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Now. Ch. 1 Samuel 17:1 reads on chronologically from 1 Samuel 16:13 (see note on 1 Samuel 16:14 ). An author's right is claimed for placing the later episode here (1 Samuel 16:14 , 1 Samuel 16:23 ), in order to connect and contrast the two spirits with Saul and David. The canonical order alternates David's call and Saul's. See notes on 1 Samuel 16:14 ; 1 Samuel 18:12 .
men . Hebrew. 'ish. App-14 .
by = in. About sixteen miles south-west of Jerusalem.
champion . Hebrew. 'ish-habbenayivl = "the man between the two [hosts]", or, the duellist. This accords with the subscription of Psalms 8:0 (see note there)
Muth-labben = the death of the man between; i.e. the death of the champion (Goliath) which Psalms 8:0 celebrates. Psalms 144:0 , which has the same words, "What is man" has for its title in Septuagint. "A Psalm of David concerning Goliath"(compare1 Samuel 8:4; 1 Samuel 8:4 with Psalms 144:3 ). See 1 Samuel 17:23 .
six . Note this number "6" stamped like a "hallmark" on this "man" (as on Nebuchadnezzar, Daniel 3:0 ) Compare the six pieces of armour, verses: 1 Samuel 17:5-7 .
cubits . See App-51 .
span . See App-51 .
And . Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton in verses: 1 Samuel 17:5-7 . App-6 . Note the six pieces of armour thus emphasised; and see App-10 .
target . Hebrew. kedon, a small shield. Translated "shield "in 1 Samuel 17:45 .
shield . Hebrew zinnah, a shield of the largest size, covering the whole body. Same word in 1 Samuel 17:41 , not 1 Samuel 17:6 and 1 Samuel 17:45 .
man . Hebrew. 'ish . App-14 .
greatly afraid = feared exceedingly. Compare 1 Samuel 17:24 .
eight sons . David was now between sixteen and seventeen years old. See note on 1 Samuel 16:5 .
men. Hebrew 'enosh. App-14 .
for an old man . Septuagint and Syriac read "was old", advanced in years.
was = he [was].
forty . The number significant of probation. App-10 .
ephah . See App-51 .
their pledge : i.e. a token from them of their welfare = a message or letter, or a lock of hair. Compare Genesis 37:13 , Gen 14:32 , Gen 14:33 .
as = according as.
fight = place of battle.
carriage = baggage: i. e, goods carried.
behold . Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .
armies = ranks.
men. Hebrew. 'ish. App-14 .
man . Hebrew. 'ish. App-14 .
were sore afraid = feared exceedingly. Compare 1 Samuel 17:11 .
and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton. App-6 .
men . Heb, 'enosh. App-14 .
defy = reproach.
God. Hebrew. Elohim . App-4 . "Living", always in contrast with idols.
manner = word.
Let no man's heart fail. Septuagint reads "Let not the heart of my lord fail".
man's . Hebrew. 'adam. App-14 .
kept = was keeping. Compare 1 Samuel 16:11 .
his . Some codices, quoted in the Massorah, read "my".
and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ) in verses: 1 Samuel 17:34-36 .
beard = mane, or throat.
them . The Septuagint adds "them" and reads "[Shall I not go and smite him, and turn aside reproach to-day from Israel? For who is this uncircumcised Philistine] that he hath", &c.
defied = reproached.
living God , Both these words in plural in Hebrew Compare 1 Samuel 17:26 .
The LORD = Jehovah . App-4 .
paw . . . hand . Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause) for power put forth by it. App-6 .
assayed = tried, or, was content to start: assay French essayer.
staff = club, one of the three equipments of the Eastern shepherd: crook for the sheep's help, club for sheep's defence, and the bag for himself.
ruddy. Compare 1 Samuel 16:12 , 1 Samuel 16:13 .
dog . No stronger term of contempt. 2 Kings 8:13 .Matthew 15:26 .
gods = god, as in Judges 16:23 .
field. Some codices, with Aramaean, Septuagint, and Vulgate, read "earth".
shield. See note on "target", 1 Samuel 17:6 .
the LORD of hosts . See note on 1 Samuel 1:3 .
and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton in verses: 1 Samuel 17:46-47 . give. Septuagint reads "give [thy limbs and] the carcasses", &c.
that there is a God in Israel = that Israel bath a God.
assembly = assembled host. Compare Numbers 22:4 , "company".
drew it out ; showing that Goliath had not deigned to do so.
champion . Hebrew. gibbor = mighty man. App-14 . Not the same word as in 1 Samuel 17:4 and 1 Samuel 17:23 .
the valley . Septuagint reads "entrance into Gath".
wounded = stricken, or slain.
children = sons.
tents = camps.
Jerusalem . Jerusalem (west of Moriah) had been taken by Judah, who dwelt there. The Jebusites were still holding Jebus, or Zion, the mount immediately south of Moriah. Compare Joshua 15:63 .Judges 1:7 , Judges 1:8 . Zion was taken later by David. See 2 Samuel 5:7 , and App-68 .
whose son . . . ? Though Saul had just had an interview with David, he did not know his father, whom he had promised (1 Samuel 17:25 ) to make free in Israel. Note in all these passages (verses: 55, 56, 58) Saul's inquiry is not about David, but about David's father.
thy soul = thyself (emph.) Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 17". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://studylight.org/
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