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Obadiah 1:1-15 b. The Deserved Downfall of Edom.— The prophet declares that interpretation of current events which Yahweh has revealed to him. Other nations are combining against Edom ( Obadiah 1:1) and Yahweh will make their combination successful ( Obadiah 1:2; the perfect tenses are “ prophetic” ). Edom has been confident in the inaccessibility of his mountainous land ( Obadiah 1:3; see Intro. and read with VSS “ making high his habitation” ), but vainly does he build (his nest) on high (for the eagle, see on Jeremiah 4:13). This is no passing raid, for the work of the foe will be thorough (insert “ only” after “ steal” in Obadiah 1:5, to bring out the contrast; for the reference to the gleaning, perhaps suggested by the number of Edomite vineyards, cf. Deuteronomy 24:21). The secret treasures stored in mountain caves will be stolen ( Obadiah 1:6, which may be a gloss from Jeremiah 49:10; note change of person). The trusted allies (see Intro.) will drive the Edomites from their land ( Obadiah 1:7 mg.; “ prophetic” perfect). The last two clauses of Obadiah 1:7 yield no sense here, the Heb. of the former being “ thy bread they put a net” ; Obadiah 1:8 f. seems to have been added, with the appendix, to unite the earlier prophecy with the idea of the “ Day of Yahweh” prominent in the later (for Teman, see on Jeremiah 49:7, possibly the source of Obadiah 1:8). These Edomite disasters are a penalty for the conduct of the Edomites when Jerusalem was destroyed ( Obadiah 1:10, see Intro.). Edom stood aloof ( Obadiah 1:11 mg.), nay, even laid hands on Judah’ s property, and intercepted fugitives ( Obadiah 1:12-14). Hence retribution ( Obadiah 1:15 b).
Obadiah 1:15 a, Obadiah 1:16-21 . The Judgment of the Nations.— The “ Day of Yahweh” approaches; Judah has already drunk her cup of suffering ( cf. Jeremiah 25:15; Jeremiah 49:12), and now the other nations shall drink destruction. Mount Zion shall be a sanctuary, and the house of Jacob (here for “ Judah” ) shall recover what has been lost ( Obadiah 1:17). Judah shall be joined by the restored northern kingdom (the house of Joseph), and together they shall utterly destroy the Edomites (Esau, Obadiah 1:18; for the contrast of Jacob and Esau, cf. Malachi 1:2-5). The territories to be recovered in S. and N. are indicated ( Obadiah 1:19 f.). Judah in Zion shall be reinforced by the help of the restored Israel (the saviours of Obadiah 1:21) against Esau, and the “ Messianic” kingdom shall be established (Zarephath on coast, between Tyre and Sidon, cf. 1 Kings 17:9); Sepharad, since the Persian period a name for Asia Minor, particularly Phrygia; this host, Obadiah 1:20, may be a corrupt form of Halah ( cf. 2 Kings 17:6).
Obadiah 1:19 seems to have been expanded by glosses, and Marti suggests as its original form, “ And they ( i.e. the united Israel and Judah) will take possession of the Negeb and the Shephelah, and the fields of Ephraim and Gilead.” In Obadiah 1:20, we should probably read, “ shall possess the Canaanites” , the Heb. being impossible as it stands.
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Peake, Arthur. "Commentary on Obadiah 1". "Peake's Commentary on the Bible ". https://studylight.org/
the Second Week of Advent