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Bible Commentaries

Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Exodus 21

Verse 1

Chapters 21-23 are an expansion of chapter 20.

Verse 3

by himself . Hebrew "with his body". Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part). App-6 .

Verse 5

shall plainly say . Hebrew "saying shall say". Figure of speech Polyptoton ( App-6 ) for emphasis. See note on Genesis 26:28

children = sons.

Verse 6

the judges . See note on 22. e.

bore his ear . Hence a symbol of obedience an perpetual servitude. Compare Psalms 40:6 . Isaiah 48:8 ; Isaiah 50:5 and see note on Hebrews 10:5 .

for ever . Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Whole). App-6 . A time put for limited time; "for life", or till the jubilee, Leviticus 25:13 , Leviticus 25:28 , Leviticus 25:40 , Leviticus 25:41 .

Verse 7

a man . Hebrew. 'ish . See App-14 .

Verse 8

nation = people.

power = authority.

Verse 13

God Hebrew. Elohim. deliver. Hebrew idiom, b which God is said to do what He allows to be done. deliver. Hebrew permit him to meet, or come.

Verse 14

guile . . . thou . Figure of speech Ellipsis ( App-6 ); between these two words, supply: "and then seek refuge t Mine altar".

Verse 15

smiteth . Here and elsewhere in this chapter (except Exodus 21:26 ), to smite to death, or seriously.

Verse 16

a man . (Hebrew. 'ish. App-14 .) Aramaean and Septuagint add "of the sons of Israel".

Verse 17

curseth , or revileth. Compare Matthew 15:4 .Mark 7:1

Verse 18

men . Hebrew, plural of 'ish, or'enesh. See App-14 . one. Hebrew. 'ish. App-14 . another his neighbor.

Verse 20

punished = avenged.

Verse 21

money . Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6 , money put for the servant ho earns it.

Verse 22

child . . . so . Figure of speech Ellipsis ( App-6 ); supply "who intervenes".

punished = amerced, or fined. The laws of Khammurabi distinguished between three classes (§§209, 211, 213). Here it is any woman. See App-15 .

Verse 23

life = soul. Hebrew. nephesh. See App-13 .

Verse 24

Eye for eye , &c. Lex talionis, eight particulars for completeness ( App-10 ), seven in separate category (verses: Exodus 21:24 , Exodus 21:26 ). These laws made prisons unnecessary, and prevented crime.

Verse 26

go free . By Code of Khammurabi, the master was compensated, 199 (see App-15 ). Compare Deuteronomy 4:8 .

Verse 27

smite . Not the same word as elsewhere in this chapter.

Verse 30

ransom . Implying that death-penalties were in certain cases commutable. Compare Exodus 30:12 and Psalms 49:8 . Psa 49:32 shekels. See App-51 .

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Exodus 21". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/exodus-21.html. 1909-1922.