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Bible Commentaries
Joshua 13

Whedon's Commentary on the BibleWhedon's Commentary




Verse 1


1. Joshua was old It was time for Joshua to be placed on the retired lists. Since he could not vigorously carry on the war, and no great captain had been raised up, it was deemed by God better that the delicate question of division should be made by Joshua, whose influence and authority would go far towards an amicable partition of the land. Joshua was now about one hundred years old.

[Much land to be possessed The writer proceeds (Joshua 13:2-6) to name the unconquered districts. Joshua had effectually subdued Palestine, and gained for Israel a firm and lasting foothold there. It does not militate against this fact that there remained still unsubdued a number of scattered cities and provinces in various parts of the land. See note on Joshua 11:23. It is usual, when a land is invaded and subdued, for the unconquered tribes to forsake the plains and seek refuge in the hills; but the unconquered nations here enumerated abode chiefly in the plains.]

Verse 2

2. All the borders of the Philistines This territory is in the southern part of the Holy Land, lying on the Mediterranean. It was a confederacy of five powerful cities, Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gath, and Ekron. These enemies of the sea-coast afterwards gave great trouble to the Hebrews.

The Philistines, according to Genesis 10:14, sprang from Mizraim. See note, Acts 8:40.

All Geshuri Hebrew, all the Geshuri. These are not to be confounded with the Geshurites of Joshua 12:5, but were a nomadic and predatory people of the desert south of Philistia. David invaded their country and smote them while he dwelt at Ziklag. 1 Samuel 27:8.

Verse 3

3. Sihor is not, in this passage, the Nile, as some have supposed, but rather the Wady el-Arish or Rhinocorura, which is before Egypt, that is, east of Egypt, constituting the southern boundary of Canaan. It is also called “the river of Egypt.” Joshua 15:4. Ekron, the most northerly city of the Philistines, is represented by the modern village of Akir twenty-four miles west of Jerusalem, containing about fifty mud houses, without a remnant of antiquity except two large, finely built wells. [

Which is counted to the Canaanite As all that belonged to the Canaanite was now to be divided among the nine and one half tribes of Israel, it was important to know the whole extent of their ancient territory. The Philistines were not of Canaanitish but Egyptian origin, being descended from Mizraim.

Genesis 10:14. They seem to have expelled the original Canaanites, and dwelt in their coasts by the sea.]

Gazathites, and Ashdothites See Joshua 11:22, note. Eshkalon stood upon the Mediterranean, about fifteen miles north of Gaza. Retaining nearly the same name, it now consists of very thick walls and ruins of temples and theatres.

Gittites People of Gath.

Avites An early, but probably not an aboriginal, people in Philistia.

Verse 4

4. [ From the south This is to be connected with the Avites in the preceding verse, and stands in contrast with northward in the same verse. The Masoretic pointing is here noticeably wrong. Joshua 13:2-3 describe the unconquered territory in the south, from its northern limit, Ekron, to its southern, the land occupied by the Avites; Joshua 13:4-6 describe the northern lands.] Mearah belonged to the Sidonians. The word beside is a mis-translation. Mearah signifies a cavern. Its location is a matter of conjecture. Aphek is identified by Gesenius with Aphaca of classical times, famous for its temple of Venus. Its modern name is Afka, situated some eighteen miles northeast of Beyroot. It was assigned to the tribe of Asher. Joshua 19:30.

To the borders of the Amorites This is taken by most interpreters to refer to the land of Bashan, which formerly belonged to the Amorites and was ruled by Og.

Verse 5

[ 5. Giblites Inhabitants of Gebal, the Gyblos of the Greeks, the modern Jebail, situated on the seacoast at the foot of the northern slopes of Lebanon, and about seventeen miles north of Beyroot. A multitude of gray granite columns are built into the modern walls and houses, choke up the harbour, and lie scattered over the surrounding fields, and they attest the antiquity of the town. The Giblites were employed in building Solomon’s temple, (1 Kings 5:18, note,) and. according to Ezekiel 27:9, were skilled in shipbuilding.

Baal-gad See on Joshua 11:17. Hamath was probably founded by the youngest son of Canaan, (Genesis 10:18,) and so was one of the oldest cities in the world. In Amos 6:2, it is called “ the great.” Its king Toi made peace with David, (2 Samuel 8:9,) but Solomon seems to have subjugated the kingdom and made it a part of his own empire. 2 Chronicles 8:3. It early fall into the hands of the great Assyrian conquerors. 2 Kings 18:34. It still exists, in the beautiful valley of the Orontes, about sixty miles southeast of Antioch, and has a population of 30,000. It lies on both sides of the river, and is noted for the immense wheels, eighty feet in diameter, which are turned by the rapid current and used for irrigation. The entering into Hamath is a geographical term used to designate the northern border of Israel. Numbers 34:8; 1 Kings 8:65; 2 Kings 14:25. It was evidently some great pass connected with the Lebanon mountains, but which one has been a matter of dispute. Robinson and Porter identify it with the depression between the northern end of Lebanon and the Nusairiyeh mountains, which opens westward, towards the coast of the Mediterranean. But as the Israelites never occupied territory so far north as that, most sacred geographers identify this entering with the southern opening into the great valley of Coele-Syria. This is by far the most notable entrance into the ancient kingdom and land of Hamath.]

Verse 6

6. Misrephoth-maim See chap. Joshua 11:8, note.

Them will I drive out God’s promises of good to man are all grounded on the implied condition of his obedience and faithful co-operation. This promise never was fulfilled, through the failure of the Hebrew nation to maintain an all-conquering faith in their divine Ally.

Divide thou it The pronoun it is to be referred to the land in the first verse, and the intervening verses are to be read parenthetically. Without a special command, Joshua, who supposed that all the land must be first conquered, would not have dared to allot territory still held by the enemy.

By lot A difficulty here arises. The land was to be apportioned by lot, and yet, according to Numbers 26:53-56, it was also to be divided according to the size of the tribes. The best solution of this difficulty is the supposition that the lot only determined the relative location of each portion, (Numbers 33:54,) while the extent and bounds were to be fixed by a board of commissioners. See Joshua 14:1, note. The manner of the lot is unknown, but probably there were two urns, one containing the names of the tribes, and the other the location of the portions; then by drawing one card or pebble from each urn, the question would be decided by the divine Providence, which directed the lots. The lot thus publicly drawn would allay jealousies and prevent disputes. As the result was in exact harmony with Jacob’s prophecy in his dying hour two hundred and fifty years before, and in striking fulfilment of Moses’ prediction just before his death, it would confirm the Israelites’ faith in Jehovah, who had inspired these predictions, and so guided the lots as to secure their accomplishment.

Verses 7-8


8. With whom That is, with the half tribe of Manasseh not the same half which received its portion of territory west of the Jordan, opposite their Eastern brethren, but the other half.

Verses 9-12

9-12. On the places named in these verses see the notes on Joshua 13:16-31, where the tribal territories are fully described.

Verse 13

13. Expelled not the Geshurites See Joshua 12:5. Geshur and Maacah so late as David’s time were small independent States. 2Sa 3:3 ; 2 Samuel 13:37. The contrast between the radical policy of Moses and the conservative policy of the children of Israel in respect to these States seems to imply a censure upon the Israelites.

Verse 14

14. Only unto the tribe of Levi Moses did not give any inheritance to the nine and a half tribes, not from lack of purpose, but from lack of opportunity. But the Levites he excluded from a territorial allotment by an express prohibition to Joshua. They received scattered cities with a narrow margin of pasture lands, but no separate share of the land. See chap. 21. Sacrifices is here used, in a broad sense, to include all offerings, even those, like the show bread, which were eaten and not burned. The Vulgate has it sacrificia et victimae. They were to receive a tenth of the fruits of the field, the trees, and the cattle. Twelve tribes received allotments because the two sons of Joseph were each reckoned as a tribe.

Verse 15

15. Children of Reuben In Numbers 32:0 the children of Reuben and Gad are represented as petitioning Moses for an allotment on the east of Jordan, and they received their portion chiefly between the Arnon and the Jabbok. This district is now called the Belka, and Burckhardt describes the country and climate as exceedingly picturesque and delightful. “In the Belkan mountains we were refreshed by cool winds, and everywhere found a grateful shade of pine, oak, and wild pistachio trees, with a scenery more like that of Europe than any I had yet seen in Syria. The superiority of the pasturage of the Belka over that of all southern Syria is the cause of its possession being much contested. The Bedouins have this saying: ‘Thou canst not find a country like the Belka.’” Reuben and Gad had much cattle, and no wonder they desired a possession in these rich and delightful pasture hinds.

Verses 15-23

REUBEN’S LOT, Joshua 13:15-23.

[From this point on through chapter 19 follows a minute description of the territorial possessions assigned by Joshua to the tribes of Israel, and, while to a modern reader these chapters may appear as a dry and tiresome list of names, we should remember that they were as necessary and important as are the details of a modern deed of real estate to prevent future litigation. These lists of cities and borders were evidently compiled from the most ancient registers, and in all probability are substantially identical with those written by Joshua’s own hand, or under his supervision and direction. Their minuteness not only shows the care of the commissioners who determined them, but also the progress already made in the art of mensuration. See notes on Joshua 18:4; Joshua 18:9.

Verse 16

16. Aroer A city on the northern bank of the river Arnon, and on the southern border of the territory conquered from Sihon, king of the Amorites. Compare Numbers 21:26. Its ruins, called Araayr, were discovered by Burckhardt on the summit of a lofty wall of rock overlooking the ancient Arnon. It is to be distinguished from the Aroer before Rabbah (Joshua 13:25) and the Aroer in the south of Judah. 1 Samuel 30:28. The city that is in the midst of the river is a subject of dispute. Some think it is the city Aroer itself. Others conjecture that Aroer consisted of two parts, or an upper and lower city, one on the high bank of the river, and the other in the valley below, where it may have been surrounded by the waters of the stream. Others think it was a city at the junction of the Arnon and one of its tributaries, where Burckhardt saw a hill with ruins on it. Keil thinks that it was Ar of Moab, and at that junction Ar Moab is located on Menke’s map.

Plain by Medeba “The whole plain of Medeba was occupied by the Reubenites; but the city itself was, perhaps, strongly fortified, and suffered to remain, like many in western Palestine, in the hands of its old inhabitants. Its ruins still exist, and bear their old name under the Arabic form Madeba. They lie about four miles southeast of Heshbon, with which they are connected by an ancient paved road. The city occupied a low hill, a mile and a half in circumference. The whole site is covered with ruins; not a solitary building remains standing. The plain around it, though now desolate, is fertile, and thickly dotted with ancient cities.” J.L. Porter.

Verse 17

17. Heshbon The ancient capital of Sihon, king of the Amorites. See on Numbers 21:26-28. Its ruins, some twenty miles east of the Jordan at the spot where it empties into the Dead Sea, still bear the name of Hesban. It was on the summit and sides of a low hill that rises from the undulating plain, and commands a wide prospect. After its capture by the Israelites it was rebuilt by the tribe of Reuben, (Numbers 32:37,) and afterwards assigned to the Levites. Joshua 21:39.

Dibon A city three miles north of the Arnon, captured and occupied by the Israelites after they defeated Sihon. Numbers 21:30. It was rebuilt by the tribe of Gad, and called Dibon-gad. Numbers 32:34; Numbers 33:45. In Isaiah 15:9, it is called Dimon. It is identified with extensive ruins still bearing the name of Diban. Both Medeba and Dibon are mentioned on the famous Moabite stone recently discovered near this place. See note on 1 Kings 16:23.

Bamoth-baal That is, high places of Baal, so called, probably, because it had been a noted place of Baal worship. Knobel regards this place as identical with the modern Jebel Attarus, a mountain a few miles northwest of Dibon, but the true site of the place is as yet only a matter of conjecture.

Bethbaal-meon Called also Baal-meon (Numbers 32:38) and Beon. Numbers 32:3. It was evidently also associated with the worship of Baal. Its ruins are found in the modern Main, a few miles southwest of Medeba and a little north of the Wady Zerka.

Verse 18

18. Jahaza Written also Jahaz. It was the place of the decisive battle of the Israelites with Sihon, (Numbers 21:23,) and seems to have been on the confines of the desert, to the southeast of Heshbon, but its site has not been discovered, Kedemoth was also a city of this eastern desert, but as this region has not yet been explored its exact situation is not known. Mephaath is always mentioned in connexion with the two cities previously named, but, like them, is unknown. In the time of Eusebius it was the station of a Roman garrison to cheek the wandering Arabs of the desert.

Verse 19

19. Kirjathaim The word means the double city, and in the English version is sometimes written Kiriathaim. In its plain Chedorlaomer and his confederate kings smote the Emim in the days of Abraham. Genesis 14:5. There is some uncertainty as to its site, but J.L. Porter very plausibly identifies it with Kureijat, a ruined town on the southwestern slope of Jebel Attarus.

Sibmah From Isaiah 16:8-9, and Jeremiah 48:32, this place seems to have been famous for the cultivation of the vine. According to Jerome it was hardly five hundred paces distant from Heshbon, but no trace of its name has yet been found among the ruined cities of that district.

Zareth-shahar This place was in a mount of the valley, that is, a mountain overlooking the valley of the Jordan and Dead Sea. Seetzen conjectured that its name still lingered in the ruins of Sara, a little northwest of Jebel Attarus, and near the mouth of the Wady Zerka.

Verse 20

20. Beth-peor That is, house of Peor. The town probably got its name from having been the chief seat of the worship of the Moabite god Baal-peor. Numbers 25:3-5. It was situated on or beside Mount Peor, and close to the valley where the Israelites encamped immediately before descending into the plain of the Jordan. Deuteronomy 3:29. It was in this valley apparently the modern Wady Hesban Moses was buried, (Deuteronomy 34:6,) and Mount Pisgah, on which he died, could not have been far distant to the south. The valley of Heshbon has never been fully explored. “Whatever traveller may succeed in doing so will be rewarded by the discovery of the ruins of Beth-peor, and the closest approximation that has yet been made to the place of Moses’ sepulchre.” J.L. Potter. Ashdoth-pisgah and

Beth-jeshimoth See notes on Joshua 12:3.

Verse 21

21. All the cities of the plain That is, all the other mirror cities of the southern plain which had not been particularly described.

All the kingdom of Sihon These words must not be taken as the entire extent of the territory belonging to Sihon, but must be qualified by the statement of Joshua 13:27, that the northern part of his kingdom, which extended even to the Sea of Chinnereth, was allotted to Gad. The words are therefore to be understood of the southern part of his territory, which, lying south of Mount Gilead, and including by far the larger part of the kingdom, with its capital and most important cities, might easily have been called all the kingdom.

Dukes of Sihon For their defeat by Moses see Numbers 31:1-12. These dukes were sheiks of the neighbouring towns, tributary to and dependent upon Sihon.

Verse 22

22. Balaam… the soothsayer A Syrian prophet and diviner whom Balak hired to curse Israel, but whose curses were supernaturally turned to blessings in his mouth. His history and oracles are detailed in Numbers 22-24 .

Verse 23

23. This was the inheritance of… Reuben The tribe of Reuben never did excel. Compare Genesis 49:4. They were never noted for mighty deeds, and their indifference in the war with Sisera, when the mighty ones went up to battle and they “abode among the sheepfolds to hear the bleatings of the flocks,” is properly satirized in the song of Deborah.

Judges 5:16, note. Their territory was overrun by the army of Tiglath-pileser, and they were carried away captive into upper Mesopotamia. 1 Chronicles 5:26. Then their depopulated cities and country were repossessed by their ancient owners, the Moabites, and hence it is that we find so many cities of Reuben afterwards in possession of the Moabites.

Verse 24

GAD’S LOT, Joshua 13:24-28.

24. The tribe of Gad had their inheritance in the central district of eastern Palestine, between Reuben and Manasseh, so that the mountains of Gilead fell largely to them. Mr. Buckingham describes this elevated region as having “its plains covered with a fertile soil, its hills clothed with forests, and at every new turn presenting the most magnificent landscapes that could be imagined. Every new direction of our path opened up to us views which surprised and charmed us by their grandeur and beauty. Deep valleys, filled with murmuring streams and verdant meadows, offered all the luxuriance of cultivation, and herds and flocks gave life and animation to the scene.” Mr. E. Smith travelled through Gilead in 1834. and found the ground clothed with luxuriant grass a foot or more in height, and decked with a rich variety of wild flowers.

Verse 25

25. Jazer Written also Jaazer. It was an important city, having dependent villages, (Numbers 21:32,) and giving its name to the surrounding country, “the land of Jazer.” Numbers 32:1. It was one of the four cities of Gad assigned to the Levites. Joshua 21:39. Jeremiah (Jeremiah 48:32) speaks of the “sea of Jazer,” which may have been some lake or pool in the vicinity. Burckhardt, Van de Velde, and others, identify it with a ruined town called Seir or Sir, some twelve miles north of Heshbon.

All the cities of Gilead That is, of the southern portion of Gilead, for the northern was given to Manasseh. Joshua 13:31.

Half the land of the children of Ammon The country between the Arnon and the Jabbok. See Judges 11:13, note. This ancient possession of the children of Lot Israel captured, not of Ammon, but of Sihon, king of the Amorites, who had previously taken it out of the hand of the king of Moab.

Numbers 21:26. Yet it retained the name of its ancient owners.

Aroer that is before Rabbah That is, Aroer is before or in front of Rabbah to one who advances towards Rabbah from the Jordan. This Aroeris supposed by many to be identical with the ruined site Ayra, which Burckhardt discovered about seven miles southwest of es-Salt, and nearly half way between the Jordan and Rabbah. Rabbah was the great city and capital of the Ammonites, and is called in Deuteronomy 3:11 Rabbath of the children of Ammon, and here Og’s great iron bedstead was preserved. But as Israel was not to meddle with the children of Ammon, (Deuteronomy 2:19,) Rabbah was not disturbed, nor included in the territory of Gad. It was afterwards besieged and taken by David. 2 Samuel 12:29. Its ruins are known under the modern name of Amman, about twenty-two miles east of the Jordan.

Verse 26

26. From Heshbon Which belonged to the Reubenites, (Joshua 13:17,) but stood so near the boundary between Reuben and Gad as to be occupied in common by both tribes. Compare Joshua 13:17 and Joshua 21:39, notes.

Ramath-mizpeh Probably identical with Ramoth-gilead and Mizpeh of Gilead, which was allotted to the Levites and appointed one of the cities of refuge. Joshua 20:8; Joshua 21:38. Most modern scholars are inclined to locate it at the village of es-Salt, thirty miles north of Heshbon. “This is indicated,” says Porter, “(1) by its position on the summit of a steep hill; (2) by its old ecclesiastical name, Saltus Hieralicus, which appears to point to its original sacerdotal and holy character; (3) by the fact that about two miles to the northwest of es-Salt is the highest peak of the mountain range, still bearing the name Jebel Jilead; (4) by the statement of Eusebius that Ramoth-Gilead lay in the fifteenth mile from Philadelphia towards the west, and this is the exact distance of es-Salt from Rabbath-Ammon.” From its lofty position and sacred character it became a great sanctuary of the eastern tribes. See Judges 10:17, note.

Betonim Probably identical with a ruined village Batneh, marked on the maps of Menke and Van de Velde about five miles west of es-Salt.

Mahanaim The place where Jacob met with the angels of God, and therefore called by a name which signifies a double host or camp. Genesis 32:2, note. It stood on the border between Gad and Manasseh, (Joshua 13:30,) and was assigned to the Levites. Chap. Joshua 21:38. Here after Saul’s death Abner made Ishbosheth king, (2 Samuel 2:8,) and to this place David fled during the rebellion of Absalom. Its site is yet a matter of uncertainty. Some think it is the modern Mahneh, near Jebel Ajlun; while Porter suggests that it may have stood upon the site now occupied by the ruins of Gerasa. The border of Debir is utterly unknown. The Hebrew for of Debir is לדבר , and the first letter ל , lamedh, may be a part of the name, Lidbir. Reland thinks it may be the same as Lodebar, which, according to 2 Samuel 9:4, must have been in this same vicinity.

Verse 27

27. The valley The Jordan valley from the border of Reuben northward to the sea of Chinnereth. Beth-aram is doubtless the same as Beth-haran in Numbers 32:36. In Eusebius, Jerome, and the Talmud it is called Bethramtha. It has not been accurately identified, but very probably will be found at the ruins called er-Ram just north of the Wady Heshban. The site of Beth-nimrah is still preserved in Nimrin, located, according to Robinson’s map, near the mouth of the Wady Shoaib, and about twelve miles north of er-Ram. In Numbers 32:3, it is called simply Nimrah. From its abundance of water and likeness of name in the Septuagint it seems to meet the requirements of the Bethabara of the New Testament. See note on John 1:28.

Succoth An important place east of the Jordan, where Jacob built a house and made booths for his cattle after his meeting with Esau. Genesis 33:17. Its exact location is unknown. Zaphon is mentioned again only at Judges 12:1, where see note. No modern trace of it has been discovered.

The rest of the kingdom of Sihon That is, the portion of it that was left after allotting the southern part to the tribe of Reuben. See note on Joshua 13:21.

Sea of Chinnereth See note on Joshua 11:2. The subsequent fate of the children of Gad was very like that of the tribe of Reuben. See note on Joshua 13:23.

Verse 29

MANASSEH’S (EASTERN) LOT, Joshua 13:29-33.

29. The half tribe of Manasseh The division of a tribe in Israel into two parts is a strange and singular fact. In some respects it seems accidental, in other respects providential. “Machir, Jair, and Nobah, the sons of Manasseh, were no shepherds. They were pure warriors, who had taken the most prominent part in the conquest of those provinces which up to that time had been conquered, and whose deeds are constantly referred to with credit and renown. Numbers 32:39; Deuteronomy 3:13-15. ‘Jair the son of Manasseh took all the tract of Argob… sixty great cities.’ ‘Nobah took Kehath and the daughter towns thereof, and called it after his own name.’ Deuteronomy 32:42. ‘Because Machir was a man of war, therefore he had Gilead and Bashan.’ Joshua 17:1. The district which these ancient warriors conquered was the most difficult in the whole country. And had they not remained in these wild and inaccessible districts, but had gone forward and taken their lot with the rest, who shall say what changes might not have occurred in the history of their nation through the presence of such energetic and warlike spirits?” Grove, in Smith’s Dict. But perhaps these very warlike spirits were providentially settled in these eastern hills to save western Palestine from the proximity of dangerous foes that might otherwise have settled there.

The country of Bashan, occupied by these Manassites, was, according to Porter, “the richest in all Palestine. It is to this day the granary of a great part of Syria. Its whole surface is dotted with ruined or deserted towns and villages.”

Verse 30

30. All Bashan This region, distinguished for its fertility, thrifty herds and flocks, and lofty oaks, extended from Gilead on the south to Mount Hermon on the north, and from the Jordan valley on the west far into the eastern and northeastern desert. See on Deuteronomy 3:1-14.

All the towns of Jair That is, the towns that were taken by Jair, the son of Manasseh, and called by his own name. Numbers 32:41. They have the name Havoth-jair and Bashan-havoth-jair, (Deuteronomy 3:14,) and Porter affirms the two names are not to be confounded. “The towns of Havoth-jair were situated in Gilead south of the river Hieromax, while those of Bashan-havoth-jair were in Bashan, and identical with the sixty great cities of Argob.” According to this distinction the threescore cities here mentioned constituted Bashan-havoth-jair. See 1 Kings 4:13, note.

Verse 31

31. Half Gilead The northern half, for the southern was assigned to Gad. Joshua 13:25.

Ashtaroth Generally supposed to be identical with the Ashteroth-karnaim of Genesis 14:5. It was doubtless so called from being the seat of worship of the Phenician goddess Ashtoreth, the Greek Astarte. Its ruins are supposed to lie at the modern Tell-Astereh, some fifteen miles east of the Sea of Galilee. Edrei was the other chief city of the kingdom of Bashan, and here King Og was defeated and slain. Numbers 21:33-35. It was a stronghold among the rocks, and its ruins have been found in the modern Edra, thirty miles or more northeast of the Sea of Galilee. J.L. Porter visited the ruins a few years ago and thus wrote: “The situation is most remarkable; without a single spring of living water; without river or stream; without access, except over rocks and through defiles all but impassable; without tree or garden. In selecting the site everything seems to have been sacrificed to security and strength. The huge masses of shattered masonry could scarcely be distinguished from the rocks that encircled them, and all, ruins and rocks alike, are black as if scathed by lightning.”

Unto the children of Machir “Because he was a man of war, therefore he had Gilead and Bashan.” Joshua 17:1.

Even to the one half The heads of the families of this half are named in 1 Chronicles 5:24.]

Bibliographical Information
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Joshua 13". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/whe/joshua-13.html. 1874-1909.
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