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The godly remnant of the nation of Israel assured in heart, in view of the purpose of God to deliver His people from all their enemies.
Psalm 107 , sets forth the ways of God with men, especially having in view His people Israel. Psalm 108 , very blessedly sets forth the purpose of God for His people, or the end to which all His ways are leading. His ways with us ever have in view His purpose for us.
In order to present His purpose, the spirit of God has united in this psalm the closing portions to two other psalms. Verses 1 to 5 , form the latter portion of Psalm 57 : verses 6 to 13, the end of Psalm 60 . The ends of these two psalms, cut off from the exercises and trials with which they are connected in their original setting, combine very blessedly to present the purpose of God for His people.
(vv. 1-3) The godly in Israel, though the nation is not yet delivered from all their enemies, can praise Jehovah, through being assured in heart of God's purpose to bless them. The soul anticipates the dawn of a new day when all the nations will join with Israel in praise to Jehovah.
(vv. 4-6) The confidence and joy of the godly springs from the knowledge that mercy and truth have prevailed, and that the glory of God is secured. Thus blessing can flow to His beloved people, delivering them from all their enemies. In this confidence the godly man looks to God to put forth His right hand in saving power, and thus answer his prayer.
(vv. 7-9) The verses that follow give the answer to God, setting forth His settled purpose to deliver His people. God says, “I will rejoice, I will divide Shechem”; “over Edom will I cast out my shoe; over Philistia will I triumph.” When God says, “I will,” who can oppose His will, or thwart His purpose.
Moreover He makes His people's cause His own. He says “Gilead is mine; Manasseh is mine; Ephraim also is the strength of mine head; Judah is my lawgiver.” Great had been the failure of Manasseh, and great the sin of Ephraim; but no failure can frustrate God's purpose to bless His people. In spite of all failure God rejoices in them, claims them as His own, and in holiness has said that He will triumph over all those who have opposed His beloved ones.
(vv. 10-13) The psalm closes with the response of the godly to the avowed purpose of God. The very God who, in times past, had cast them off, because of their failure, is the God to whom they now look to be led to victory. Having learned that the help of man is vain, and looking only to God, they can say, with the utmost confidence, “He it is who shall tread down our enemies.”
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Smith, Hamilton. "Commentary on Psalms 108". "Smith's Writings". https://studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 22 / Ordinary 27