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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #3118 - יוֹם
2) day always refers to a twenty-four hour period when the word is modified by a definite or cardinal number
1220) mi (ימ YM) AC: ? CO: Sea AB: Terror: The pictograph i is a picture of a hand representing work, the m is a picture of water. Combined these mean "working water". The sea or other large body of water is the place of storms and heavy surf. This parent root is closely related to me.
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
יוֹם suff. יוֹמִי, יוֹמְךָ, dual יוֹמַיִם, pl. יָמִים (as if from sing. יָם), constr. יְמֵי m.
(1) the day. (Syr. ܝܘܰܡܳܐ, Arabic يَوْمُ id. The primary signification appears to me to be that of the heat of the day. For the roots יוֹם and יָוַן or יוֹן appear to have originated by softening the guttural, from the roots יָחַם to be warm, and יחן Arabic وَحِنَ to glow with anger. Compare Arabic transp. ومة to be hot (as the day), and Gr. ἰαίνω.) Opp. to night, Genesis 7:4, 12 8:22 31:39. Adv. יוֹם by day, in the day time, i.q. יוֹמָם Psalms 88:2 (see הַיּוֹם, בַּיּוֹם). יוֹם יוֹם Genesis 39:10; Exodus 16:5 יוֹם וָיוֹם Esther 3:4 (more fully בְּכָל־יוֹם וָיוֹם ibid. 2:11). יוֹם בְּיוֹם (properly Tag an Tag, see בְּ letter B, No. 1 ); Nehemiah 8:18 כְּיוֹם בְּיוֹם 1 Samuel 18:10 לְיוֹם בְּיוֹם 2 Chronicles 24:11, daily.
The day of any one is specially
(a) in a good sense, the festival day of any one. Hosea 7:5, יוֹם מַלְכֵּנוּ “the day of our king,” i.e. his birth-day, or that of his inauguration; 2:15, יְמֵי הַבְּעָלִים “the festival days of idols”; 2:2, יוֹם יִזְרְעֶאל “the day of Jezreel,” i.e. the day when the people shall be assembled at Jezreel. Used of a birth-day, Job 3:1 (not so 1:4 ).
(b) in a bad sense, a fatal day, the day of one’s destruction. Obadiah 1:12, יוֹם אָחִיךָ “the day of thy brother’s (destruction).” Job 18:20, “at his destruction (יוֹמוֹ) shall posterity be astonished;” 15:32 Psalms 37:13, 137:7 1 Samuel 26:10; Ezekiel 21:30. (Arabic دَهْرُ times, sc. unfortunate). Hence
(c) day of battle and slaughter. Isaiah 9:3, יוֹם מִדְיָן “the day of the defeat of Midian.” Comp. “dies Alliensis, Cannensis;” Arab. يوم بدر the day of the battle of Beder.
(d) “the day of Jehovah,” i.e. the day of the judgment which God will hold upon the wicked, Joel 1:15; Ezekiel 13:5; Isaiah 2:12. Plur. Job 24:1.
(2) time, like ἡμέρα, a day. See the phrases הַיּוֹם, בְּיוֹם, כַּיּוֹם etc., under the letters a. b. d. e. f. g. More frequently in Pl. יָמִים No. 2.
With the article and prepositions prefixed
(a) חַיּוֹם in this day, to-day, Genesis 4:14, 22:14 24:12 30:32 31:48, etc. (Arab. أَلْيَوْمَ); by day, in the day time (opp. to הַלַּיְּלָה), Nehemiah 4:16; Hosea 4:5, i.q. יוֹמָם; at this time, Deuteronomy 1:39; 1 Samuel 12:17, 14:33 also, at that time, then, 1 Samuel 1:4, 14:1 2 Kings 4:8; Job 1:6 (where the common rendering is, on a certain day, at some time, i.q. قَوْمًا, the force of the article being neglected).
(b) בְּיוֹם followed by inf. in the day in which, as Genesis 2:17, בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ “in the day in which thou eatest;” Leviticus 7:36 at that time in which, i.e. when. Genesis 2:4, בְּיוֹם עֲשׂוֹת יְיָ אֱלֹהִים אֶרֶץ וְשָׁמַיִם “when Jehovah God had made the earth and the heaven;” 3:5 Exodus 10:28; Isaiah 11:16; Lamentations 3:57. Followed by a pret. Leviticus 7:35.
(c) בַּיּוֹם by day, in the day time, Jeremiah 36:30 “in this very day,” i.e. at once, presently, Proverbs 12:16 Neh. 3:34 in that day, i.e. lately, Judges 13:10.
(d) כַּיּוֹם in this day, at this time, now, Genesis 25:31, 33 Genesis 25:33; 1 Kings 1:51; Isaiah 58:4 where it refers to a future action: before that, 1 Samuel 2:16; 1 Kings 22:5. Often also כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה at this time, now, 1 Samuel 22:8, 13 1 Samuel 22:13 at that time, then, of something past, Deuteronomy 8:18 of something future, Deuteronomy 2:30, 4:38 1 Kings 8:24.
Not greatly different is
(e) כְּהַיּוֹם i.e. to day, 1 Samuel 9:13; Nehemiah 5:11 (immediately); כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה at this time, now, Ezra 9:7, 15 Ezra 9:15; Nehemiah 9:10 at that time, then, Genesis 39:11, also as at this time (when כְּ has the power of comparison), Deuteronomy 6:24; Jeremiah 44:22.
(f) מִיּוֹם from the time when- Exodus 10:6; Deuteronomy 9:24.
(a) in all days, every day, daily, Psalms 42:4, 11 Psalms 42:11, 44:23 56:2, Psalms 56:3, Psalms 56:6, 71:8, 15 Psalms 71:15, 24 Psalms 71:24, 73:14 (parall. לַבְּקָרִים every morning); 74:22 86:3 88:18 89:17. (LXX. sometimes καθʼ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν).
(β) all the day, Isaiah 62:6 (parall. בָּל־הַלַּיְלָה). Psalms 32:3, 35:28 37:26 38:7, 13 Psalms 38:13. LXX. ὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν (γ) in all time, perpetually (allezeit, immerdar). Psalms 52:3, חֶסֶד אֵל כָּל־הַיּוֹם “the mercy of God (is exercised) continually.” Proverbs 21:26. הַיּוֹם הִתְאַוָּה תַאֲוָה כָּל־ “(the wicked man) covets greedily continually;” 23:17 Isaiah 28:24, “does the ploughman plough continually?” 65:5, אֵשׁ יֹקֶדֶת כָּל־הַיּוֹם “a fire continually burning.” There is often added תָּמִיד Isaiah 51:13, 52:5 Psalms 72:15. In the same sense there is frequently used in prose כָּל־הַיָּמִים which see; the expression now under consideration is peculiar to poetry.
Dual יוֹמַיִם two days, Exodus 16:29, 21:21 Numbers 9:22; Hosea 6:2, מִיֹּמַיִם בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי “after two days, on the third day,” i.e. presently [surely it ought to be taken in its exact meaning]; comp. John 2:19, 20.
Plural יָמִים (as if from the singular יָם), in the Chaldee form יָמִין Daniel 12:13 constr. יְמֵי, poetically יְמוֹת Deuteronomy 32:7; Psalms 90:15 (compare Aram. יוֹמָת, ܝܰܘܡ̈ܳܬܐܳ).
(1) days, e.g. שִׁבְעַת יָמִים seven days, Genesis 8:10, 12. יָמִים אֲחָדִים some days, i.e. some time, for a while, Genesis 27:44. יָמִים put absolutely has the same power as Arab. أَيَّامًا some days, some while, Syr. ܒܬܪ ܝܘܰܡܳܬܐܳ after some time (Barhebr, Ch. p. 391, 418). Nehemiah 1:4; Daniel 8:27; Genesis 40:4, וַיִּהְיוּ יָמִים בְּמִשְׁמָר “and they were for a while in custody.” The space of time thus signified, which is often several months, and never an entire year, will appear clearly from the following examples. Numbers 9:22, יוֹמַיִם אוֹ חֹדֶשׁ אוֹ יָמִים “for two days or a month or a greater length of time.” 1 Samuel 29:3, “he has been with me זֶה יָמִים אוֹ זֶה שָׁנִים now for several (or many) days, or rather years.” מִיָּמִים some while after, Judges 11:4, 14:8 15:1. מִקֵּץ יָמִים id., Genesis 4:3; 1 Kings 17:7. [It is clear that the statement that יָמִים always means something less than a year is a mere assertion; the cited passages prove nothing of the kind. See No. 3.]
(2) time, without any reference to days, Genesis 47:8, יְמֵי שְׁנֵי חַיֶּיךָ “the time (period) of the years of thy life.” בִּימֵי אַבְרָהָם in the time of Abraham, Genesis 26:1 שְׁלֹמֹה, בִּימֵי דָוִד 2 Samuel 21:1; 1 Kings 10:21, in the time, or age, of David, of Solomon; i.e. during the reign of David, of Solomon. (Arab. الملك فلان فى ايام during the reign of king N.N.). Exodus 2:11, “it came to pass בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם at that time.” כָּל־הַיָּמִים in all time, perpetually, for ever, always. Deuteronomy 4:40, 5:29 6:24 11:1 12:1 14:23 (and often in that book). Jeremiah 31:36, 32:39 33:18 35:19 1 Samuel 1:28, 2:32, 35 1 Samuel 2:35, 18:29 23:14. Often
(a) specially it is the time of life, life time. בָּא בַוָּמִים advanced in life, Genesis 24:1; Joshua 13:1; Job 32:7, יָמִים יְדַבֵּרוּ “let days (of life) speak (die Iahre mögen reden, das Alter mag reden), i.e. let the old speak. כָּל־הַיָּמִים through all the time of life, Genesis 43:9, 44:32. מִיָּמֶיךָ since thy days, i.e. whilst thou hast lived, 1 Samuel 25:28; Job 38:12. הֶאֱרִיךְ יָמָיו to live long, to be long-lived, see אָרַךְ. Metaph. כָּל־יְמֵי הָאָרֶץ all the time of the earth, as long as the earth lasts. Genesis 8:22.
(b) יָמִים is often put in the acc. pleonastically after words denoting a certain space of time, as שְׁנָתַיִם יָמִים two years of time, zweh Iahre Zeit, Genesis 41:1; Jeremiah 28:3, 11 Jeremiah 28:11(in German there is a similar pleonasm, zweh Thaler Geld), חֹדֶשׁ יָמִים [a month days], ein Monat Zeit, for einen Monat lang, Genesis 29:14 יֶרַח יָמִים Deuteronomy 21:13; 2 Kings 15:13 שְׁלשָׁה שָׁבֻעִים יָמִים Daniel 10:2, Daniel 10:3. See as to this idiom, Lehrg. p. 667. (Similarly in Arab. there is added زمان time, and in Ethiopic መዋእል፡ days, just as in Hebrew, see Ascensio Jesaiæ ed. Laurence, i. 11; xi. 7.)
(3) The signification of time is limited to a certain space of time, namely a year, as in Syr. and Chaldee ܥܶܕܢܳ, עִדָּן signifies both time and a year; and in German also several words which designate time, weight, measure, etc., are applied to certain specific periods of time, weights, and measures (see כִּבְרָה ). [Compare the English word pound from pondus.] Leviticus 25:29; Judges 17:10. זֶבַח הַיָּמִים an anniversary sacrifice. 1 Samuel 2:19. מִיָּמִים יָמִימָה yearly. Exodus 13:10; Judges 11:40, 21:19 1 Samuel 1:3 (comp. שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה verse 1 Samuel 1:7); 2:19. For יָמִים עַל־שָׁנָה Isaiah 32:10 there is found in Isaiah 29:1 שָׁנָה עַל־שָׁנָה. Also used in a plural sense for years, with the addition of numerals (as פָּנִים plur. Gefichter). 2 Chronicles 21:19, כְּעֵת צֵאת הַקֵּץ לְיָמִים שְׁנַיִם “at the end of two years.” The interpretation of Amos 4:4 is doubtful, לִשְׁלשׂת יָמִים either “every third year,” or else “every third day;” if it mean the latter, it is used in bitter irony.
יוֹם m. Ch. i.q. Heb. a day. יוֹם בְּיוֹם every day, Ezra 6:9. Emphat. יוֹמָא Daniel 6:11.
Plur. found in three [two] forms
(a) יוֹמִין const. יוֹמֵי, emphat. יוֹמַיָּא;
(b) const. יוֹמָת Ezra 4:19 and
(c) as in Hebrew, const. יְמֵי Ezra 4:7. [This should have been omitted, for this verse (as is noticed in Thes.) is in Hebrew.] The same as in Hebrew יָמִים in plur. denotes time, especially life-time, עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא advanced in age, Daniel 7:22. [Much better as in the English version, the Ancient of days; it is not a reverential manner of speaking to use words as if God had grown old.]
the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26