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Easton's Bible Dictionary
The year in Palestine was divided into six agricultural periods:
- SOWING TIME - Tisri, latter half (beginning about the autumnal equinox.) Marchesvan. Kisleu, former half. Early rain due = first showers of autumn.
- UNRIPE TIME - Kisleu, latter half. Tebet. Sebat, former half.
- COLD SEASON - Sebat, latter half. Adar. [Veadar.] Nisan, former half. Latter rain due (Deuteronomy 11:14; Jeremiah 5:24; Hosea 6:3; Zechariah 10:1; James 5:7; Job 29:23 ).
- HARVEST TIME - Nisan, latter half. (Beginning about vernal equinox. Barley green. Passover.) Ijar. Sivan, former half., Wheat ripe. Pentecost.
- SUMMER (total absence of rain)
Sivan, latter half. Tammuz. Ab, former half.
- SULTRY SEASON - Ab, latter half. Elul. Tisri, former half., Ingathering of fruits.
Lest the productiveness of the soil should be exhausted, it was enjoined that the whole land should rest every seventh year, when all agricultural labour would entirely cease (Leviticus 25:1-7; Deuteronomy 15:1-10 ).
It was forbidden to sow a field with divers seeds (Deuteronomy 22:9 ). A passer-by was at liberty to eat any quantity of corn or grapes, but he was not permitted to carry away any (Deuteronomy 23:24,25; Matthew 12:1 ). The poor were permitted to claim the corners of the fields and the gleanings. A forgotten sheaf in the field was to be left also for the poor. (See Leviticus 19:9,10; Deuteronomy 24:19 .)
Agricultural implements and operations.
The sculptured monuments and painted tombs of Egypt and Assyria throw much light on this subject, and on the general operations of agriculture. Ploughs of a simple construction were known in the time of Moses ( Deuteronomy 22:10; Compare Job 1:14 ). They were very light, and required great attention to keep them in the ground (Luke 9:62 ). They were drawn by oxen (Job 1:14 ), cows (1Samuel 6:7), and asses (Isaiah 30:24 ); but an ox and an ass must not be yoked together in the same plough (Deuteronomy 22:10 ). Men sometimes followed the plough with a hoe to break the clods (Isaiah 28:24 ). The oxen were urged on by a "goad," or long staff pointed at the end, so that if occasion arose it could be used as a spear also (Judges 3:31; 1Samuel 13:21).
When the soil was prepared, the seed was sown broadcast over the field (Matthew 13:3-8 ). The "harrow" mentioned in Job 39:10 was not used to cover the seeds, but to break the clods, being little more than a thick block of wood. In highly irrigated spots the seed was trampled in by cattle ( Isaiah 32:20 ); but doubtless there was some kind of harrow also for covering in the seed scattered in the furrows of the field.
The reaping of the corn was performed either by pulling it up by the roots, or cutting it with a species of sickle, according to circumstances. The corn when cut was generally put up in sheaves (Genesis 37:7; Leviticus 23:10-15; Ruth 2:7,15; Job 24:10; Jeremiah 9:22; Micah 4:12 ), which were afterwards gathered to the threshing-floor or stored in barns (Matthew 6:26 ).
The process of threshing was performed generally by spreading the sheaves on the threshing-floor and causing oxen and cattle to tread repeatedly over them (Deuteronomy 25:4; Isaiah 28:28 ). On occasions flails or sticks were used for this purpose (Ruth 2:17; Isaiah 28:27 ). There was also a "threshing instrument" (Isaiah 41:15; Amos 1:3 ) which was drawn over the corn. It was called by the Hebrews a moreg, a threshing roller or sledge (2Samuel 24:22; 1Chronicles 21:23; Isaiah 3:15 ). It was somewhat like the Roman tribulum, or threshing instrument.
When the grain was threshed, it was winnowed by being thrown up against the wind (Jeremiah 4:11 ), and afterwards tossed with wooden scoops (Isaiah 30:24 ). The shovel and the fan for winnowing are mentioned in Psalm 35:5 , Job 21:18 , Isaiah 17:13 . The refuse of straw and chaff was burned (Isaiah 5:24 ). Freed from impurities, the grain was then laid up in granaries till used (Deuteronomy 28:8; Proverbs 3:10; Matthew 6:26; 13:30; Luke 12:18 ).
These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.
Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Agriculture'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ebd/a/agriculture.html. 1897.