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Bible Commentaries

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Job 39



Verse 1

1. Even wild beasts, cut off from all care of man, are cared for by God at their seasons of greatest need. Their instinct comes direct from God and guides them to help themselves in parturition; the very time when the herdsman is most anxious for his herds.

wild goats—ibex (Psalms 104:18; 1 Samuel 24:2).

hinds—fawns; most timid and defenseless animals, yet cared for by God.

Verse 2

2. They bring forth with ease and do not need to reckon the months of pregnancy, as the shepherd does in the case of his flocks.

Verse 3

3. bow themselves—in parturition; bend on their knees ( :-).

bring forth—literally, "cause their young to cleave the womb and break forth."

sorrows—their young ones, the cause of their momentary pains.

Verse 4

4. are in good liking—in good condition, grow up strong.

with corn—rather, "in the field," without man's care.

return not—being able to provide for themselves.

Verse 5

5. wild ass—Two different Hebrew words are here used for the same animal, "the ass of the woods" and "the wild ass." (See on :-; Job 39:1; Job 39:1- :; and Job 39:1- :).

loosed the bands—given its liberty to. Man can rob animals of freedom, but not, as God, give freedom, combined with subordination to fixed laws.

Verse 6

6. barren—literally, "salt," that is, unfruitful. (So :-, Margin.)

Verse 7

7. multitude—rather, "din"; he sets it at defiance, being far away from it in the freedom of the wilderness.

driver—who urges on the tame ass to work. The wild ass is the symbol of uncontrolled freedom in the East; even kings have, therefore, added its name to them.

Verse 8

8. The range—literally, "searching," "that which it finds by searching is his pasture."

Verse 9

9. unicorn—PLINY [Natural History, 8.21], mentions such an animal; its figure is found depicted in the ruins of Persepolis. The Hebrew reem conveys the idea of loftiness and power (compare Ramah; Indian, Ram; Latin, Roma). The rhinoceros was perhaps the original type of the unicorn. The Arab rim is a two-horned animal. Sometimes "unicorn" or reem is a mere poetical symbol or abstraction; but the buffalo is the animal referred to here, from the contrast to the tame ox, used in ploughing (Job 39:10; Job 39:12).

abide—literally, "pass the night."

crib— (Job 39:12- :).

Verse 10

10. his band—fastened to the horns, as its chief strength lies in the head and shoulders.

after thee—obedient to thee; willing to follow, instead of being goaded on before thee.

Verse 11

11. thy labour—rustic work.

Verse 12

12. believe—trust.

seed—produce ( :-).

into thy barn—rather, "gather (the contents of) thy threshing-floor" [MAURER]; the corn threshed on it.

Verse 13

13. Rather, "the wing of the ostrich hen"—literally, "the crying bird"; as the Arab name for it means "song"; referring to its night cries (Job 30:29; Micah 1:8) vibrating joyously. "Is it not like the quill and feathers of the pious bird" (the stork)? [UMBREIT]. The vibrating, quivering wing, serving for sail and oar at once, is characteristic of the ostrich in full course. Its white and black feathers in the wing and tail are like the stork's. But, unlike that bird, the symbol of parental love in the East, it with seeming want of natural (pious) affection deserts its young. Both birds are poetically called by descriptive, instead of their usual appellative, names.

Verse 14

14, 15. Yet (unlike the stork) she "leaveth," c. Hence called by the Arabs "the impious bird." However, the fact is, she lays her eggs with great care and hatches them, as other birds do but in hot countries the eggs do not need so constant incubation; she therefore often leaves them and sometimes forgets the place on her return. Moreover, the outer eggs, intended for food, she feeds to her young; these eggs, lying separate in the sand, exposed to the sun, gave rise to the idea of her altogether leaving them. God describes her as she seems to man; implying, though she may seem foolishly to neglect her young, yet really she is guided by a sure instinct from God, as much as animals of instincts widely different.

Verse 16

16. On a slight noise she often forsakes her eggs, and returns not, as if she were "hardened towards her young."

her labour—in producing eggs, is in vain, (yet) she has not disquietude (about her young), unlike other birds, who, if one egg and another are taken away, will go on laying till their full number is made up.

Verse 17

17. wisdom—such as God gives to other animals, and to man ( :-). The Arab proverb is, "foolish as an ostrich." Yet her very seeming want of wisdom is not without wise design of God, though man cannot see it; just as in the trials of the godly, which seem so unreasonable to Job, there lies hid a wise design.

Verse 18

18. Notwithstanding her deficiencies, she has distinguishing excellences.

lifteth . . . herself—for running; she cannot mount in the air. GESENIUS translates: "lashes herself" up to her course by flapping her wings. The old versions favor English Version, and the parallel "scorneth" answers to her proudly "lifting up herself."

Verse 19

19. The allusion to "the horse" (Job 39:18), suggests the description of him. Arab poets delight in praising the horse; yet it is not mentioned in the possessions of Job (Job 1:3; Job 42:12). It seems to have been at the time chiefly used for war, rather than "domestic purposes."

thunder—poetically for, "he with arched neck inspires fear as thunder does." Translate, "majesty" [UMBREIT]. Rather "the trembling, quivering mane," answering to the "vibrating wing" of the ostrich (see on Job 42:12- :) [MAURER]. "Mane" in Greek also is from a root meaning "fear." English Version is more sublime.

Verse 20

20. make . . . afraid—rather, "canst thou (as I do) make him spring as the locust?" So in Joel 2:4, the comparison is between locusts and war-horses. The heads of the two are so similar that the Italians call the locusts cavaletta, "little horse."

nostrils—snorting furiously.

Verse 21

21. valley—where the battle is joined.

goeth on—goeth forth (Numbers 1:3; Numbers 21:23).

Verse 23

23. quiver—for the arrows, which they contain, and which are directed "against him."

glittering spear—literally, "glittering of the spear," like "lightning of the spear" (Habakkuk 3:11).

shield—rather, "lance."

Verse 24

24. swalloweth—Fretting with impatience, he draws the ground towards him with his hoof, as if he would swallow it. The parallelism shows this to be the sense; not as MAURER, "scours over it."

neither believeth—for joy. Rather, "he will not stand still, when the note of the trumpet (soundeth)."

Verse 25

25. saith—poetically applied to his mettlesome neighing, whereby he shows his love of the battle.

smelleth—snuffeth; discerneth (Isaiah 11:3, Margin).

thunder—thundering voice.

Verse 26

26. The instinct by which some birds migrate to warmer climes before winter. Rapid flying peculiarly characterizes the whole hawk genus.

Verse 27

27. eagle—It flies highest of all birds: thence called "the bird of heaven."

Verse 28

28. abideth—securely ( :-); it occupies the same abode mostly for life.

crag—literally, "tooth" (1 Samuel 14:5, Margin).

strong place—citadel, fastness.

Verse 29

29. seeketh—is on the lookout for.

behold—The eagle descries its prey at an astonishing distance, by sight, rather than smell.

Verse 30

30. Quoted partly by Jesus Christ (Matthew 24:28). The food of young eagles is the blood of victims brought by the parent, when they are still too feeble to devour flesh.

slain—As the vulture chiefly feeds on carcasses, it is included probably in the eagle genus.

Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Job 39". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". 1871-8.