the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #7161 - קֶרֶן
1) horn (noun feminine)
1b) of strength (figuratively)
1c) flask (container for oil)
1d) horn (as musical instrument)
1e) horn (of horn-like projections on the altar)
1f) of rays of light
2) a place conquered by Israel probably in Bashan (noun proper locative)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
1. a. of ram (אַיִל) Genesis 22:13, so in Daniel's vision Daniel 8:3 (twice in verse); Daniel 8:6,7,20, and (of goat) Daniel 8:5; Daniel 8:8; Daniel 8:9; Daniel 8:21; of oppressors in Israel (under figure of rams) Ezekiel 34:21, so of nations Zechariah 2:2; Zechariah 2:4 (3t. in verse); of רְאֵם Deuteronomy 33:17; Psalm 22:22 (both figurative, compare Psalm 92:11); of Zion under figure of threshing-ox Micah 4:13; בַּרְזֶל׳ק 1 Kings 22:11 2 Chronicles 18:10 (symbolic); seen in Zechariah's vision Zechariah 2:1.
b. used as oil-flask 1 Samuel 16:1,13; 1 Kings 1:39 (compare קֶרֶן הַמּוּח below).
c.הַיּוֺבֵל ׳ק, as wind-instrument Joshua 6:5 (compare שׁוֺפָר).
d.קַרְנוֺת שֵׁן Ezekiel 27:15 (from curved shape of tusks).
2 figurative, of person, symbol of strength Deuteronomy 33:17, יִשְׁעִי׳ק 2 Samuel 22:3 = Psalm 18:3 (of ׳י as deliverer); others below 3 or
4; especially as lifted up (רום, as of a lordly animal, compare Dr 1 Samuel 2. 1), denoting increase of might, dignity 1 Samuel 2:1,10; Lamentations 2:17; Psalm 75:11; Psalm 89:18; Psalm 89:25; Psalm 92:11; Psalm 112:9, so perhaps 1 Chronicles 25:5 (see Kau; > Be blow loudly [compare 1 c]), + לְעַמּוֺ Psalm 148:14 (subject ׳י); also haughtiness, arrogance Psalm 75:5; Psalm 75:6; opposed to ׳גָּדַע ק hew off horns, i.e. reduce, humiliate, Lamentations 2:3; Psalm 75:11, passive Jeremiah 48:25, so וְעֹלַלְתִּי בֶעָפָר קַרְנִי Job 16:15; ׳לְבֵית יִשׂ׳אַצְמִיהַ ק Ezekiel 29:21 is apparently of restoration of might (as Psalm 148:14 above, with וַיָּרֶם), but לְדָוִד׳ק ׳אַצ Psalm 132:17 of raising up individual ruler of Davidic line.
3 of altar, horn-like projections at corners (26t.), Amos 3:14; Jeremiah 17:1; Ezekiel 43:15,20; Psalm 118:27; Exodus 27:22 + 8t. Exodus; Leviticus 4:7,18 6t. Leviticus (all P); as sanctuary, refuge 1 Kings 1:50,51; 1 Kings 2:28.
4 hill (so in Arabic, peak, isolated hill, compare Ges) Isaiah 5:1.
5קַרְנַיִם מִיָּדוֺ לוֺ Habakkuk 3:4 rays at his side(s) had he (of lightning-flashes in theoph., compare Now Da). — Amos 6:13 see קַדְנַיִם proper name, of a location
קַרְנַ֫יִם proper name, of a location conquered by Israel Amos 6:13 (so Gr We Now GASm, compare also לֹא דְבָר above; ᵐ5 and most below קֶרֶן 2); probably in Bashan, = Καρναιν 1 Maccabees 5:43; 5:44, Καρνιον 2 Maccabees 12:21; also in ׳עַשְׁתְּרוֺת ק Genesis 14:5 (see III. עַשְׁתָּרוֺת above).
קֶ֫רֶן noun feminine Daniel 7:8 horn (see Biblical Hebrew קרן); — absolute ׳ק Daniel 7:8; emphatic קַרְנָא Daniel 3:5 +; dual (often !) קַרְנַ֫יִן Daniel 7:7; emphatic נַיָּא- Daniel 7:8 +; —
1 instrument of music, Daniel 3:5,7,10,15.
2 symbolic, in vision, Daniel 7:7,8 (3t. in verse); Daniel 7:11,20 (twice in verse); Daniel 7:21,24.
(1) a horn, as of an ox, a goat, of a ram. (So in all the cognate languages. Also Gr. κέρας; Lat. cornu, French corne, Goth. haurns, whence Germ. Horn). Meton.
(a) a vessel made of horn, or a horn used for a vessel, 1 Samuel 16:1, 13 1 Samuel 16:13; 1 Kings 1:39.
(b) a horn for blowing, Joshua 6:5. Metaph. a symbol of strength and power, an image taken from bulls and other horned animals, Jeremiah 48:25, “the horn of Moab is broken,” i.e. his strength is broken; compare Lamentations 2:3 Ps. 75:11. הֵרִים קֶרֶן פּ׳ to exalt, or lift up any one’s horn; (as God), i.e. to increase his power and dignity, Psalms 89:18, 92:11 148:14 1 Samuel 2:10; Lamentations 2:17 (compare Barhebr. p. 516. Haririi Cons. 43, p. 498, 99, ed. de Sacy, and the note there given, and the epithet of Alexander the Great ذو القرفين the two horned, which I have no doubt in interpreting powerful). Hence רָמָה קַרְנִי my horn is high, i.e. my strength increases, I acquire new spirit, Psalms 89:25, 112:9 1 Samuel 2:1. In the same sense, Amos 6:13, לָקַחְנוּ לָנוּ קַרְנַיִם “we have taken horns to ourselves.” On the other hand in a bad sense, הֵרִים קַרְנוֹ to lift up one’s own horn, i.e. to be proud, Psalms 75:5, Psalms 75:6. (Compare Lat. cornua sumere, used of those who from too much confidence in their own powers are overbearing; also Hor. Od. iii. 21, 18, addis cornua pauperi.) There is a similar metaphor in the following, Job 16:15, “I have put my horn in the dust,” where we in the usage of our language would say my head, on which is the highest honour and glory. Psalms 18:3, David calls God קֶרֶן יִשְׁעִי “the horn of my help,” or “of my liberation,” i.e. the instrument of liberation, an image taken from horned animals, which use their horns as a defence; Psal. 132:17, “there (in Zion) I will make the horn of David to shoot forth,” I will cause the power of the kingdom of David to flourish; or rather, I will grant to the house of David powerful offspring.-Where true horns are understood, for the plur. is used the dual קַרְגַיִם and קְרָנַיִם (as if from קָרָן), Daniel 8:3,, 20 more rarely pl. קְרָנוֹת Zechariah 2:1, Zechariah 2:4 Psa. 75:11 Ezekiel 27:15 (where horns of ivory mean elephants’ teeth, by a common error of the ancients [or rather they were called horns from resemblance]. Comp. Plin. N. H. xviii. § 1). From its resembling a horn.
(2) the summit of a mountain, which the Swiss also call a horn, as Schreckhorn, Wetterhorn, Uarhorn, Isaiah 5:1. (Arab. id.)
(3) קַרְנוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ horns of the altar, are projections like horns at the four corners of the altar; such as I myself have seen in the Egyptian altars yet in existence, namely those that Belzoni dug up. Leviticus 4:7, 18, 25, 30, 34 8:15 9:9 16:18. The corners of the altar cannot themselves be understood, see Exodus 27:2. Also poet.
(4) dual קַרְנַיִם is used of flashes of lightning, Habakkuk 3:4 just as the Arabian poets compare the first beams of the rising sun to horns, and call the sun itself a gazelle; see אַיֶּלֶת. Hence