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of Solomon = by Solomon, as author: i.e. written by him. Characterizing this section of the book.
the men of Hezekiah. Evidently a special guild of scribes employed in the work of editing and putting together the O.T. books. At the end of each book are three Majuscular letters, Cheth (= H), Zayin ( = Z) , and Koph (= K), which are the initials of Hezekiah, and his sign-manual, confirming the work done. This tri-grammaton is found in all MSS. and printed editions up to the end of 2 Kings. After the death of Hezekiah it obtains varied forms and additions; subsequent writers and editors having lost the origin and meaning of these three letters, and taken it as a word which means "Be strong", put there for their encouragement. See App-67 .
God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4 . Compare Job 37:14-24 ; Job 37:38-41 .
honour = glory, as in preceding line.
finer = refiner.
Take away, &c. Illustrations: David ( 1Ki 2:5 , 1 Kings 2:6 . Compare Pro 25:46 ); Asa (1 Kings 15:13 ).
the wicked = a lawless one. Hebrew. rasha'. App-44 .
better. See note on Proverbs 8:11 .
Go not forth, &c. Illustrations: Gaal (Judges 9:26-40 ); the ten tribes (Joshua 22:12-34 ); Abner(2 Samuel 2:14 , 2 Samuel 2:17 ); Asahel (2 Samuel 2:18-23 ); Amaziah (2 Kings 14:8-14 ); Josiah (2 Chronicles 35:20-24 ).
with thy neighbour. Illustrations: Abraham (Genesis 13:8 ; Genesis 21:25-32 );
shame. A Homonym. Hebrew. chesed, meaning (1) mercy, or lovingkindness, but also (2) a disgraceful thing. Leviticus 20:14 , Leviticus 20:17 . Job 37:13 . See notes there.
fitly = timely. As we say "on the spur of the moment".
apples of gold. The difficulty is not in this expression, for jewellery is evidently intended from the first clause of the next verse.
pictures = carved or sculptured work, put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), for imaginative work made from it: i.e. baskets, or dishes. Golden fruit (the Rev. James Niel suggests oranges) in silver salvers would be the height of rarity, which it is the intention of the words to convey. Hebrew. maskith occurs six times, Proverbs 18:11 ("conceit"); Leviticus 26:1 .Numbers 33:52 .Psalms 73:7 ("could wish"); Ezekiel 8:12 ("imagery").
obedient = attentive.
in the time of harvest: i.e. most unusual. Compare Proverbs 26:1 . The emphasis is on "cold" as being refreshing.
false = pretended. Illustrations: Zedekiah(1 Kings 22:11 ); Hananiah (Jeremiah 28:1-4 ); Shemaiah (Jeremiah 29:24-31 ); false apostles (2 Corinthians 11:13-15 ).
wind. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 .
prince: or judge, persuaded. Compare Genesis 26:13-31 .
tongue. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), for what is spoken by it.
breaketh the bone: i.e. overcometh obstinacy.
weary = full of.
maul = a mallet, or large wooden hammer, or club. From the Latin malleus.
unfaithful = treacherous. Hebrew. bagad. See note on "transgressors" (Proverbs 11:3 ).
foot out of joint = a tottering foot. Illustrations: Micah (Judges 18:20 ); Ben-hadad (2 Kings 8:8-15 . 2 Chronicles 28:20 , 2 Chronicles 28:21 ); Israelites (Isaiah 30:1-5 ); Zedekiah (Jeremiah 37:5-7 ); compare Ezekiel 17:15 ; Ezekiel 29:7 .
takethaway, &c. = decketh himself out in. Hebrew. 'adah. See Job 40:10 . Ezekiel 16:11 , Ezekiel 16:13 ; Ezekiel 23:40 . Hosea 2:13 , i.e. he that thinks more of his appearance than his comfort and health.
nitre = natron. Now called soda. With any acid it causes strong effervescence.
So is he. The point is in the incongruity of the three things named.
If thine enemy be hungry, &c. Quoted in Romans 12:20 ; compare 1 Samuel 24:6 ; 1 Samuel 26:9 . Illustrations: Azariah, Berachiah, &c. (2 Chronicles 28:12-15 ); Elisha (2 Kings 6:19-23 ). By the Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), these examples are put for all similar kinds.
heap, &c. = receive from thine enemy [and place] upon his head. Figure of speech Ellipsis (Relative), App-6 . As hatha = receive, the Ellipsis must be thus supplied: i.e. If thou doest good to one whose burning words (Proverbs 16:27 , Proverbs 26:23 ) thou hast received, they will burn him in another sense. Illustration: David (1 Samuel 24:16-22 ).
driveth away = bringeth forth. Hebrew. hul. an angry countenance. Supply the Ellipsis thus: by adding "[produceth]".
brawling = wrangling.
good news, &c. Illustrations: Jacob (Genesis 45:25-28 ); Paul (Colossians 1:3 , Colossians 1:4 .Ephesians 1:15 , Ephesians 1:16 . Philippians 1:1 , Philippians 1:3-6 ).
troubled = trampled, or fouled.
spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 .
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Proverbs 25". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 14 / Ordinary 19