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Bible Commentaries

Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Isaiah 7

Verse 1

it came to pass in the days of. See note on Genesis 14:1 .

Ahaz. For the history explaining this prophecy see 2 Kings 15:37 - Isaiah 16:5 .

Rezin. See 2 Kings 16:5-9 .

Pekah. His was the last prosperous reign in Israel. It began in the last year of Uzziah, king of Judah.

the son of Remaliah. Repeated for emphasis in verses: Isaiah 7:1 , Isaiah 7:4 , Isaiah 7:5 , Isaiah 7:9 .

A murderer 2Ki 16:25 ).

could not prevail against it. Compare 2 Kings 16:5 .

Verse 2

the house of David. Not to Ahaz only, but to the house which had received the promise of Jehovah's protection (2 Samuel 7:0 ).

Ephraim. The leading tribe, put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), for the rest of the ten tribes. Sometimes called "Samaria" (1 Kings 16:24 ).

His . i.e. Ahaz.

wind. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 .

Verse 3

Shear-jashub = the remnant shall return.

highway. Occurs in the "former" portion, here, Isaiah 11:16 ; Isaiah 19:23 ; Isaiah 33:8 ; Isaiah 35:8 ; Isaiah 36:2 ; and in the latter portion, Isaiah 40:3 ; Isaiah 49:11 ; Isaiah 57:14 (verb); Isaiah 59:7 (paths); Isaiah 62:10 (verb and noun).

Verse 4

for = because of. firebrands. Compare Amos 4:11 .Zechariah 3:2 . Not like the stump of Judah (Isaiah 6:13 ).

for = consisting of.

Verse 6

vex = terrify.

the son of Tabeal: i.e. Rezin, king of Syria.

Verse 8

the = though the.

Damascus: which is soon to be spoiled.

Rezin: a firebrand soon to be quenched. He was the last independent king of Syria.

and = yet.

threescore and five years. To be made up thus: Ahaz 14 + Hezekiah 29 + Manasseh 22 = 65 (13 X 5). Fulfilled in 567-6 B.C.

that it be not a people = shall be no more a people. But Judah shall return (Isaiah 6:13 ).

Verse 9

If ye will not believe, surely ye shall not be established. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia for emphasis and to attract attention to the importance of the sentence. Hebrew. 'im l'o tha'dminu, ki lo the'amenu, which may be Englished thus: "If ye will not trust, ye shall not be trusted". Greek have no belief. . . find no relief; or, will not understand. . . . shall not surely stand; or, no confiding . . . no abiding. Isaiah 7:17 shows that Ahaz did not trust.

ye. But specially referring to Ahaz. See note on "shall call" (Isaiah 7:14 ).

surely = [know] that.

Verse 10

Moreover. It seems as though Isaiah wanted to see what Ahaz would say to Isaiah 7:9 .

spake. This identifies the words with Jehovah Himself, and not merely with Isaiah. It shows the vast importance of the coming prophecy.

again = added. Literally added to speak. Occurs in this connection only again in Isaiah 8:5 in this book.

Verse 11

sign. Hebrew. 'oth , a present visible token or pledge, as in Genesis 1:14 . Ex. Isaiah 4:4 ; Isa 4:9 ; Isa 12:13 ; and especially Isaiah 8:18 . This word is used eight times in the "former" portion (here; Isaiah 7:14 ; Isaiah 8:18 ; Isaiah 19:20 ; Isaiah 20:3 ; Isaiah 37:30 ; Isaiah 38:7 , Isaiah 38:22 ); and three times in the "latter" portion (Isaiah 44:25 ; Isaiah 55:13 ; Isaiah 66:19 ). See App-79 and compare Hezekiah's sign (Isaiah 38:7 ).

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4 .

either. Ahaz was not limited, and therefore without excuse.

Verse 12

I will not ask. He had already made up his mind to appeal to Assyria, and had probably sent messengers to Tiglath-Pileser (2 Kings 16:7 . 2 Chronicles 28:16 ). His self-hardening is masked by his apparently pious words.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. (with 'eth) = Jehovah Himself. App-4 .

Verse 13

he: i.e. Jehovah by the prophet; thus identifying Himself with this important prophecy.

men. Hebrew, plural of 'en6sh. App-14 .

Verse 14

the LORD*. One of the 134 passages where Jehovah, in the primitive text, was altered by the Sopherim to "Adonai". See App-32 .

a virgin. Hebrew the virgin: i.e. some definite well-known damsel, whose identity was then unmistakable, though unknown to us. See Matthew 1:21-23 , Luke 1:31 . See App-101 .

virgin = damsel. Hebrew. ha-'almah . It occurs seven times (Genesis 24:43 .Exodus 2:8 . Psalms 68:25 .Proverbs 21:19 . Song of Solomon 1:3 ; Song of Solomon 6:8 , and Isaiah 7:14 ). The Hebrew for virgin (in our technical sense) is bethulah , and occurs fifty times (2 x 52, see App-10 ). Its first occurrence is Genesis 24:16 , where, compared with Isa 7:43 , it shows that while every Bethulah is indeed an Almah , yet not every Almah is a Bethulah . The prophecy does not lose its Messianic character, for Mary, in whom it was fulfilled, is designated by the same holy inspiring Spirit as " parthenos " (not gune) . As a sign to Ahaz this damsel was an almah . As a sign, when the prophecy was fulfilled (or filled full), it was Mary, the parthenos or virgin.

shall conceive, and bear = is pregnant and beareth. Reference to Pentateuch. The two words occur together only here, Genesis 16:11 , and Judges 13:5 , Judges 13:7 ; and Isaiah 7:12 shows that birth was imminent. Perhaps the Almah was "Abi" (2 Kings 18:2 ; 2 Chronicles 29:1 ), but the son was not necessarily Hezekiah. See App-101 .

Immanuel = "GOD (' El) with us". Most codices, and six early printed editions, give it as two words. Some, with two early printed editions, as one word.

Verse 15

Butter = Curds. See Genesis 18:8 , Deuteronomy 32:14 , &c.

that he may know = up to the time of his knowing: i.e. the prophecy shall come to pass while still a babe. See Isaiah 7:16 .

choose. See note on Isaiah 1:29 .

Verse 16

For before. This was the sign to Ahaz and all present. Compare the further sign, Isaiah 8:4 , and see App-101 .

child = sucking child.

the land = the soil.

abhorrest: or vexest.

shall be forsaken. So it came to pass two years later. Compare 2 Kings 15:30 ; 2 Kings 16:9 . See note on Isaiah 1:4 .

of = because of. Connect this with "abhorrest", not with "forsaken".

both her kings: i.e. Pekah and Rezin (Isaiah 7:1 ).

Verse 17

the king of Assyria. This was fulfilled in 2 Kings 16:7 , and 2 Chronicles 28:19 , 2 Chronicles 28:20 .

Verse 18

rivers of Egypt. Reference to Pentateuch. Hebrew. ye'or . Twenty-nine times in. Genesis and Exodus (only twice in plural. Exodus 7:19 ; Exodus 8:5 ).

Verse 19

thorns = the thorn bushes.

bushes = the pastures.

Verse 20

hired. By Ahaz himself.

Verse 21

And it shall come to pass. Note the Figure of speech Anaphora , commencing verses: Isaiah 7:21 , Isaiah 7:22 , Isaiah 7:23 , emphasizing the points of the prophecy.

shall nourish, &c .: i.e. no longer a land of olives and oil, but a poor pasturage. Compare Jeremiah 39:10 .

Verse 22

abundance of milk. Not because of the number of the cattle, but on account of the fewness of the people.

butter and honey. Not corn and wine and oil.

in = in the midst of.

Verse 23

silverlings = shekels: i.e. as rent. Compare Song of Solomon 8:11 .

Verse 25

shall be digged = should be digged (but were to go out of cultivation).

shall not come thither = thou wilt not come thither: i.e. venture to walk (without weapons, Isaiah 7:24 ) where thou wast wont to plough in peace.

the fear of = for fear of.

sending forth = letting loose, or driving forth.

treading = trampling down.

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Isaiah 7". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.