rain which floods and destroys the crops.
Proverbs 28:12 . cf. Proverbs 28:10 f.— hide themselves: lit. ( cf. mg.) “ are sought out” ( cf. Proverbs 28:28).
Proverbs 28:13 . The ethical conditions of forgiveness are noteworthy, and reflect the standpoint of the prophetic teaching ( cf. Hosea 14:2-4, Isaiah 1:16-18, Psalms 32:5, Matthew 21:31 f.).
Proverbs 28:16 . The prince: perhaps a gloss due to a mistaken connexion with Proverbs 28:15.
Proverbs 28:17 . Corrupt. Lit. “ A man oppressed by the blood of any person will flee to pit, do not lay hold of him,” which yields no sense. LXX has “ he that is surety for a man charged with murder shall be a fugitive without safety.” There is possibly some reference to the ancient law of the blood feud.
Proverbs 28:18 . at once: impossible. The change of one letter gives “ into the pit.”
Proverbs 28:19 . cf. Proverbs 12:11.
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Peake, Arthur. "Commentary on Proverbs 28". "Peake's Commentary on the Bible ". https://studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 22 / Ordinary 27