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Bible Commentaries
Jeremiah 19

Old & New Testament Restoration CommentaryRestoration Commentary

Verses 1-2

Jer 19:1-2

Jeremiah 19:1-2

THE SMASHED POTTER’S VESSEL

The feature of this little chapter is the irrefutable and irremediable cancellation of the status of racial Israel as God’s Chosen People, a status which, by their reprobacy, they forfeited to the New Israel in whom all the glorious prophecies of the fathers would be fulfilled.

Here is the parable of the smashed potter’s vessel. The previous chapter showed God’s patience and ability to accommodate to the imperfections of the clay; but this one stresses a far different lesson. It is no longer possible for even God to work with hardened Israel.

The symbol here is a potter’s vessel; but one that has already been fired and hardened, a perfect symbol of the judicial hardening of Racial Israel, which, as Isaiah stated, had already taken place a full century before Jeremiah came upon the scene (Isaiah 6).

It was a new vessel, one just purchased, which means that it was empty. This symbolized the fact of the emptiness of the racial Israel and their complete failure to produce the righteous works which God desired.

The shattering of the vessel symbolized the divorce and casting off of racial Israel as God’s wife and as God’s chosen people.

There was no known way by which such a shattered vessel could be mended or repaired, and this symbolized the final, total, and irreversible nature of Israel’s rejection, always with the exception of the "righteous remnant" destined to form the nucleus of the New Israel in the kingdom of Messiah.

Laden with such a terrible message, the events recorded here resulted in bitter persecution for Jeremiah; and Satan still releases his fulminations against what is written here: affirming that, "it is not written in Jeremiah’s style"; "It was probably written by Baruch"; "It is conjectured that certain verses were added later by an editor"; (regrettably, Ash neglected to tell us whether this was his opinion or the opinion of unbelieving critics), stating that, "the reader can judge" the matter: Very well, this reader will judge such allegations; and the judgment is simple enough: such postulations are worthless.

(1) The claim that the style here is different actually refers to the fact that the third person is used instead of the first; and there’s nothing unusual about that. Barnes declared that such an objection belongs to the "babyhood of criticism," and that, "It is the exception when any sacred writer refers to himself in the first person." In our introduction to Jonah (see the Minor Prophets, Vol. 1) we discussed this fully, pp. 261-263. Also, Jeremiah would, in a moment, quote verbatim from Moses the author of Deuteronomy; and since Moses invariably referred to himself in the third person, it was quite natural and should have been expected that Jeremiah would also use the third person here.

(2) Ash’s reference to "an editor" comes from the assertion of some critics that "the Deuteronomic editor" has influenced this chapter, as if such an imaginary figure were in any sense a real person, which he was not. Moses wrote Deuteronomy, not some editor; and it is not that imaginary editor that influenced this chapter but Moses himself. "Jeremiah 19:9 is quoted almost literally from Deuteronomy 28:33." This fully accounts for the alleged influence of "some Deuteronomic editor," that influence pertaining to Moses the author of the Pentateuch.

(3) In a more positive attitude, the style of Jeremiah is most evident in this chapter and is seen in the scrambling of his subject matter, a characteristic of the whole prophecy. Green pointed out that, "Jeremiah 19:1-2; Jeremiah 19:10-11 deal with the destruction of Israel, and Jeremiah 19:3-9 and Jeremiah 19:12-13 are portions of the sermon!" Nothing could be any more Jeremiahic than such an arrangement. This total lack of any usual type of organization requires us to look at the chapter only one or two verses at a time.

Before leaving this discussion of the allegations about ’interpolations, etc.’ in this chapter, we summarize it by this quotation from F. Cawley and A. R. Millard, who rejected all such changes, writing, "There is insufficient reason for treating Jeremiah 19:3-9 as insertions."

Jeremiah 19:1-2

Thus said Jehovah, Go, and buy a potter’s earthen bottle, and [take] of the elders of the people, and of the elders of the priests; and go forth unto the valley of the son of Hinnom, which is by the entry of the gate Harsith, and proclaim there the words that I shall tell thee;

Other occasions when the actions of Jeremiah became a part of his message are: the Marred Girdle (Jeremiah 13), his Abstinence from Marriage (Jeremiah 16), the Potter’s Clay (Jeremiah 18), the Bonds and Bars (Jeremiah 27), and his Buying a Field (Jeremiah 32).

See chapter heading above for the meaning of this symbol; but there are additional teachings evident here. The fact of the bottle’s being "earthen" symbolized the humble beginnings of Israel; the delicate design and value of the bottle symbolized Israel’s earlier glory; and, if, as some allege, it was a very cheap and fragile bottle, it symbolized the vulnerability of the nation of Israel. It would be difficult indeed to think of a metaphor as effective as this one.

Furthermore, the very place where this sermon would be preached and where the bottle would be shattered carry their own implications. The gate mentioned here is hard to identify.

"Two gates led to the valley of the son of Hinnom: (1) the Fountain Gate at the southeast corner, and the Dung Gate at the southwest corner of Zion. Keil could not decide which was meant here; and Kimchi thought it was neither, but a small, postern gate, used for throwing out rubbish, the valley having been put to this degrading use from the time when Josiah defiled it (2 Kings 23:10). And thus the mean symbol of a proud nation was carried out through the back door to be broken upon the heaps of rubbish already there."

Of the elders. of the priests .....

(Jeremiah 19:1). These were probably prominent members of the Sanhedrin, representatives of the whole people.

The valley of the son of Hinnom...

(Jeremiah 19:2). Some scholars write this: Valley of Ben-hinnom, which means the same thing. It was located south of Jerusalem and was the location of the shrine of Molech, where the infants were burned as sacrifices to that god; after Josiah defiled the place, it was used for burning garbage and cremating the bodies of dead criminals.

The potter’s field was just a little southward, and it was there that Judas Iscariot who betrayed the Lord committed suicide.

Verses 1-15

Jer 19:1-15

THE BROKEN VESSEL Jeremiah 19:1 to Jeremiah 20:6

In the parable of the potter and his clay the point was the possibility of remaking a vessel which has not met with approval; in chapter 19 the emphasis is on the destruction of a vessel which proves useless. Jeremiah first gathers the elders of the people and takes them to the edge of the valley of Hinnom and preaches to them (Jeremiah 19:1-9). He dramatically illustrated his message by smashing a clay vessel before them (Jeremiah 19:10-13). Returning to the Temple Jeremiah attempted to deliver the same message but was arrested (Jeremiah 19:14 to Jeremiah 20:6).

The Message to the Elders Jeremiah 19:1-9

Jeremiah needed to make certain preparations before he preached his next message. First, he is told to purchase the clay vessel of a potter i.e., a vessel fashioned by a potter. Then he is told to gather the elders of the people and the elders of the priests to hear his message (Jeremiah 19:1). Just how Jeremiah secured the cooperation of these leaders is not indicated in the text. The exact location of this message is specified by the Lord. Jeremiah is to take his audience to the edge of the valley of Hinnom in front of the gate Harsith or gate of the potter (Jeremiah 19:2). The valley of Hinnom where human sacrifice had been practiced must surely have been a source of embarrassment to these leaders of the people. The gate at which the sermon was delivered got its name no doubt from the scraps of pottery which were thrown there. The ancient Aramaic Targum suggests that it was the dung gate through which the city rubbish was taken to be disposed of. The strange procession—Jeremiah and his bottle leading the ruling priests and civil authorities—must have attracted a curious crowd of onlookers as it made its way through the streets of Jerusalem toward the gate of the potter.

Jeremiah delivered a message of doom to that group of dignitaries. A calamity is about to fall upon the land so severe that when people hear of it their ears will tingle (Jeremiah 19:3). The figure of tingling ears is used in connection with threats of severe judgment (1 Samuel 3:11; 2 Kings 21:12) and probably represents the emotions of astonishment and fear. The word “kings” here, as in Jeremiah 17:20, seems to be used in the nontechnical sense for all the leaders of the nation. Jeremiah accuses his audience of making the city and land a heathen place by introducing foreign cults and practices and filling the land with the blood of innocents (Jeremiah 19:4). The “blood of innocents” may refer to the murder of those who opposed the wicked idolatry or it may refer to the children who were offered as sacrifices to the pagan gods. Certainly Jeremiah 19:5 makes it clear that children had been offered to Baal as burnt offerings (cf. Jeremiah 7:31). Such sacrifices were absolutely contrary to the will and purpose of the Lord. The term Baal is used loosely here for the god Molech, the pagan god who demanded child sacrifice. High places of Baal are to be distinguished from the high places of the Lord throughout the Old Testament. The former were always illegitimate places of worship. The latter became illegitimate after the building of Solomon’s Temple.

Jeremiah announces the judgment which is about to fall on Judah in language which he had used on a previous occasion (cf. Jeremiah 7:31-32). Pointing in the direction of that abominable valley Jeremiah declares that no longer will that place be called Topheth, i.e., fireplace; nor will it be known by the name of its former owner, Valley of Hinnom. Because of the great slaughter which will fall upon the land that valley will be used as a burial place for the dead and henceforth will be designated “Valley of Slaughter” (Jeremiah 19:6). God will empty out the counsel of Judah and Jerusalem. The verb translated “empty out” is derived from the same Hebrew root as the word for “bottle” in Jeremiah 19:1 and may have been chosen by the prophet for this reason. Perhaps Jeremiah slowly poured out the contents of the bottle as he referred to the emptying out of the counsel of Jerusalem. The word “counsel” points to worldly wisdom, counsel which is grounded in political expediency rather than in commitment to God. In particular Jeremiah has in mind the tangle of political alliances by which Judah thought to avoid enslavement to the Babylonian world power. No doubt the counselors in the royal court of Judah thought there was more benefit to be derived from treaties with foreign powers than from complete reliance on the power of God. But their counsel will fail. So many will fall by the sword of the enemy that burial will be impossible. The bodies of the fallen men of Judah will lie exposed to the birds and beasts of the land (Jeremiah 19:7). The city of Jerusalem will become such a desolation that all who pass by its ruins will hiss or whistle in astonishment at the extent of the devastation (Jeremiah 19:8). In the desperate hour of siege the last vestige of parental love shall disappear. People would resort to cannibalism. God had warned His people in the Law of Moses that they might be brought into such straits if they were unfaithful to Him (Leviticus 26:29; Deuteronomy 28:53). At least one example of such cannibalism is recorded earlier during the siege of Samaria by Benhadad (2 Kings 6:28 ff.). This terrible picture of parents eating their own flesh and blood also appears in the writings of Jeremiah’s great contemporary Ezekiel (Ezekiel 5:10). The Book of Lamentations records the horrible fulfillment (Lamentations 4:10). Warned by the Law and by the prophets, yet the hardened men of Judah persisted in the apostasy which would bring upon them this terrible curse.

The Symbolic Act and Its Interpretation Jeremiah 19:10-13

The smashing of the bottle here reminds one of the practice current in Egypt where the names of enemy nations were written on pots or jars which were then smashed. The idea behind the practice in Egypt involved sympathetic magic. The smashing of the bottle was magically transferred to the nations whose names were written on the jar. There is of course no thought of sympathetic magic here. Rather this act is illustrative and confirmatory. The prophet wished to dramatically make his point that the nation would be smashed as easily as the brittle Palestinian pottery is smashed when it falls to the ground. Jeremiah 19:11 is based on Jeremiah 7:32. The words are absent in the ancient Greek version though they are appropriate here. When the nation is broken the dead will be so numerous that even the unclean site of Topheth in the valley of Hinnom would have to be used for a burial site. Furthermore the entire city would become as Topheth (Jeremiah 19:12), unclean by virtue of the bones of human sacrifices and by virtue of the official desecration of king Josiah (2 Kings 23:10). The houses of Jerusalem upon which incense was offered and libations poured out to pagan gods would be desecrated by the dead bodies which would fall in the city (Jeremiah 19:13). The roofs of buildings were flat and could be used for various purposes including religious exercises. Several passages make mention of the fact that idolatry was practiced upon the roofs of the houses (Jeremiah 32:29; 2 Kings 23:12; Zephaniah 1:5). Tablets have been found at Ras Shamra in Syria containing a ritual to be followed in making offerings to the heavenly bodies upon the housetops.

The Arrest of the Prophet Jeremiah 19:14 to Jeremiah 20:6

The prophet had pronounced his message of doom so courageously and boldly that no one dared to interrupt him or raise a hand against him. So he leaves the valley of Hinnom and returns to the Temple area to preach to the throngs there (Jeremiah 19:14). It is impossible to determine whether Jeremiah 19:15 is merely a summary of what Jeremiah said in the court of the Temple or whether on the other hand he had only begun to preach when he was interrupted. The former alternative seems more likely. In either case the message preached in the Temple court was one of judgment. Pashur the priest who was chief overseer in the house of the Lord heard that sermon (Jeremiah 20:1). Pashur was second in authority to the high priest (Jeremiah 29:26). His duty was to see that no unauthorized person entered the Temple area and that no disturbance was committed within the courts. Pashur “smote Jeremiah” which probably means that the prophet was scourged with forty stripes (Deuteronomy 25:3). He then ordered that Jeremiah be put in the stocks. The exact nature of this instrument of torture is not clear but the Hebrew word suggests a device which distorts or twists the body, or forces it into a cramped posture. The stocks are mentioned again in Jeremiah 29:26. The Book of Chronicles refers to a house of stocks (2 Chronicles 16:10), so apparently the punishment was not uncommon. But in the case of Jeremiah the stocks were in public, “in the upper Benjamin gate which was in the house of the Lord” (Jeremiah 19:2). The tribe of Benjamin lay north of Jerusalem. Thus this gate was probably on the north side of the Temple. The phrase “which was in the house of the Lord” serves to distinguish this gate from the city gate of the same name (Jeremiah 37:13; Jeremiah 38:7). This is probably the same gate called by Ezekiel the “higher gate” (Jeremiah 9:2) which was built by king Jotham (2 Kings 15:35). It probably was one of the main gates leading from the Temple area to the city proper.

When Jeremiah was released from the stocks the next morning he had a special message for Pashur. “The Lord has not called your name Pashur but Magor-missabib” (Jeremiah 19:3). Pashur’s new name means “terror round about.” This symbolic name signifies one who is surrounded by horror on all sides and who becomes an object of horror and fear to himself and to others. Pashur would live to see his friends slain by the sword and the rest of the men of Judah either slain or taken captive to Babylon (Jeremiah 19:4). All the wealth of the nation will be given by the Lord to the enemies of Judah and the national treasures will be taken to Babylon along with the captives (Jeremiah 19:5). Pashur himself and the members of his household would be taken to Babylon where they would all die and be buried. For a misguided patriot like Pashur the worst fate imaginable would be to die and be buried in a foreign land. It is not the personal mistreatment of Jeremiah that brought about this extreme prophecy of personal doom to Pashur. Rather it is the fact that he had prophesied lies (Jeremiah 19:6). What the nature of these lies were cannot be ascertained from the account.

Some have conjectured that Pashur was the leader of the pro-Egyptian party in Judah. Perhaps this would account for his fierce opposition to Jeremiah. His pro-Egyptian policy led to national and personal disaster and caused the terror which was about to come upon the land. In Jeremiah 29:26 Pashur’s office is filled by a fellow named Zephaniah. This would suggest that Jeremiah’s prophecy had already been fulfilled. No doubt Pashur was taken captive either in the deportation of 605 B.C. or in the deportation of 597 B.C. The latter is more likely.

Verses 3-5

Jer 19:3-5

Jeremiah 19:3-5

and say, Hear ye the word of Jehovah, O kings of Judah, and inhabitants of Jerusalem: thus saith Jehovah of hosts, the God of Israel, Behold, I will bring evil upon this place, which whosoever heareth, his ears shall tingle. Because they have forsaken me, and have estranged this place, and have burned incense in it unto other gods, that they knew not, they and their fathers and the kings of Judah; and have filled this place with the blood of innocents, and have built the high places of Baal, to burn their sons in the fire for burnt-offerings unto Baal; which I commanded not, nor spake it, neither came it into my mind:

His ears shall tingle...

(Jeremiah 19:3). This suggests such a shock as comes from a clap of thunder so close that the hearer’s head rings and his ears tingle. The forthcoming destruction of Israel will be the kind of judgment that will get the full attention of the most indifferent.

Ye have estranged this place...

(Jeremiah 19:4). This means that the sins of the people had completely alienated Jerusalem from God’s approval. They had destroyed the very charter of their existence as a nation.

Ye have filled this place with the blood of innocents...

(Jeremiah 19:4). This does not refer to the sacrifice of infants to Molech, but to the senseless murder of innocent people by Manasseh (2 Kings 21:16). The sacrifice of children to Molech constitutes a new indictment, which comes in the next verse.

Ye have built the high places of Baal...

(Jeremiah 19:5). The purpose of those high places was stated in the next clause, to burn their sons in the fire as burnt-offerings to Baal; and that identifies the particular Baal here as the horrible Molech.

Keil enumerated the sins of Israel here as follows: "(1) their public practice of idolatry; (2) judicial murder of the innocents; and (3) burning their own children as sacrifices to Molech."

Hear ye. O kings of Judah .....

(Jeremiah 19:3). The message was not merely to the reigning king, but to the whole dynasty responsible for the apostasy of Israel.

"These verses are said to be strongly Deuteronomic in style and phraseology; but the whole argument turns on the identification of this Deuteronomic style and phraseology." Amen! Amen! If they mean that Jeremiah was here quoting the true author of Deuteronomy, namely, Moses, very well, we agree with that; but if it is meant that some mythical "Deuteronomic editor" is meant, we reject that false notion altogether.

Which I commanded not...

(Jeremiah 19:5). This establishes a principle that any alleged worship which God did not command is an abomination to the Lord. May we point out some other things that God has not commanded in Christian worship: the playing of instruments of music, communion under one kind, the burning of sacred incense, the sprinkling of holy water, the lighting of blessed candles, etc., etc. Nothing is any more dangerous than the worship of God through the observance of forms and actions that God has not commanded.

Verses 6-7

Jer 19:6-7

Jeremiah 19:6-7

therefore, behold, the days come, saith Jehovah, that this place shall no more be called Topheth, nor The valley of the son of Hinnom, but The valley of Slaughter. And I will make void the counsel of Judah and Jerusalem in this place; and I will cause them to fall by the sword before their enemies, and by the hand of them that seek their life: and their dead bodies will I give to be food for the birds of the heavens, and for the beasts of the earth.

Tophet...

(Jeremiah 19:6). The exact meaning of this word is not known; but, It comes from an Aramaic root that indicates ’fireplace.’ It was one of the names given to the valley of Ben-hinnom that contained the shrine of Molech.

I will make void...

(Jeremiah 19:7). The literal meaning of the Hebrew here is, I will pour out; and such writers as Cheyne and Barnes suppose that, Jeremiah carried that bottle full of water and emptied it in the presence of the witnesses as he spoke these words. We are not inclined to accept this speculation because the flask was new; God had not commanded Jeremiah to fill it with water, and there’s nothing in the text to support the speculation, interesting as it is.

The Valley of Slaughter...

(Jeremiah 19:6). It was in this very valley that the Chaldean army encamped, making the very place where they looked for help from their idols to be the scene of their slaughter.

Verses 8-9

Jer 19:8-9

Jeremiah 19:8-9

And I will make this city an astonishment, and a hissing; every one that passeth thereby shall be astonished and hiss because of all the plagues thereof. And I will cause them to eat the flesh of their sons and the flesh of their daughters; and they shall eat every one the flesh of his friend, in the siege and in the distress, wherewith their enemies, and they that seek their life, shall distress them.

This terrible warning is an almost verbatim quotation from Deuteronomy 28:53, in which the Great Lawgiver Moses had warned Israel of their fate IF they should give up serving their true God. Israel had indeed defaulted in that very act of disobedience; and now Jeremiah warned that the Mosaic penalty would be enforced.

Did such an awful thing actually happen? Alas, the answer must be that it did. (1) In the siege of Samaria that led to the fall of the Northern kingdom in 722 B.C. (2 Kings 6:26 ff); (2) again in 586 B.C. in the Babylonian invasion by Nebuchadnezzar; and (3) also in A.D. 70 preceding the total destruction of Jerusalem by Vespasian and Titus. The Biblical confirmation of these sad episodes is found in Lamentations 2:20; Lamentations 4:10; 2 Kings 6:28-29; and the historical record of Josephus confirms that in 70 A.D.

Verses 10-13

Jer 19:10-13

Jeremiah 19:10-13

And I will make this city an astonishment, and a hissing; every one that passeth thereby shall be astonished and hiss because of all the plagues thereof. And I will cause them to eat the flesh of their sons and the flesh of their daughters; and they shall eat every one the flesh of his friend, in the siege and in the distress, wherewith their enemies, and they that seek their life, shall distress them.

This terrible warning is an almost verbatim quotation from Deuteronomy 28:53, in which the Great Lawgiver Moses had warned Israel of their fate IF they should give up serving their true God. Israel had indeed defaulted in that very act of disobedience; and now Jeremiah warned that the Mosaic penalty would be enforced.

Did such an awful thing actually happen? Alas, the answer must be that it did. (1) In the siege of Samaria that led to the fall of the Northern kingdom in 722 B.C. (2 Kings 6:26 ff); (2) again in 586 B.C. in the Babylonian invasion by Nebuchadnezzar; and (3) also in A.D. 70 preceding the total destruction of Jerusalem by Vespasian and Titus. The Biblical confirmation of these sad episodes is found in Lamentations 2:20; Lamentations 4:10; 2 Kings 6:28-29; and the historical record of Josephus confirms that in 70 A.D.

Verses 14-15

Jer 19:14-15

Jeremiah 19:14-15

Then came Jeremiah from Topheth, whither Jehovah had sent him to prophesy; and he stood in the court of Jehovah’s house, and said to all the people: Thus saith Jehovah of hosts, the God of Israel, Behold, I will bring upon this city and upon all its towns all the evil that I have pronounced against it; because they have made their neck stiff, that they may not hear my words.

This was probably only a summary of what Jeremiah said in the court of the temple, because Pashhur, the chief officer of the temple, was greatly irritated and angered by it, as comes to light in the next chapter. It was this connection between the two chapters that led Barnes to declare that, "These verses (Jeremiah 19:14-15) should have been joined to the next chapter."

At the Potter’s House - Jeremiah 18:1 to Jeremiah 19:15

Open It

1. What is the most arrogant statement you’ve ever heard?

2. What are some things that, when broken, are impossible to repair?

Explore It

3. Where did God send Jeremiah to receive a message from Him? (Jeremiah 18:1-2)

4. What was the potter doing as Jeremiah watched? (Jeremiah 18:3-4)

5. How did God liken His power over the nations to the decisions of the potter? (Jeremiah 18:5-10)

6. What unthinkable deed had Judah done against God? (Jeremiah 18:13-15)

7. Where did the people of Judah begin to walk when they left God’s ways and began to worship idols? (Jeremiah 18:15)

8. What did God say He would do because Israel worshiped idols? (Jeremiah 18:16-17)

9. What was being said about Jeremiah by the people who resisted his message? (Jeremiah 18:18)

10. Of which past deeds did Jeremiah remind God? (Jeremiah 18:19-20)

11. How did Jeremiah ask God to deal with his enemies? (Jeremiah 18:21-23)

12. Where did God instruct Jeremiah to take the elders and deliver a prophecy? (Jeremiah 19:1-2)

13. What practices (carried out in the Valley of Ben Hinnom) would bring God’s judgment on the people? (Jeremiah 19:3-5)

14. Why would the name of the valley where Jeremiah stood be changed? (Jeremiah 19:6-9)

15. What was the meaning of the symbolic action the Lord told Jeremiah to carry out? (Jeremiah 19:10-12)

16. Whose houses would become defiled like the city dump? (Jeremiah 19:13)

17. What message did Jeremiah take to all the people in the temple because of the reaction of the elders to whom he had delivered the prophecy? (Jeremiah 19:14-15)

Get It

18. What is significant to you about the image of God as a potter?

19. Why did the people think Jeremiah was expendable?

20. Even after God has pronounced a judgment, what might make Him relent or reconsider, either for good or ill?

21. What comes to mind when you think of the image of God turning His back instead of showing His face?

22. What are some ways in which you have avoided the unpleasant in the past?

23. What do you think will become of people who abuse or neglect children, unless they repent?

Apply It

24. What is a practical way in which you can demonstrate God’s concern for a child in need in the coming weeks?

25. What God-fearing person in a position of leadership could use your encouragement today?

Questions On Jeremiah Chapter Nineteen

By Brent Kercheville

1 What is the frst act God commands Jeremiah to do (Jeremiah 19:1-2)?

2 What is Jeremiah to proclaim with this act (Jeremiah 19:3-9)?

2 What is the second act God commands Jeremiah to do (Jeremiah 19:10)?

4 What is Jeremiah to proclaim with this act (Jeremiah 19:11-13)?

5 Does Jeremiah do as commanded (Jeremiah 19:14-15)?

TRANSFORMATION:

How does this relationship change your relationship with God?

What did you learn about him?

What will you do differently in your life?

Bibliographical Information
"Commentary on Jeremiah 19". "Old & New Testament Restoration Commentary". https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/onr/jeremiah-19.html.
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