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Jeremiah 50:1 to Jeremiah 51:58 . Babylon.— This long and monotonous prophecy, which is without order or logical development of ideas, is largely a compilation from the prophetic writings of Jeremiah and others ( cf., e.g., Jeremiah 50:41 ff., Jeremiah 51:15). It presupposes the destruction of Jerusalem, apparently as a remote rather than a recent event. Its idea of Babylon is that of a cruel tyrant to be punished by Yahweh, not that of a Divinely commissioned agent of Yahweh’ s wrath against Israel, as Jeremiah teaches. We are not at liberty to make it contemporaneous with such exilic writings as Isaiah 13, 40-55, because of its obvious dependence on these amongst other prophecies (see the notes); but the survival of Babylon (under the Persian empire) in the post-exilic period would provide later occasion for such a compilation. Moreover, the narrative of Jeremiah 51:59-64, which tells of a (private) scroll of prophecy sent by Jeremiah to Babylon, foretelling its end, would easily give rise to such a compilation by some later writer. In the present (editorial) arrangement of the text, this narrative is made to date the prophecy of Jeremiah 50:1 to Jeremiah 51:58 in 593 B.C., which is impossible ( cf. Jeremiah 27-29 for the actual conditions about that date).
Jeremiah 50:2-4 . Declaration of the overthrow of Babylon by a nation from the north, i.e. Media, which lay north of Babylon ( Jeremiah 51:28, Isaiah 13:17).
Jeremiah 50:2 . set up a standard: to attract attention, but derived from Isaiah 13:2, where the phrase is used in a different sense.— Bel: i.e. Baal, or “ Lord” of Nippur, the earth-god; cf. Isaiah 46:1; his place and title were usurped by Bel-Marduk or Merodach.
Jeremiah 50:4-7 . United Israel will return to Palestine in penitence; the Israelites have gone astray and become defenceless through their sin.
Jeremiah 50:5 . Read as Syr., “ let us join ourselves” .
Jeremiah 50:7 . Render “ We are not guilty” , contrasting Jeremiah 2:3.— the habitation of justice: here a title of Yahweh, derived from Jeremiah 31:23, where it is used more naturally of Jerusalem. Omit with LXX, “ even the Lord” .
Jeremiah 50:8-13 . Let Israel be the first to go (the “ he-goats” are the natural leaders of the flock). Yahweh brings a resistless foe from the north; Babylon, instead of enjoying her present luxury, shall be desolated.
Jeremiah 50:9 . As mg. 2 ; the warrior comes back laden with spoil.
Jeremiah 50:10 . The spoilers are satisfied, i.e. they get all they want.
Jeremiah 50:11 . because: better “ though” , in all cases.— your mother: Babylon.
Jeremiah 50:12 . Omit “ she shall be” , and read the following phrases as exclamatory.
Jeremiah 50:13 . Cf. Jeremiah 19:8.
Jeremiah 50:14-16 . The foe is urged to the attack; Babylon surrenders; agriculture is brought to an end; the foreign residents ( Isaiah 13:14) flee.
Jeremiah 50:17-20 . The second of Israel’ s two assailants ( i.e. Assyria in 722, Babylon in 586) will now pay the penalty; Israel will be restored to Palestine ( cf. Micah 7:14), and pardoned ( Jeremiah 31:34).
Jeremiah 50:19 . soul: “ appetite” .
Jeremiah 50:21-28 . The foe is summoned to attack Babylon, and the destroyer of others ( Jeremiah 50:23; cf. Jeremiah 51:20 ff.) is now to be “ devoted” ( Deuteronomy 13:15 f.). News of this Divine vengeance for the destruction of the Jewish Temple is brought to Jerusalem ( Jeremiah 50:28).
Jeremiah 50:21 . Note the play on names as in mg.; mâ t marrâ tim, “ the sea-country” , is a name of S. Babylonia; the Pukudu are a Babylonian people ( Ezekiel 23:23).
Jeremiah 50:27 . bullocks: figure for warriors ( Isaiah 34:7).
Jeremiah 50:29-32 . The foe is again summoned to recompense Babylon’ s pride (with Jeremiah 50:30; cf. Jeremiah 49:26, with Jeremiah 50:31 f; cf. Jeremiah 21:13 f.).
Jeremiah 50:33-40 . Yahweh takes up the cause of His oppressed people (Babylon continuing the Assyrian tyranny over the northern exiles, Jeremiah 50:33). The sword destroys Babylon, leaving it desolate.
Jeremiah 50:36 . boasters: the diviners and oracle-mongers ( Isaiah 44:25).
Jeremiah 50:37 . mingled people: foreign residents ( Jeremiah 25:20).
Jeremiah 50:38 . drought: should be “ sword” (figuratively used) as in LXX of Lucian, Syr.— they are mad upon idols: point with VSS, “ they boast of idols” ; cf. Psalms 97:7.
Jeremiah 50:40 . Cf. Jeremiah 49:18.
Jeremiah 50:41-43 has been transferred bodily from Jerusalem (as in mg.) to Babylon; similarly, Jeremiah 50:44-46 , from Edom ( mg.) to Babylon.
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Peake, Arthur. "Commentary on Jeremiah 50". "Peake's Commentary on the Bible ". https://studylight.org/
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