the Week of Proper 4 / Ordinary 9
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #2631 - κατάκριμα
- damnatory sentence, condemnation
κατά-κρῐμα, ατος, τό,
1. condemnation, judgement, D.H. 6.61.
2. punishment, fine, damage, CPR 1.16 (i A. D.), PAmh. 2.114.8 (ii A. D.), Romans 5:16, Romans 8:1.
κατάκριμα, κατακριματος, τό (κατακρίνω), damnatory sentence, condemnation: Romans 5:16 (on which see κρίμα, 2), Romans 5:18; Romans 8:1. (κατακριματων ἀφέσεις, Dionysius Halicarnassus 6, 61.)
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κατά -κριμα , -τος , τό
(< κατακρίνω ),
penalty (RV, condemnation; but cf. Deiss., BS, 264 f.; MM, Exp., xv): Romans 5:16; Romans 5:18; Romans 8:1.†
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Deissmann (BS p. 264 f.) quotes several passages from CPR I. where he thinks the word must be understood technically to denote ";a burden ensuing from a judicial pronouncement – a servitude,"; as in 1.15 ff. (A.D. 83–4) where a piece of land is transferred to the purchaser καθαρὰ ἀπὸ παντὸς ὀφειλήματος ἀπὸ μὲν δημοσίων τελεσμάτων πάντων καὶ [ἑτέρων εἰ ]δῶν καὶ ἀρταβίων καὶ ναυβίων καὶ ἀριθμητικῶν καὶ ἐπιβολῆς κώμης καὶ κατακριμάτων πάντων καὶ παντὸς εἴδους, and 188.14 f. (A.D. 105–6) where in a deed of sale similar expressions occur. To these exx. we may add P Oxy II. 298.4 (i/A.D.) τοῦ κατακρίματος (δραχμῶν) Σ ̄, where though unfortunately the phrase follows an hiatus, the word is apparently = ";a judgment"; for a sum of money to be paid as a fine or damages. Cf. P Tebt II. 228.65 (A.D. 107–8) κατ ̣α ̣κ [ρ ]ι ̣[μ (άτων)], where the editors point out that the reference is to ";fines,"; and compare ib. 363.15 (early ii/A.D.), P Fay 66.1 (A.D. 185 or 217), and P Amh II. 114.8 (A.D. 131); these fines were normally collected by πράκτορες, cf. Luke 12:58. It follows that this word does not mean condemnation but the punishment following sentence, so that the ";earlier lexicographers"; mentioned by Deissmann were right This not only suits Romans 8:1 admirably, as Deissmann points out, but it materially helps the exegesis of Romans 5:16; Romans 5:18. There is no adequate antithesis between κρίμα and κατάκριμα, for the former never suggests a trial ending in acquittal. If κατάκριμα means the result of the κρίμα, the ";penal servitude"; from which οἱ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ are delivered (8:1), δικαίωμα represents the ";restoration"; of the criminal, the fresh chance given him. The antithesis is seen better in ver. 18 , for δικαίωσις is ";a process of absolution, carrying with it life"; (SH), which exactly answers to κατάκριμα, the permanent imprisonment for a debt we cannot pay : Matthew 18:34 paints the picture of this hopeless state.
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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