the Fourth Week of Lent
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #3548 - כֹּהֵן
1) priest, principal officer or chief ruler
1a) priest-king (Melchizedek, Messiah)
1b) pagan priests
1c) priests of Jehovah
1d) Levitical priests
1e) Zadokite priests
1f) Aaronic priests
1g) the high priest
1244) nk (כנ KN) AC: Stand CO: Root AB: Sure: The pictograph k is a picture of the open palm, the n is a picture of a seed. Combined these mean "opening of a seed". When the seed opens the roots begin to form the base of the plant by going down into the soil. The plant rises out of the ground forming the stalk of the plant. A tall tree can only stand tall and firm because of the strong root system which supports it.
A) nk (כנ KN) AC: ? CO: Base AB: ?: The base that supports that which stands firm.
Nm) nk (כנ KN) - I. So:A firmness in a situation. [Hebrew and Aramaic] II. Firm:A standing tall and firm. An upright person of column. III. Base:The base which provides support as well as a persons home or family as a base. IV. Gnat:Possibly as a firm standing insect. [Unknown connection to root] KJV (74): foot, estate, base, office, place, well, so, thus, like, well, such, howbeit, state, after, that, following, therefore, wherefore, lice, manner - Strongs: H3651 (כֵּן), H3652 (כֵּן), H3653 (כֵּן), H3654 (כֵּן)
Nf1) enk (כנה KNH) - Stalk: The base and support of a plant. KJV (2): vineyard - Strongs: H3657 (כַּנָּה), H3661 (כָּנַן)
pf1) emnk (כנמה KNMH) - So: A firmness in a situation. [Aramaic only] KJV (5): thus, so, sort, manner - Strongs: H3660 (כְּנֵמָא)
kcf1) enfkm (מכונה MKWNH) - Base: What is firm and supports something. KJV (23): base - Strongs: H4350 (מְכֹנָה)
kdf1) enfkm (מכונה MKWNH) - Base: What is firm and supports something. KJV (1): base - Strongs: H4369 (מְכֻנָה)
C) nka (אכנ AKN) AC: Firm CO: ? AB: ?: A firm or sure position.
Nm) nka (אכנ AKN) - Surely: To be firm in something. [df: Ka] KJV (40): also, but, certainly, even, howbeit, least, nevertheless, notwithstanding, only, save, scarce, surely, sure, truly, verily, wherefore, yet - Strongs: H389 (אַךְ), H403 (אָכֵן)
G) nek (כהנ KHN) AC: Adorn CO: Priest AB: ?: The base which supports the people.
V) nek (כהנ KHN) - Adorn: To put on special ornaments or garments for a special office or event. (see Isaiah 61:10) KJV (23): (vf: Piel) minister, execute, deck, office, priest - Strongs: H3547 (כָּהַן)
Nm) nek (כהנ KHN) - Priest: [Aramaic only] KJV (8): priest - Strongs: H3549 (כָּהֵן)
df1) enfek (כהונה KHWNH) - Priesthood: The group of those who support the community. KJV (14): priesthood, priests office - Strongs: H3550 (כְּהֻנָּה)
gm) nefk (כוהנ KWHN) - Priest: KJV (750): priest, chief, officer, prince - Strongs: H3548 (כֹּהֵן)
H) enk (כנה KNH) AC: Support CO: Flatter AB: ?: Words or names that are given in support of another.
V) enk (כנה KNH) - Flatter: To give words or a name of honor. KJV (4): (vf: Piel) surname, flattering title - Strongs: H3655 (כָּנָה)
J) nfk (כונ KWN) AC: Firm CO: Foundation AB: ?
V) nfk (כונ KWN) - Firm: To set something firmly in place, either physically or with words. KJV (219): (vf: Niphal, Hiphil, Hophal) prepare, establish, ready, provide, right, fix, set, direct, order, fashion, certain, confirm, firm - Strongs: H3559 (כּוּן)
Nm) nfk (כונ KWN) - Cake: As firmly pressed. KJV (2): cake - Strongs: H3561 (כַּוָּן)
am) nfkm (מכונ MKWN) - Foundation: A firm place of support. KJV (17): place, habitation, foundation - Strongs: H4349 (מָכוֹן)
if1) enfkt (תכונה TKWNH) - Foundation: KJV (1): seat - Strongs: H8499 (תְּכוּנָה)
- A2267 Xnk (Gather)
- A2268 Onk (Lower, Bundle, Humility)
- A2894 Plt (Hang)
- A2271 Snk (Gather)
- A2272 Tnk (Associate)
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
1 priest-king: e.g. Melchizedek Genesis 14:18 (E ?), compare Psalm 110:4 (the Messianic priest-king like Melchizedek); Zechariah 6:13 (Messianic priest and king); Israel מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים Exodus 19:6 (E) a kingdom of priests (priests and kings at once in their relation to the nations); compare Isaiah 61:6 (of Israel ministering as a priest); or a chieftain (exercising priestly functions) כֹּהֵן מִדְיָן Exodus 2:16; Exodus 3:1; Exodus 18:1 (all J E); so also probably the sons of David 2 Samuel 8:18, his grandson 1 Kings 4:5, and Ira the Jairite 2 Samuel 20:26, who as princes performed priestly functions. With these we may class the כהנים Exodus 19:22,24 (J).
2 priests of other religions than ׳י 's: Potiphera אֹן׳כ Genesis 41:45,50 (E), Genesis 46:20 (P); Egyptian כהנים Genesis 47:22 (twice in verse); Genesis 47:26 (J); דָגוֺן׳כ 1 Samuel 5:5; Philistine כהנים וקסמים 1 Samuel 6:2; כֹּהֲנָיו his priests: e.g. of Baal 2 Kings 10:19 #NAME? 2 Kings 10:11; of Chemosh Jeremiah 48:7; of Malcam Jeremiah 49:3; Mattan was הבעל׳כ 2 Kings 11:18 2 Chronicles 23:17; הכמרים עםהכהנים Zephaniah 1:4; Josiah burned the bones of the priests of the Baalim and Asherim 2 Chronicles 34:5.
3 priests of special orders in Israel:
a. Micah in the hill-country of Ephraim consecrated his own son וַיְהִילֿוֺ לְכֹהֵן Judges 17:5; but so soon as he could secure Jonathan ben Gershom, a descendant of Moses (see VB Judges 18:30), he consecrated him, לכהן׳היה ל Judges 17:10,12,13; Judges 18:4,19; הַכֹּהֵן Judges 18:6; Judges 18:17; Judges 18:18; Judges 18:20; Judges 18:24; Judges 18:27. He was captured by the Danites, and he and his line became priests at Dan until the Exile, Judges 18:19; Judges 18:19; Judges 18:30.
b. Jeroboamעשׂה כהנים 1 Kings 12:31 of those not מבני לוי, as (הַ)בָּמוֺת׳כ priests of ( the) high places 1 Kings 12:32; 1 Kings 13:2,33 (twice in verse) = לבמות׳כ 2 Chronicles 11:15; Amaziah (of this class) was ביתאֿל׳כ Amos 7:10; see also 2 Chronicles 13:9; called by Chronicler לְלֹא אלהים׳כ 2 Chronicles 13:9; yet Hosea rebukes them as priests of ׳י Hosea 4:4,9; Hosea 5:1; Hosea 6:9; at the Exile they were deported by the Assyrians 2 Kings 17:27,28.
c. the people imported into Samaria made some of themselvesבמות ׳כ to worship ׳י the God of the land 2 Kings 17:32.
4 priests in Israel הכהנים who bore the ark and the trumpets Joshua 3:13,14,15,17; Joshua 4:3,9,10,17,18 (twice in verse); Joshua 6:4 (twice in verse); Joshua 6:6 (twice in verse); Joshua 6:8,9,12,13,16 (all J E), 1 Kings 8:3,6,10,11; Eli was הכהן 1 Samuel 1:9; 1 Samuel 2:11; יהוה׳כ 1 Samuel 14:3; and his sons ליהוה׳כ 1 Samuel 1:3; a מִשְׁמַּט הַכֹּהֲנִים 1 Samuel 2:13 mentions the ministering priest הכהן and the ׳נַעַר הַכ 1 Samuel 2:13,14,15 (twice in verse), Ahijah was ׳הַכּ in time of Saul 1 Samuel 14:19 (twice in verse); 1 Samuel 14:36; Abimelech ׳הַכּ at Nob, a priestly center, 1 Samuel 21:2; 1 Samuel 21:3; 1 Samuel 21:5; 1 Samuel 21:6; 1 Samuel 21:7; 1 Samuel 21:10; 1 Samuel 22:11; where were many ׳כֹּהֲנֵי י 1 Samuel 22:17 (twice in verse); 1 Samuel 22:21, all slain by Saul except Abiathar son of Ahimelech 1 Samuel 22:11,18 (twice in verse); 1 Samuel 22:19, who became ׳הַכּ 1 Samuel 23:9; 1 Samuel 30:7; 1 Kings 1:7,19,25,42; 1 Kings 2:22,26; Zadok later was ׳הַכּ 2 Samuel 15:27; 1 Kings 1:8,26,32,34,38,39,44,45; 1 Kings 2:35; 1 Kings 3:2; 1 Chronicles 16:39; 1 Chronicles 24:6: so that the two were (ה)כהנים 2 Samuel 8:17 = 1 Chronicles 18:16 (read ׳וְאֶבְיָתָר בֶּןאֿח 2 Samuel 8:17 ᵑ6 We Dr, and correct 1 Chronicles 18:16 accordingly) 2 Samuel 15:35 (twice in verse); 2 Samuel 17:15; 2 Samuel 19:12; 2 Samuel 20:25; 1 Kings 4:4; Solomon removed Abiathar 1 Kings 2:27 and Zadok was anointed לְכֹהֵן according to 1 Chronicles 29:22; compare prediction of rejection of house of Eli and selection of נֶאֱמָן׳כ 1 Samuel 2:28,35; Jehoiada ׳הַכּ led the revolution against Athaliah 2 Kings 11:9 (twice in verse); 2 Kings 11:10,15 (twice in verse); 2 Kings 11:18; 2 Kings 12:3; 2 Kings 12:8; 2 Kings 12:10 2 Chronicles 22:11; 23:8 (twice in verse); 2 Chronicles 23:9,14 (twice in verse); 2 Chronicles 24:2,20,25, perhaps also Jeremiah 29:26; הכהנים sustaining him in his reforms 2 Kings 12:5; 2 Kings 12:6; 2 Kings 12:7; 2 Kings 12:8; 2 Kings 12:9; 2 Kings 12:10; 2 Kings 12:17; Uriah was ׳הַכּ in the reign of Ahaz 2 Kings 16:10,11 (twice in verse); 2 Kings 16:15,16; Isaiah 8:2; Hilkiah of Josiah 2 Kings 22:10,12,14; 2 Kings 23:24; 2 Chronicles 34:14,18. Other individual priests are named, e.g.: Pashhur of Jehoiachin Jeremiah 20:1; Zephaniah of Zedekiah Jeremiah 21:1; Jeremiah 29:25,26,29; Jeremiah 37:3; ׳הַכּ is Ezekiel's title Ezekiel 1:3. Priests are classed with officials of state: prophets and priests 2 Kings 23:2; Isaiah 28:7; Jeremiah 5:31; Jeremiah 6:13; Jeremiah 8:10; Jeremiah 14:18; Jeremiah 23:11,33,34; Jeremiah 26:7,8,11,16; Jeremiah 29:1; Lamentations 2:20; Lamentations 4:13; priests and elders Lamentations 1:19; Lamentations 4:16; king and priest Lamentations 2:6; kings, priests, and prophets Jeremiah 13:13; kings, princes, and priests Jeremiah 1:18; princes, eunuchs, and priests Jeremiah 34:19; priest, sage, and prophet Jeremiah 18:18; chiefs, priests, and prophets Micah 3:11; prophets, priests, and elders Ezekiel 7:26; kings, princes, priests, and prophets Jeremiah 2:26; Jeremiah 4:9; Jeremiah 8:1; Jeremiah 32:32; princes, Judges , prophets, and priests Zephaniah 3:4; seeming to exclude any other officials. Apparently in the same Generic sense הכהנים Jeremiah 1:1; Jeremiah 2:8; Jeremiah 27:16; Jeremiah 28:1,5; Jeremiah 29:25; Jeremiah 31:14; כַּכֹּהֵן Isaiah 24:2; כהנים Job 12:19; כהניה Lamentations 1:4; Ezekiel 22:26; כהניו Psalm 78:64. Moses and Aaron among his priests Psalm 99:6 includes Moses (against P). Zion's priests clothed with righteousness and salvation Psalm 132:9; Psalm 132:16 2 Chronicles 6:41, probably here also.
5 Levitical priests הַכֹּהֲנִיםהַלְוִיִּם Deuteronomy 17:9,18; Deuteronomy 18:1; Deuteronomy 24:8; Deuteronomy 27:9; Joshua 3:3; Joshua 8:33 (all D), Jeremiah 33:18 (inverted), Jeremiah 33:21 (neither in ᵐ5), 2 Chronicles 5:5 (= ׳הַכּ׳וְהַלּ 1 Kings 8:4: Chronicler retains original Deuteronomic reading), Ezekiel 43:19; Ezekiel 44:15 (compare
6); בְּנֵי לִוֵי׳הַכּ Deuteronomy 21:5; Deuteronomy 31:9; ׳לל׳לקח לכ Isaiah 66:21 take for priests, for Levites (of the nations in Messianic age). Doubtless of same class are: הַכֹּהֲנִים Deuteronomy 18:3; Deuteronomy 19:17; Joshua 3:6,8; Joshua 4:11 (D); and הַכֹּהֵן, the priest officiating on a particular occasion Deuteronomy 18:3; Deuteronomy 20:2; or holding a particular dignity Deuteronomy 17:12; Deuteronomy 26:3,4. The כהנים of the other cities of Judah, הבמות׳כ, who were not allowed to minister in Jerusalem 2 Kings 23:8 (twice in verse); 2 Kings 23:9,20, may be an attempt to enforce an exclusion from the priesthood of all but Levitical priests.
6 Zadokite priests: Ezekiel distinguishes among הכהנים הלוים those of the seed of Zadok, בְּנֵי צָדוֺק; all but the latter excluded by him from priesthood Ezekiel 40:46; Ezekiel 43:19; Ezekiel 44:15; Ezekiel 48:11; the priests of his code being all Zadokites Ezekiel 40:45,46; Ezekiel 42:13,14; Ezekiel 43:24,27; Ezekiel 44:21,22,30 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 44:31; Ezekiel 45:4,19; Ezekiel 46:2,19,20; Ezekiel 48:10,13.
7 Aaronic priests. In H. it is taken for granted that a priest is of the seed of Aaron; the plural is never used; כֹּהֵן is used for any priest Leviticus 21:9; Leviticus 22:10,11,12,13; הַכֹּהֵן for Aaron Leviticus 21:21, and for the official priest (acting for the priesthood, almost collective) Leviticus 17:5,6; Leviticus 22:14; Leviticus 23:10,11,20 (twice in verse); Leviticus 27:8 (3t. in verse); Leviticus 27:11,12 (twice in verse); Leviticus 27:14 (twice in verse); Leviticus 27:18,21,23. The priests of P are בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן Leviticus 1:5,8,11; Leviticus 2:2; Leviticus 3:2; Leviticus 21:1; Numbers 3:3; Numbers 10:8; Joshua 21:19; so in Chronicles 2 Chronicles 13:9,10; 26:18; 29:21; 31:19; 35:14 (twice in verse); הַכֹּהֵן is used of Aaron 22t., Eleazar 29t., Phinehas Joshua 22:30 and elsewhere; 180t. of ministering priests, or Generic of the priests; הכהנים Leviticus 6:22; Leviticus 7:6; Leviticus 13:2; Leviticus 16:33; Joshua 4:16; כהן Leviticus 6:16. Chronicles distinguishes הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם 1 Chronicles 13:2; 1 Chronicles 15:11,14; 1 Chronicles 23:2; 1 Chronicles 24:6,31; 1 Chronicles 28:13,21; 2 Chronicles 8:15; 11:13; 13:9,10; 23:4; 24:5; 29:4; 30:15,25; 31:2 (twice in verse); 2 Chronicles 31:4,9; 34:30; 35:8,18 (the variants without וְ 2 Chronicles 23:18; 30:27 are due to copyists' errors), Ezra 1:5; Ezra 2:70; Ezra 3:8,12; Ezra 6:20; Ezra 7:7; Ezra 8:29,30; Ezra 9:1; Nehemiah 7:72; Nehemiah 8:13; Nehemiah 11:3; Nehemiah 12:1,30,44 (twice in verse); Nehemiah 13:30; הלוים והכהנים 2 Chronicles 19:8; 30:21; priests, Levites, and others 1 Chronicles 9:2; Ezra 10:5; Nehemiah 10:1; Nehemiah 10:29; Nehemiah 10:35; Nehemiah 11:20; בְּנֵי לֵוִי antith. to ׳הַכּ Ezra 8:15; הכהןבן אהרן עם הלוים Nehemiah 10:39; (ה)כהנים in Chronicles 67t. has the same reference, as also כֹּהֲנֵינוּ Ezra 9:7; Nehemiah 9:32,34; כֹּהֵן Ezra 2:63 = Nehemiah 7:65; ליחוה׳כ 2 Chronicles 26:17; כהניו His (God's) priests 2 Chronicles 13:12; מוֺרֶה׳כ teaching priest 2 Chronicles 15:3; הַכֹּהֵן is used of Jehoiada in time of David 1 Chronicles 27:5, and Azariah in the reign of Uzziah 2 Chronicles 26:17. In the literature of the restoration הַכֹּהֵן is used of Ezra , Ezra 7:11; Ezra 10:10,16; Nehemiah 8:2,9; Nehemiah 12:26; Uriah Ezra 8:33; Eliashib Nehemiah 13:4; Shelemiah Nehemiah 13:13; הכהנים Joel 1:9,13; Joel 2:17; Haggai 2:11,12,13; Zechariah 7:5; Malachi 1:6; Malachi 2:1; priests and prophets Zechariah 7:3; כהן Malachi 2:7.
8 the high priest: הַכֹּהֵן is frequently used (see
4) to designate the priest who was at the head of priestly affairs. The adjective הַגָּדוֺל first appears of Jehoiada 2 Kings 12:11, then of Hilkiah 2 Kings 22:4,8; 2 Kings 23:4; 2 Chronicles 34:9; after the exile, of Joshua Haggai 1:1,12,14; Haggai 2:2,4; Zechariah 3:1,8; Zechariah 6:11, and Eliashib Nehemiah 3:1,20; Nehemiah 13:28. But P uses it of Aaron and his eldest descendants who are anointed with holy oil Leviticus 21:10 (H; הַגָּדוֺל מֵאֶחָיו׳הכ), Numbers 35:25,28 (twice in verse); Joshua 20:6, and so הַמָּשִׁיחַ׳הַכּ Leviticus 4:3,5,16; Leviticus 6:15, compare Leviticus 16:32. הָראֹשׁ׳כ is used of Seraiah 2 Kings 25:18 = Jeremiah 52:24; and, in Chronicler, of Amariah 2 Chronicles 19:11, Jehoiada 2 Chronicles 24:11, Prayer of Azariah 2Chronicles 26:20; 31:10; of Aaron, Ezra 7:5. (We also supposes הרואה in 2 Samuel 15:27 to be a corruption of הראשׁ, which he regards as post-exilic insertion. The test is corrupt [see Dr Sm. 1.c.]; but this correction is improbable. Lists of high priests occur 1 Chronicles 5:30-41; 1 Chronicles 6:35-38.) A priest of second rank ((ה)מִשְׁנֶה כֹּהֵן) appears in 2 Kings 23:4 (construct plural incorrect), 2 Kings 25:18 = Jeremiah 52:24; ׳זִקְנֵי הַכּ 2 Kings 19:2 = Isaiah 37:2; Jeremiah 19:1; ׳שָׂרֵי הַכּ 2 Chronicles 36:14; Ezra 8:24,29; Ezra 10:5; ׳רָאשֵׁי הַכּ Nehemiah 12:7.
[כָּהֵן] noun masculine priest (see Biblical Hebrew כהן); — emphatic כָּהֲנָא Ezra 7:12,21; plural emphatic נַיָּא- Ezra 6:9,16,18; Ezra 7:16,24; suffix (of Israel) נ֫וֺהִי- Ezra 7:13.
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כֹּהֵן [pl. כֹּהֲנִים], m. a priest (Syr. Chald. ܟܗܳܢܳܐ, כַּהֲנָא, Ethiop. ካህን፡ id. As to the Arabic, and the etymology, see the root), Genesis 14:18, 41:45, 50 Genesis 41:50; Exodus 2:16, 3:1 18:1, and often. כֹּהֵן הָרֹאשׁ. 2 Chronicles 19:11, 24:11 26:20, and הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל Leviticus 21:10; Numbers 35:25, 28 Numbers 35:28; Joshua 20:6, the high priest, who also is called הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ the anointed priest, Leviticus 4:3,. Kings, who were also priests, are mentioned Genesis 14:18; Psalms 110:4.-There is a very old opinion of Hebrew writers, that כֹּהֵן also signifies prince. Not only have the Chaldee interpreters in several places (Genesis 41:45 Ex. loc. cit.; Psalms 110:4) translated it by רַבָּא a prince; but even the author of the books of Chronicles seems to have followed this opinion; giving, according to his manner, an interpretation of the words, 2 Samuel 8:18, וּבְנֵי דָוִד כֹּהֲנִים הָיוּ; 1 Chronicles 18:17, וּבְנֵי דָוִיד הָרִאשֹׁנִים לְיַד הַמֶּלֶךְ “and the sons of David (were) the chief about the king,” i.e. the principal ministers of the kingdom. Nevertheless, from 2 Samuel 8:17, compared with 1 Samuel 21:2, 22:9, it appears pretty clearly that in 2 Samuel 8:18, priests are really to be understood, although not of the tribe of Levi; [This shews that they could not have been priests]; and the author of the Chronicles seems to have chosen this interpretation of the more ancient text, being unable to admit of any priests except those of the tribe of Levi. [No such priests could have been under that dispensation; the inspiration of the books of Chronicles, as well as those of Samuel, must not be forgotten.] (See De Wette, Beyträge zur Einleit. ins A. T. i. page 81, 82; and my history of the Hebrew language, page 41.) The authority of Onkelos is much lower, and in all the above cited examples the signification of priest is the only true one. [Let this assertion of Gesenius be carefully weighed.]
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
Copyright 1999-2023. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.