the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature
Darius, or rather Darjavesh, is the name under which three Medo-Persian kings are mentioned in the Old Testament.
The first Darius is 'Darjavesh, the son of Achashverosh, of the seed of the Medes,' in the book of Daniel (). Much difference of opinion has prevailed as to the person here intended; but there is good reason to believe that it is Cyaxares the Second, the son and successor of Astyages [AHASUERUS], and the immediate predecessor of Cyrus.
The second 'Darjavesh king of Persia' is mentioned in the book of Ezra (Ezra 4-7), in Haggai, and in Zechariah, as the king who, in the second year of his reign, effected the execution of those decrees of Cyrus which granted the Jews the liberty to rebuild the temple, the fulfillment of which had been obstructed by the malicious representations which their enemies had made to the immediate successors of Cyrus. It is agreed that this prince was Darius Hystaspis, who succeeded the usurper Smerdis B.C. 521, and reigned thirty-six years.
The third 'Darjavesh the Persian,' occurs in , in a passage which merely states that the succession of priests was registered up to his reign. It is commonly believed that this king was Darius Nothus, who came to the throne (B.C. 423), and reigned nineteen years.
Darius Codomannus is evidently the Persian king alluded to in .
Kitto, John, ed. Entry for 'Darius'. "Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature". https://www.studylight.org/​encyclopedias/​eng/​kbe/​d/darius.html.