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Probably by Hezekiah. See App-67 , Psalms 123:3 , and notes below. An Acrostic Psalm ( App-63 ), in which each verse in each of the twenty-two sections commences with the twenty-two successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet: i.e. the first eight begin with Aleph (= A), the second eight with Beth (= B), &c.: making 176 verses in all (i.e. 8 x 22). For the ten words (corresponding with the Ten Commandments) which are characteristic of this Psalm, see App-73 .
Blessed = How happy (see App-63 .). Here plural = O the great happiness.
way. The first of the ten words. See App-73 . The thirteen occurrences of this word in this Psalm are all noted below, as are those of the other nine.
law. The sixth in order of the ten words. See App-73 .
the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .
Blessed. This Psalm, begins with a double Beatitude. See App-63 .
keep = guard.
testimonies. The second in order of the ten words. See App-73 .
iniquity = perversity. Hebrew. 'aval . App-44 .
precepts. The third in order of the ten words. See App-73 .
statutes. The ninth in order of the ten words. See App-73 .
ashamed = put to shame; not shame of conscience.
commandments. The tenth in order of the ten words. See App-73 .
praise = give thanks, as in Psalms 92:1 , &c.
righteous = righteousness: i.e. judgments of Thy righteousness. The eighth in order of the ten words. See App-73 .
judgments. The seventh in order of the ten words. See App-73 .
not utterly = not in any wise. Compare Psalms 119:43 .
a young man. The writer not necessarily a youth.
way = path. Not the same word as in Psalms 119:1 .
By taking = So as to take. Put interrogation at end of the second line instead of the first.
word = the articulate subject-matter of what is said. The tenth in order of the ten words of this Psalm. See note on Psalms 18:30 . App-73 . Not the same word as in Psalms 119:11 . Some codices, with Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "words" (plural)
word = the mode, or purport of what is said. The fifth in order of the ten words of this Psalm. See App-73 . Some codices, with one early printed edition, Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "words" (plural)
hid = treasured up.
sin. Hebrew. chata' . App-44 .
lips . . . declared. Figure of speech Paronomasia. App-6 : bispatay sipparti.
word. Same word as in Psalms 119:9 (not Psalms 119:11 ): but some codices, with two early printed editions, Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "words" (plural)
Open = Unveil. behold = discern, or see clearly.
stranger = foreigner sojourning.
soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .
breaketh for = hath broken owing to. Occurring again only in Lamentations 3:16 .
longing = fervent desire; same word as verses: Psalms 119:40 , Psalms 119:174 , but not Psalms 119:131 .
err = go far astray (through wine or passion). Same word as "wander" (Psalms 119:10 ), and "err" (Psalms 119:118 ). Hebrew. shagah App-44 .
reproach and contempt. Compare Psalms 123:3 , Psalms 123:4 , confirming Hezekiah's suggested authorship.
also = nevertheless. See Psalms 129:2 .
my counsellors = men (Hebrew. 'ish, App-14 ) of my counsel.
dust. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , for the dead, as in Psalms 30:9 . Ecclesiastes 12:7 .
Quicken . . . me = Give me life, or keep me alive. The first of nine prayers for quickening (Imperative), verses: Psalms 119:37 , Psalms 119:40 , Psalms 119:88 , Psalms 119:107 , Psalms 119:149 , Psalms 119:154 , Psalms 119:156 , Psalms 119:159 . Twice as a statement of fact, verses: Psalms 119:50 , Psalms 119:93 .
word . As in Psalms 119:9 ; but some codices read ' words" (plural)
talk = meditate.
melteth = weepeth. Occurs only here. Job 16:20 . Ecclesiastes 10:18 .
word. As in Psalms 119:9 . Some codices read plural; but other codices, with Septuagint and Vulgate, read "by (or in) thy words" (plural)
laid = set.
stuck = cleaved, or adhered.
enlarge my heart = set my heart at liberty, as in Isa 60:5 . 2 Corinthians 6:11 , 2 Corinthians 6:13 .
Teach me = Show, or make me to see.
way. Some codices, with three early printed editions, Aramaean, and Syriac, read "ways" (plural)
Who is devoted to Thy fear. Supply Ellipsis thus: "Which [leadeth to] reverence of Thee"; or, "Which [pertaineth to]", &c.
fear = dread.
in: or by.
righteousness. Hebrew. zedakah. See App-73 .
mercies = lovingkindnesses.
wherewith = a word. Hebrew. dabar as in Psalms 119:9 . See App-73 .
reproacheth. See note on "contempt", Psalms 123:3 .
trust in = confide in. Hebrew. batah. App-69 .
word. Some codices, with one early printed edition, Aramaean, Septuagint, and Syriac, read "words" (plural)
For ever and ever. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Whole), App-6 , for a part: i.e. the rest of his life.
at liberty = at large. Compare Psalms 118:5 .
kings. So Hezekiah testified, doubtless, when kings sent presents and embassies to him (2 Chronicles 32:22 , 2 Chronicles 32:23 ). No occasion to suggest a later date for this Psalm.
have loved = love. Septuagint adds "much".
My hands, &c. Hebrew idiom = to swear by, as in Genesis 14:22 .Exodus 6:8 (margin) Deuteronomy 32:40 . Ezekiel 20:5 , Ezekiel 20:6 ; Ezekiel 36:7 . See note on Exodus 17:16 .
Upon which. This is supported by the Septuagint and Vulgate. In Deuteronomy 29:25 it is rendered "Because".
caused me to hope. Our hope is based on believing what we have "heard" from God. Compare Hebrews 11:1 with Romans 10:17 .
comfort. The word occurs (as a noun) elsewhere only in Job 6:10 .
quickened me = kept me alive. See note on Psalms 119:25 .
proud = insolent (like Rabshakeh).
Horror = Indignation.
wicked = lawless. Hebrew. rasha'.
songs. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), App-6 , for the theme of my songs.
name. See note on Psalms 20:1 .
This. Supply Ellipsis ( App-6 ) thus: "This [comfort] I had".
The division is better made thus, dispensing with the supposed Ellipsis: I have said "Jehovah is my portion, That I might keep Thy word. "
favour. Hebrew face; put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , for what is indicated by it.
merciful = gracious.
robbed = surrounded. Compare Sennacherib's investment of Hezekiah. See App-67 .
companion = fellow of the same party.
fear = revere.
mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.
Before. If we begin this verse with the word "Till", and Psalms 119:71 with '"Tis", then each verse in this section will commence with "T", as it does in the Hebrew.
afflicted = oppressed.
But now. Compare Hebrews 12:6-11 , and references there.
good = kind. doest good = actest kindly.
It is. See note on Psalms 119:67 .
good = right, or fitting.
gold and silver. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6 , for coins made from these metals.
Jod. This is the small letter referred to in Matthew 5:18 .
fashioned = formed. Compare Job 31:15 ; also Deuteronomy 32:18 .
fear = revere.
right = righteousness, as in Psalms 119:7 .
afflicted = humbled.
merciful kindness = lovingkindness, or grace.
tender mercies = compassions.
For, &c. This is the ground of his prayer.
delight. Plural as in Psalms 119:92 = great delight.
proud = insolent, or arrogant.
perversely = with falsehood.
without a cause. Compare John 15:25 with Romans 3:24 ("freely").
those that have known. Some codices read "and they shall know".
sound = thorough.
fail. Same word as "fainteth", in Psalms 119:81 .
bottle = wine-skin: i.e. black and shrivelled. Compare Job 30:30 .
many: i.e. few at the most. Compare Psalms 89:47 . 2 Samuel 19:34 .
execute judgment = vindicate.
Which, &c. = "[Men] who are not", &c.
after = according to.
faithful = faithfulness.
wrongfully. See note on "perversely", Psalms 119:78 .
almost = soon. See note on "almost" (Proverbs 5:14 ).
consumed = made an end of.
For ever, O LORD. Supply Ellipsis ( App-6 ), "For ever [art Thou], O Jehovah [For ever] Thy Word", &c.
settled = standeth fast, as the earth: i.e. endureth for ever (Psalms 102:12 , Psalms 102:26 . Isaiah 40:8 . Luke 16:17 . 1 Peter 1:25 ). So Christ, the Living Word (John 12:34 ).
abideth = standeth, as in Psalms 119:91 .
They: i.e. heaven and earth.
continue = stand, as in Psalms 119:90 .
this day = [to] this day, or to-day.
ordinances = regulations. Hebrew. mishpat. The seventh of the ten words. App-73 . Compare Psalms 119:132 .
all. With Art. = the whole [universe].
sought = inquired into, or studied. Compare Psalms 105:4 .
all perfection = an end, or limit to all things. Compare Job 26:10 ; Job 28:3 .
Thy commandment, &c. = spacious exceedingly [are] Thy commandments: i.e. including all (as opposed to "end").
they are = it [is]: i.e. the Law containing the commandments.
than all my teachers. Because Divinely taught Divine wisdom.
ancients = elders, or the aged ones.
evil. Hebrew. ra'a'. App-44 .
way. Including religious way, in the sense of Acts 9:2 ; Acts 19:9 , Acts 19:23 ; Acts 24:14 . Compare Acts 16:17 ; Acts 18:26 ; especially in Psalms 119:104 .
word. Same word as in Psalms 119:9 . Some codices, with one early printed edition, with Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "words" (plural)
departed = swerved.
taught = directed.
sweet = smooth, or agreeable. Not the same word as in Psalms 19:10 .
lamp: or lantern, for light on the path for the feet; not merely a light for the eyes (Psalms 19:8 ).
I will perform it. Some codices, with seven early printed editions, Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "I have performed it"; but some codices, with four early printed editions (1 in margin), read "and will perform it".
in my hand. An idiom for great danger. Compare Judges 12:3 . 1Sa 19:5 ; 1 Samuel 28:21 .Job 13:14 .
erred = to err from the paths of virtue and piety. Hebrew. ta'ah ; not the same word as in verses: Psalms 119:21 , Psalms 119:118 .
thoughts = divided or doubting thoughts. Same root as 1 Kings 18:21 (compare James 1:8 ); or, them that are of double mind.
hiding place. Compare Psalms 32:7 ; Psalms 91:1 . shield. Compare Psalms 84:9 , and note. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6 .
God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4 . But "my God" implies Jehovah.
live. See note || on p. 827.
and I shall be safe = so shall I be saved.
have respect unto. Aram, and Syriac read "find dear delight in". Septuagint reads "shall meditate".
trodden down: or set at naught.
Thou puttest away. Septuagint and Vulg, read "I have accounted".
My flesh trembleth: or, My flesh creeps (as we say). Compare Job 4:15 , i.e. at the judgment executed on the wicked.
justice = righteousness. Same word as in Psalms 119:7 .
proud = arrogant. This is the only verse in this Psalm which has not one of the "ten words", unless we may include the Living Word Himself, Who is the "surety" for His people. See note on Proverbs 11:15 , and compare Hebrews 7:22 . See App-73 .
mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.
to work: i.e. to intervene.
wonderful. Same root as in verses: Psalms 119:18 , Psalms 119:27 .
keep = keep safely.
entrance = doorway; which was always an open way for the light, in the absence of windows.
simple = sincere, as opposed to crafty.
I longed. An Aramaic word ( ya'ab) . Occurs only here. Weaker than in verses: Psalms 119:20 , Psalms 119:40 , Psalms 119:174 .
merciful = gracious.
As Thou usest to do = According to Thy ordinance. Hebrew. mishpat. The seventh in order of the "ten words" ( App-73 ). So rendered in Psalms 119:91 .
name. See note on Psalms 20:1 .
Order = Direct, or guide.
in = by. Some codices, with one early printed edition, Septuagint, and Vulgate, read "according to".
iniquity. Hebrew ' aven . App-44 .
Deliver: i.e. by power. Hebrew. padah. See notes on Exodus 6:6 with Exodus 13:13 . Not the same word as verses: Psalms 119:153 , Psalms 119:154 , Psalms 119:170 . man. Hebrew. 'adam. App-14 .
Rivers of waters. Hebrew. palgey-mayim. See note on Proverbs 21:1 . Eng. idiom = Floods of tears.
Righteous, &c. See Psalms 119:7 . See also Revelation 16:5 , Revelation 16:7 .
righteous and very faithful = righteousness and faithfulness.
very pure = refined.
small = insignificant. Compare Judges 6:15 .
is the truth = is truth (no Art.) Compare John 17:17 .
taken hold. Figure of speech Prosopopoeia . App-6 .
cried = called [unto Thee], as in Psalms 119:146 .
hear = answer.
cried = called. Figure of speech Anaphora. App-6 .
prevented = anticipated, or forestalled.
dawning. A Homonym. Hebrew. nephesh. See note on 1 Samuel 30:17 . Authorized Version and Revised Version correctly render it here, and in Job 7:4 ; though not in 1 Samuel 30:17 . Job 24:15 .
word. Same as in Psalms 119:11 ; but some codices, with Septuagint and Vulgate, read "words" (plural)
prevent = anticipate, or forestall.
watches. See App-51 .
Hear. Emphatic = O do hear.
after mischief. Some codices, with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "after me maliciously".
deliver. Twenty-five Hebrew words so rendered. Here, halaz = rescue (with a gentle hand); not the same word as in verses: Psalms 119:134 , Psalms 119:154 , Psalms 119:170 .
deliver. Hebrew. ga'al = redeem. See notes on Exodus 6:6 with Exodus 13:13 , Not the same word as in verses: Psalms 119:134 , Psalms 119:153 , Psalms 119:170 .
tender mercies = compassions.
enemies = adversaries: i.e. those who hem me in.
transgressors. Hebrew. bagad = traitors, or treacherous men.
was grieved = loathed myself: i.e. seeing the same tendencies in myself. Compare Job 42:6 .
beginning. Hebrew. r'osh = head. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), App-6 , for the whole (including the beginning, and "every one", as in next line) = sum and substance, word and words (Jeremiah 15:16 . John 17:8 , John 17:14 ); rendered "sum" in Psalms 139:17 .
Princes = Rulers.
word. Same word as in Psalms 119:9 . Some codices, with Septuagint and Vulgate, read "words" (plural)
word. Same word as in Psalms 119:11 . Some codices with Septuagint and Vulgate, read "words" (plural)
lying = falsehood = what is false; especially false religion and idolatry.
Seven times. Not a "round" number, but the number of spiritual perfection. See App-10 .
peace. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), App-6 , for every blessing connected with peace.
offend them = make them stumble.
Deliver = Rescue. Hebrew. nazal, to pluck out of the hands of an enemy; recover. Not the same word as in verses: Psalms 119:134 , Psalms 119:153 , Psalms 119:154 .
utter = pour forth or bubble over with. Compare Proverbs 15:2 ; Proverbs 18:4 .
speak of. Hebrew respond with. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), App-6 , for all kinds of speaking or singing; hence = praise.
hand. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia ( App-6 ); "hand" put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6 , for power exercised by it.
it shall praise Thee. Refers to Isaiah 38:20 .
help me. Refers to Isaiah 37:33-36 .
lost = perishing. Compare Matthew 18:11 ; Luke 19:10 .
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Psalms 119". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://studylight.org/