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the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25
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Bible Commentaries
Psalms 110

Trapp's Complete CommentaryTrapp's Commentary

Verse 1

Psalms 110:1 « A Psalm of David. » The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.

A Psalm of David ] Concerning Christ, saith R. Obadiah, and so say Christ himself, Matthew 22:44 , and his apostles, 1Co 15:25 Hebrews 1:13 ; Hebrews 10:12-13 , though some Rabbis maliciously say otherwise, as R. Joseph, caecus qui hic caecutit, to say the best of him, and other Jewish doctors, who stagger here in their expositions, as drunkards, ως οι μεθυοντες (Chrysostom).

Ver. 1. The Lord said unto my Lord ] In this one verse we have a description of Christ’s person, his wars and his victory; so that we may say of it (and so indeed of the whole psalm, which is an epitome of the gospel), as Cicero did of Brutus’s laconical epistle, Quam multa, quam paucisi How much in a little. See Trapp on " Mat 22:44 "

Sit thou at my right hand ] Sit thou with me in my throne, having power over all things in heaven and earth, Mat 28:18 Christ, as man, received what, as God, he had before.

Until I make thine enemies thy footstool ] Foes Christ hath ever had, and shall have to the world’s end; but then they shall be all in a place fittest for them, viz. under Christ’s feet; even those who now set up their crests, face the heavens, and say unto the King, Apostata, stouting it out with him.

Verse 2

Psa 110:2 The LORD shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies.

Ver. 2. The Lord shall send the rod of thy strength ] That is, the gospel, that sceptre of Christ’s kingdom, that power of God to salvation, unto as many as believe, mighty through God to work wonders, 2Co 10:5 Acts 20:32 , even the preaching of Christ’s cross.

Out of Zion ] For salvation is of the Jews, John 4:22 Isa 2:3 Mic 4:1-2 Abide ye in Jerusalem till, &c., Acts 1:8

Rule thou in the midst of thine enemies ] Among Jews, Pagans, Turks, Papagans; those that will not bend, let them break; those that will not stoop to thy government, let them feel thy power, Psalms 45:5 .

Verse 3

Psa 110:3 Thy people [shall be] willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth.

Ver. 3. Thy people shall be willing ] All Christ’s subjects are volunteers, free hearted, like those isles that wait for God’s law, Isa 42:8 Zechariah 8:21 . They love to be his servants, Isaiah 56:6 . Lex voluntarios quaerit, saith Ambrose.

In the day of thy power ] Copiarum tuarum, of thine army, or of thy militia, when thou shalt lead on thy Church militant, and be in the head of them, conquering and to conquer, Revelation 6:2 . Some understand it to be the Christian sabbath day.

In the beauties of holiness ] i.e. In Church assemblies, in the beauty of holy ordinances, at the administration whereof, Christ’s birth dew, that is, the influence of his Spirit and his presence in those ordinances, is from the womb of the morning, i.e. is of that generating and enlivening virtue that the dew of the teeming morning is to the seeds and plants of the earth. An apt similitude both to express the multitude of Christ’s converts, and the manner of their heavenly generation. See Micah 5:7 . See Trapp on " Mic 5:7 "

Verse 4

Psa 110:4 The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou [art] a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.

Ver. 4. The Lord hath sworn, &c. ] Christ’s priestly office, as well as his kingly, is here described, whereof how many and how great mysteries there are, see Heb. vii., with the notes. The Church is collected and conserved not only by Christ’s kingly power, but also by his priestly mediation.

Thou art a priest ] 1. To expiate. 2. To intercede.

After the order of Melchisedek ] Who whether he were Shem, or some other, is not easy to determine. Melchisedek was a king and a priest. Christ was more, a priest, a prophet, and a king. These offices have met double in some others; as Melchisedek was king and priest, Samuel a priest and a prophet, David a king and a prophet; but never met all three in any but in Christ alone.

Verse 5

Psa 110:5 The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath.

Ver. 5. The Lord at thy right hand ] Before, Christ was at the Father’s right hand; here, the Father at his; this is to show the equality of the Father and the Son, saith Jerome. Athanasius, by Lord here, understandeth the Holy Ghost. Others, by thy right hand, will have the Church to be meant, who is promised protection and victory. The Lord Christ shall slay her enemies in battle, Psalms 110:5 , compel them to flee and turn their backs, Psalms 110:6 , pursue them fleeing, Psalms 110:7 , as Judges 7:5-7 ; Jdg 7:19-23

Verse 6

Psa 110:6 He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill [the places] with the dead bodies; he shall wound the heads over many countries.

Ver. 6. He shall judge among the heathen ] Do execution upon his enemies, as Psalms 110:1 , whether kings or commoners.

He shall fill the places ] The ditches of their own camps.

He shall wound the heads ] Heb. head; cruentabit caput, whereby some understand the Roman empire, with its image, antichrist with his adherents, who are called heathens, Revelation 11:2 . Others, Turks and Saracens, reading the next words, Over the land of Rabbah, the chief city of the Ammonites, who were likewise Arabians; and so they make it an allusion to David’s victories over the Ammonites, 2 Samuel 10:6-19 ; 2Sa 12:26-31

Verse 7

Psa 110:7 He shall drink of the brook in the way: therefore shall he lift up the head.

Ver. 7. He shall drink of the brook in the way ] i.e. Of the wrath of the Almighty, pointing to Christ’s state of humiliation, as in the next words to his exaltation; or, he shall content himself with a low condition here, such as was that of Elijah when he drank of the brook, 1Ki 17:1-7 Or, in the eager pursuit of his enemies, he shall drink hastily of the water next at hand, i.e. as Gideon and his soldiers did, Vivet pauperem vitam, λιτον βιον (Chrysost.). Aerumnas omnes durissimae militae perferet (Beza).

Therefore shall he lift up the head ] Maugre the heads of his enemies, he shall rise again, reign, and triumph, and so shall all his members, after that through many tribulations they have entered into the kingdom of heaven. Christ’s and their sufferings are but a drinking of the brook, not a spring of water for perpetuity; they are but a dark entry into our Father’s house, a dirty lane to a stately palace; shut but your eyes, as that martyr at the stake said, and there will be a change immediately. Look how the disciples, after they had taken Christ into the ship, were presently at shore, after a tempest; so the saints have no sooner taken death into their bosoms, but they are landed presently at the quay of Canaan, at the kingdom of heaven.

Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Psalms 110". Trapp's Complete Commentary. https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/jtc/psalms-110.html. 1865-1868.
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