Click to donate today!
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #7161 - קֶרֶן
1) horn (noun feminine)
1b) of strength (figuratively)
1c) flask (container for oil)
1d) horn (as musical instrument)
1e) horn (of horn-like projections on the altar)
1f) of rays of light
2) a place conquered by Israel probably in Bashan (noun proper locative)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
(1) a horn, as of an ox, a goat, of a ram. (So in all the cognate languages. Also Gr. κέρας; Lat. cornu, French corne, Goth. haurns, whence Germ. Horn). Meton.
(a) a vessel made of horn, or a horn used for a vessel, 1 Samuel 16:1, 13 1 Samuel 16:13; 1 Kings 1:39.
(b) a horn for blowing, Joshua 6:5. Metaph. a symbol of strength and power, an image taken from bulls and other horned animals, Jeremiah 48:25, “the horn of Moab is broken,” i.e. his strength is broken; compare Lamentations 2:3 Ps. 75:11. הֵרִים קֶרֶן פּ׳ to exalt, or lift up any one’s horn; (as God), i.e. to increase his power and dignity, Psalms 89:18, 92:11 148:14 1 Samuel 2:10; Lamentations 2:17 (compare Barhebr. p. 516. Haririi Cons. 43, p. 498, 99, ed. de Sacy, and the note there given, and the epithet of Alexander the Great ذو القرفين the two horned, which I have no doubt in interpreting powerful). Hence רָמָה קַרְנִי my horn is high, i.e. my strength increases, I acquire new spirit, Psalms 89:25, 112:9 1 Samuel 2:1. In the same sense, Amos 6:13, לָקַחְנוּ לָנוּ קַרְנַיִם “we have taken horns to ourselves.” On the other hand in a bad sense, הֵרִים קַרְנוֹ to lift up one’s own horn, i.e. to be proud, Psalms 75:5, Psalms 75:6. (Compare Lat. cornua sumere, used of those who from too much confidence in their own powers are overbearing; also Hor. Od. iii. 21, 18, addis cornua pauperi.) There is a similar metaphor in the following, Job 16:15, “I have put my horn in the dust,” where we in the usage of our language would say my head, on which is the highest honour and glory. Psalms 18:3, David calls God קֶרֶן יִשְׁעִי “the horn of my help,” or “of my liberation,” i.e. the instrument of liberation, an image taken from horned animals, which use their horns as a defence; Psal. 132:17, “there (in Zion) I will make the horn of David to shoot forth,” I will cause the power of the kingdom of David to flourish; or rather, I will grant to the house of David powerful offspring.-Where true horns are understood, for the plur. is used the dual קַרְגַיִם and קְרָנַיִם (as if from קָרָן), Daniel 8:3,, 20 more rarely pl. קְרָנוֹת Zechariah 2:1, Zechariah 2:4 Psa. 75:11 Ezekiel 27:15 (where horns of ivory mean elephants’ teeth, by a common error of the ancients [or rather they were called horns from resemblance]. Comp. Plin. N. H. xviii. § 1). From its resembling a horn.
(2) the summit of a mountain, which the Swiss also call a horn, as Schreckhorn, Wetterhorn, Uarhorn, Isaiah 5:1. (Arab. id.)
(3) קַרְנוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ horns of the altar, are projections like horns at the four corners of the altar; such as I myself have seen in the Egyptian altars yet in existence, namely those that Belzoni dug up. Leviticus 4:7, 18, 25, 30, 34 8:15 9:9 16:18. The corners of the altar cannot themselves be understood, see Exodus 27:2. Also poet.
(4) dual קַרְנַיִם is used of flashes of lightning, Habakkuk 3:4 just as the Arabian poets compare the first beams of the rising sun to horns, and call the sun itself a gazelle; see אַיֶּלֶת. Hence
the Fifth Week after Epiphany