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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #4073 - πέτρα
- a rock, cliff or ledge
- a projecting rock, crag, rocky ground
- a rock, a large stone
- metaph. a man like a rock, by reason of his firmness and strength of soul
Ion. and Ep. πέτρη, ἡ, rock; freq. of cliffs, ledges, etc. by the sea, λισσὴ αἰπεῖά τε εἰς ἅλα πέτρη Od. 3.293, cf. 4.501, etc.; χῶρος λεῖος πετράων free from rocks, of a beach, 5.443; π. ἠλίβατος . . ἁλὸς ἐγγὺς ἐοῦσα Il. 15.618, etc.; χοιρὰς π . Pi. P. 10.52; also, rocky peak or ridge, αἰγίλιψ π . Il. 9.15, etc.; ἠλίβατος 16.35, etc.; λιττὰς π . Corinn. Supp. 1.30, cf. A. Supp. 796 (lyr.); π. Λενκάς, 'ωλενίη, etc., Od. 24.11, Il. 11.757, etc.; π. σύνδρομοι, Συμπληγάδες, Pi. P. 4.209, E. Med. 1264 (lyr.); πρὸς πέτραις ὑψηλοκρήμνοις, of Caucasus, A. Pr. 4, cf. 31, 56, al.; π. Δελφίς, π. δίλοφος, of Parnassus, S. OT 464 (lyr.), Ant. 1126 (lyr.); π. Κωρυκίς A. Eu. 22; π. Κεκροπία, of the Acropolis, E. Ion 936 .
2. π. γλαφυρή a hollow rock, i.e. a cave, Il. 2.88, cf. 4.107; σπέος κοιλῇ ὑπὸ π . Hes. Th. 301; δίστομος π . cave in the rock with a double entrance, S. Ph. 16, cf. 937; κατηρεφεῖς αὐτῇ τῇ π . Pl. Criti. 116b; π. ἀντρώδης X. An. 4.3.11; τόπος κύκλῳ πέτραις περιεχόμενος IG 42(1).122.21 (Epid.); ἕως τῆς π . down to virgin rock, PCair.Zen. 172.14 (iii B.C.), OGI 672 (Egypt, i A. D. ), cf. Ev.Matthew 16:18 .
3. mass of rock or boulder, Od. 9.243, 484, Hes. Th. 675; πέτρας κυλινδομένα φλόξ Pi. P. 1.23; ἐκυλίνδουν πέτρας X. An. 4.2.20, cf. Plb. 3.53.4 .
4. stone as material, π. λαρτία, Τηΐα, SIG 581.97 (Crete, iii/ii B. C. ), 996.13 (Smyrna, i A. D. ): distd. from πέτρος (q. v.), which is v.l. in X.l.c.; πέτρᾳ shd. be read in S. Ph. 272; the distn. is minimized by Gal. 12.194. II prov., οὐκ ἀπὸ δρυὸς οὐδ' ἀπὸ πέτρης, etc. (v. δρῦς ); as a symbol of firmness, ὁ δ' ἐστάθη ἠΰτε π. ἔμπεδον Od. 17.463; of hard-heartedness, ἐκ πέτρας εἰργασμένος A. Pr. 244; ἁλίαν π. ἢ κῦμα λιταῖς ὢς ἱκετεύων E. Andr. 537 (anap.); cf. πέτρος 1.2 . (Written πε-τε-ρα in a text with musical accompaniment, Pae.Delph. 5.)
πέτρα, πέτρας, ἡ, from Homer down; the Sept. for סֶלַע and צוּר; a rock, ledge, cliff;
c. metaphorically, a man like a rock, by reason of his firmness and strength of soul: Matthew 16:18 (some interpretations regard the distinction (generally observed in classic Greek; see the commentaries and cf. Schmidt, Syn., chapter 51, §§ 4-6) between πέτρα, the massive living rock, and πέτρος, a detached but large fragment, as important for the correct understanding of this passage; others explain the different genders here as due first to the personal then to the material reference. Cf. Meyer, Keil, others; Green, Critical Note on John 1:43).
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πέτρα , -ας , ἡ ,
a rock, i.e. a mass of live rock as distinct from πέτρος , a detached stone or boulder : Matthew 7:24-25; Matthew 27:51; Matthew 27:60 Mark 15:46, Luke 6:48; Luke 8:6; Luke 8:13; of a hollow rock, a cave, Revelation 6:15-16 (of. Isaiah 2:10, al.). Metaph., Matthew 16:18 (on the meaning, v. Hort, Eccl., 16 ff., but cf. also ICC, in l), 1 Corinthians 10:4; = πέτρος , Romans 9:33, 1 Peter 2:8 (LXX).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
This title is known from inscrr., as well as from Acts 17:6; Acts 17:8, to have been in use at Thessalonica and elsewhere : see E. De Witt Burton’s art. in the AJT ii. (1898), p. 598 ff. (summarized in Hastings’ DB iv. p. 315), where he prints seventeen inscrr., with two more in which the title (πολιτάρχης) or the verb (πολιταρχέω) is plausibly restored, showing that in Thessalonica there were 5 politarchs in the time of Augustus, and 6 in the time of Antoninus and Marcus Aurelius. Of the inscrr. 14 belong to Macedonia (5 of them to Thessalonica), 2 to Philippopolis in Thrace, and one each to Bithynia, Bosporus, and Egypt. To these we can now add a papyrus letter from Egypt, P Oxy IV. 745.4 (c. A.D. 1), where the writer claims that his correspondent had made some promise through the ";politarch"; Theophilus—ὡς καὶ ὑπέσχου διὰ τοῦ πολειτάρχου Θεοφίλου. It is clear from Burton’s citations that the title was essentially Macedonian. It would be brought into Egypt naturally by some early Ptolemy, but it is odd that it should be there at all and appear so seldom. The verb occurs in an inscr. from Cairo of iii/iv A.D., Kaibel 430.7—
δισσῶν γάρ τε τόπων πολιταρχῶν αὐτὸς ἐτείμω.
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