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Bible Commentaries

Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures

Exodus 12

Verses 1-30

The Tenth Plague (Death of the Firstborn) - Exodus 11:1 to Exodus 12:30 tells us about the tenth and final plague in which an angel descended from Heaven and slew all of the firstborn in Egypt whose homes were not covered by the blood.

Exodus 11:2-3 Scripture References - Note similar verses:

Exodus 3:21-22, “And I will give this people favour in the sight of the Egyptians: and it shall come to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go empty: But every woman shall borrow of her neighbour, and of her that sojourneth in her house, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters; and ye shall spoil the Egyptians.”

Exodus 12:35-36, “And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians.”

Exodus 11:7 “shall not a dog move his tongue” Comments - No lamenting whatsoever shall occur.

Exodus 11:8 Comments The Scriptures record several occasions when Moses displayed negative actions as a result of his anger. All of these actions resulted in consequences in the life of Moses. Moses’ anger at the abuse of his people moved him to murder:

Exodus 2:11-12, “And it came to pass in those days, when Moses was grown, that he went out unto his brethren, and looked on their burdens: and he spied an Egyptian smiting an Hebrew, one of his brethren. And he looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no man, he slew the Egyptian, and hid him in the sand .”

Moses was angry with Pharaoh:

Exodus 11:8, “And all these thy servants shall come down unto me, and bow down themselves unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people that follow thee: and after that I will go out. And he went out from Pharaoh in a great anger .”

Moses was angry with the children of Israel:

Exodus 16:20, “Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto Moses; but some of them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and stank: and Moses was wroth with them .”

Moses broke the Ten Commandments in anger.

Exodus 32:19, “And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf, and the dancing: and Moses' anger waxed hot , and he cast the tables out of his hands, and brake them beneath the mount.”

God commanded Moses to speak to the rock, but in his anger, he smote the rock twice. This cost Moses his trip into the Promised Land:

Numbers 20:11, “And Moses lifted up his hand, and with his rod he smote the rock twice : and the water came out abundantly, and the congregation drank, and their beasts also.”

Exodus 12:1-28 The Institution of the Passover Exodus 12:1-28 records the institution of the Passover, which was necessary in anticipation of the tenth plague? God had to get His people ready so that they did not have to partake of the final plague.

On the tenth day the lamb was chosen; it was inspected for three days; then it was sacrificed on the fourteenth day. Note that Jesus had a 3-year ministry in which He was inspected by many, especially the Pharisees. They could find no fault. Much of Gospel Passion narratives deal with last three days of Jesus ministry while He taught in temple and when He was taken and crucified.

The Scriptures teach us that there was healing in the Passover. Psalms 105:37 tell us that there was not a single weak, or sick, person among those children of Israel who went out in the Exodus, “He brought them forth also with silver and gold: and there was not one feeble person among their tribes.” During the Passover that Hezekiah instituted, God healed the people, “And the LORD hearkened to Hezekiah, and healed the people.” (2 Chronicles 30:20)

Exodus 12:5 Comments Just as the Lord required every member of each household to have a sacrificial lamb in order cover them from the judgment of God, so does the Lord require everyone to come to the blood of Jesus to cover them from eternal judgment. No one can escape God’s wrath without going to Jesus Christ as their Saviour and being cleansed by His precious blood.

Exodus 12:5 Comments The lamb was to be without blemish, which was a type and figure of Jesus, as our sacrificial lamb, who was without sin.

Exodus 12:6 “ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month” - Comments - Why keep the lamb or goat for two weeks prior to sacrificing it on the day of Passover? One reason is that a goat has been out eating some trash. A goat will eat almost anything. This two-week period will give the owners time to feed it properly and to purge its system of impurities, so that the meat is fit to eat.

Exodus 12:8 Comments - The unleavened bread and bitter herbs were part of the menu that the Israel’s dined on the night of their exodus from Egypt (Exodus 12:8). Because the Israelites made haste in leaving Egypt they did not have time to leaven their bread. According to Jesus and Paul, leaven is figurative for sin (Matthew 16:6; Matthew 16:11-12, Mark 8:15, Luk 12:1 , 1 Corinthians 5:6-8, Galatians 5:9). The Hebrew text reads, “with bitter,” with the word “herbs” implied. As a result, the YLT translates this phrase “bitter things.” Rawlinson tells us that Mishna suggests these bitter herbs may have been “endive, chicory, wild lettuce, and nettles.” [44] The LXX gives a literal translation, “ πικρίδων ” (of bitter [things]). The Clementine Vulgate renders this phrase as “wild lettuce” (cum lactucis agrestibus). [45] The ISBE says that lettuce and endive are used by modern Jews in their Passover meal. [46] As a result, Wycliffe reads, “letusis of the feeld,” the DRC reads, “wild lettuce,” and the NLT reads “bitter salad green.” Rawlinson expresses the popular view that these bitter herbs were in fact distasteful when eaten and represented the bitterness of their Egyptian bondage.

[44] G. Rawlinson, Exodus, in The Pulpit Commentary, ed. H. D. M. Spence and Joseph Exell (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1950), in Ages Digital Library, v. 1.0 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc., 2001), comments on Exodus 12:8.

[45] Biblia Sacra juxta Vulgatam Clementinam (Ed. electronica) in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 2005), Exodus 12:8.

[46] E. W. G. Masterman, “Bitter herbs,” in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., c1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v. 1.5.11 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

Exodus 12:8, “And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.”

Matthew 16:6, “Then Jesus said unto them, Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.”

Matthew 16:11-12, “How is it that ye do not understand that I spake it not to you concerning bread, that ye should beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees? Then understood they how that he bade them not beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.”

Mark 8:15, “And he charged them, saying, Take heed, beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, and of the leaven of Herod.”

Luke 12:1, “In the mean time, when there were gathered together an innumerable multitude of people, insomuch that they trode one upon another, he began to say unto his disciples first of all, Beware ye of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy.”

1 Corinthians 5:6-8, “Your glorying is not good. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us: Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.”

Galatians 5:9, “A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump.”

Exodus 12:12 “against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD” Comments - Exodus 12:12 says that the ten plagues were directed against specific Egyptian Gods. Because YHWH is the true and living God, He will judge those other gods. Some Bible commentators associate the ten plagues with specific Egyptian gods or beliefs. [47]

[47] See John J. Davis, Moses and the Gods of Egypt: Studies in Exodus , 2 nd ed. (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1971); J. Vernon McGee, Exodus, in Thru the Bible With J. Vernon McGee (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub., 1998), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004).

1. Water turning to blood Because the Nile River was a vital source of life, the Egyptians had a number of gods associated with the Nile River. David Padfield says that “Khnum was the guardian of the Nile,” and “Hapi was the ‘spirit of the Nile;’” the Egyptians believed that the Nile River was the “bloodstream” of Osiris, the god of the underworld.” [48] Miriam Lichtheim suggests that the first plague of water turning to blood may have been directed against Hapi, the spirit of the Nile River. [49] J. Vernon McGee say that what was a source of life for the Egyptians became their death. [50]

[48] David Padfield, Against All The Gods Of Egypt (#1) ( Zion, Illinois : Church of Christ, 2009) [on-line]; accessed 2 March 2009; available from http://www.biblelandhistory.com/egypt/plagues-egypt-3.html; Internet.

[49] Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature: Vol. I: The Old and Middle Kingdoms (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973-80), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004), 204.

[50] J. Vernon McGee, Exodus, in Thru the Bible With J. Vernon McGee (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub., 1998), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004), comments on Exodus 7:14-25.

2. The plague of frogs The second plague of frogs would have been directed against Heqt, often depicted as a frog, who was “the wife of the creator of the world and the goddess of birth.” (Padfield) [51] McGee notes that the Egyptians considered the frogs sacred, so they would have had difficulty in killing them. [52]

[51] David Padfield, Against All The Gods Of Egypt (#1) ( Zion, Illinois : Church of Christ, 2009) [on-line]; accessed 2 March 2009; available from http://www.biblelandhistory.com/egypt/plagues-egypt-3.html; Internet.

[52] J. Vernon McGee, Exodus, in Thru the Bible With J. Vernon McGee (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub., 1998), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004), comments on Exodus 8:1-5.

3. The plague of lice Padfield believes that the plague of lice was actually sandflies or fleas. McGee suggests that the Hebrew word could mean gnats or mosquitoes, but prefers the word lice, and tells the story of a visitor to Egypt who thought the sand was moving, but found it to be thousands of tiny ticks which began to crawl up his leg. They suggest that this plague would have been directed towards “Geb, the great god of the earth.” [53]

[53] David Padfield, Against All The Gods Of Egypt (#1) ( Zion, Illinois : Church of Christ, 2009) [on-line]; accessed 2 March 2009; available from http://www.biblelandhistory.com/egypt/plagues-egypt-3.html; Internet; J. Vernon McGee, Exodus, in Thru the Bible With J. Vernon McGee (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub., 1998), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004), comments on Exodus 8:16-19.

4. The plague of flies McGee and Padfield suggest the plague of flies was actually the sacred scarab beetle, which fed upon dung, and were believed to be sacred to the sun god named Ra. [54] Padfield says the Egyptians believed Ra pushed the sun across the sky much like the scarab beetle pushed a ball of dung along the ground.

[54] David Padfield, Against All The Gods Of Egypt (#1) ( Zion, Illinois : Church of Christ, 2009) [on-line]; accessed 2 March 2009; available from http://www.biblelandhistory.com/egypt/plagues-egypt-3.html; Internet; J. Vernon McGee, Exodus, in Thru the Bible With J. Vernon McGee (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub., 1998), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004), comments on Exodus 8:20-23.

5. The murrain upon cattle Apis was the sacred bull in Egyptian mythology. McGee notes that thousands of them have been mummified in Egyptian tombs. [55] Or, perhaps the fifth plague of murrain would have been directed against the Egyptian goddess of the sky named Hathor, who was sometimes portrayed as a cow, and later as a woman with the head of a cow. [56]

[55] J. Vernon McGee, Exodus, in Thru the Bible With J. Vernon McGee (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub., 1998), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004), comments on Exodus 9:1-7.

[56] David Padfield, Against All The Gods Of Egypt (#1) ( Zion, Illinois : Church of Christ, 2009) [on-line]; accessed 2 March 2009; available from http://www.biblelandhistory.com/egypt/plagues-egypt-3.html; Internet; Orval Wintermute, “Hathor,” in The World Book Encyclopedia, vol. 9 (Chicago: World Book, Inc, 1993), 86.

6. The plague of boils - The plague of boils affected man as well as beasts. Padfield suggests this plague may have been directed against “Imhotep, the god of medicine,” “Serapis, the deity in charge of healing,” and “Thoth, the ibis-headed god of intelligence and medical learning.” [57]

[57] David Padfield, Against All The Gods Of Egypt (#1) ( Zion, Illinois : Church of Christ, 2009) [on-line]; accessed 2 March 2009; available from http://www.biblelandhistory.com/egypt/plagues-egypt-3.html; Internet;

7. The plague of hail - The seventh plague of rain, hail and thunder may have been directed against the Egyptian god Seth, the god of those types of storms and violent weather conditions.” [58] McGee suggests it addressed “Isis (sometimes represented as cow-headed), goddess of fertility and considered the goddess of the air.” [59] Padfield it was directed against “Nut, the sky goddess.” He also lists “Shu, the wind god,” “Horus, the hawk-headed sky god of Upper Egypt,” and “Isis and Seth,” who “protected the crops.” [60]

[58] Orval Wintermute, “Seth,” in The World Book Encyclopedia, vol. 17 (Chicago: World Book, Inc, 1993), 323.

[59] J. Vernon McGee, Exodus, in Thru the Bible With J. Vernon McGee (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub., 1998), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004), comments on Exodus 9:18-21.

[60] David Padfield, Against All The Gods Of Egypt (#1) ( Zion, Illinois : Church of Christ, 2009) [on-line]; accessed 2 March 2009; available from http://www.biblelandhistory.com/egypt/plagues-egypt-3.html; Internet;

8. The plague of locust - McGee believes the plague of locusts were a sign of divine judgment directed against the people of Egypt. [61] They would have to acknowledge that judgment had come upon their land. Padfield lists other gods who were associated with the planting of crops: “Nepri, the god of grain,” “Ermutet, the goddess of childbirth and crops,” Isis, “Thermuthis, the goddess of fertility and the harvest,” and “Seth, a god of crops.” [62]

[61] J. Vernon McGee, Exodus, in Thru the Bible With J. Vernon McGee (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub., 1998), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004), comments on Exodus 10:17-20.

[62] David Padfield, Against All The Gods Of Egypt (#1) ( Zion, Illinois : Church of Christ, 2009) [on-line]; accessed 2 March 2009; available from http://www.biblelandhistory.com/egypt/plagues-egypt-3.html; Internet;

9. The plague of darkness - The ninth plague of darkness was directed towards the sun god Re, the chief god in Egyptian mythology. The sun was the most potent religious symbol of Egypt, with the worship of the sun-god Re, their chief deities. [63] Padfield lists Re the sun god, and Horus, who “was the god of light who personified the life-giving power of the Sun.” [64]

[63] John D. McEachran, “Re,” in The World Book Encyclopedia, vol. 16 (Chicago: World Book, Inc, 1993), 153-4

[64] David Padfield, Against All The Gods Of Egypt (#1) ( Zion, Illinois : Church of Christ, 2009) [on-line]; accessed 2 March 2009; available from http://www.biblelandhistory.com/egypt/plagues-egypt-3.html; Internet;

10. The death of the firstborn - The tenth plague was the death of the firstborn, which would have been directed against the Egyptian Pharaoh, who was considered to be the incarnation of the Horus, the son of Amon-Re, the sun god. [65] Padfield believes that this plague was directed against all of the Egyptian gods. He lists a number of them associated with procreation and life. [66]

[65] Leonard H. Lesko, “Pharaoh,” in The World Book Encyclopedia, vol. 16 (Chicago: World Book, Inc, 1993), 15.

[66] David Padfield, Against All The Gods Of Egypt (#1) ( Zion, Illinois : Church of Christ, 2009) [on-line]; accessed 2 March 2009; available from http://www.biblelandhistory.com/egypt/plagues-egypt-3.html; Internet;

Exodus 12:17 “for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt” - Comments - God is called the Lord of the Armies (Sabaoth) in the book of James.

Exodus 7:4, “But Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you, that I may lay my hand upon Egypt, and bring forth mine armies , and my people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments.”

James 5:4, “Behold, the hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields, which is of you kept back by fraud, crieth: and the cries of them which have reaped are entered into the ears of the Lord of sabaoth .”

Verses 30-51

Exodus 12:35 “they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment” - Comments - Where did the Egyptians obtain such wealth to give to the Israelites? During Joseph's reign, four hundred years earlier, Egypt gained much of its wealth through his wisdom. This money was stored up for these four hundred years for the righteous. God used his servant, Joseph, to prepare the children for the expensive cost of the Exodus and the building of the Tabernacle.

Exodus 3:21-22, “And I will give this people favour in the sight of the Egyptians: and it shall come to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go empty: But every woman shall borrow of her neighbour, and of her that sojourneth in her house, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters; and ye shall spoil the Egyptians.”

Exodus 11:2-3, “Speak now in the ears of the people, and let every man borrow of his neighbour, and every woman of her neighbour, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold. And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants, and in the sight of the people.”

Psalms 105:37, “ He brought them forth also with silver and gold : and there was not one feeble person among their tribes.”

Proverbs 13:22, “A good man leaveth an inheritance to his children's children: and the wealth of the sinner is laid up for the just .”

Joseph even prophesied of the Exodus, for which he had been used by God to gather the wealth the Israelites gathered from the Egyptians for the Exodus. Note:

Genesis 50:24-25, “And Joseph said unto his brethren, I die: and God will surely visit you, and bring you out of this land unto the land which he sware to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. And Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you, and ye shall carry up my bones from hence.”

Exodus 12:35-36 Comments God’s Principle of Giving and Receiving - God took the children of Israel out of bondage with silver and gold; for they had spoiled the Egyptians. It is important to note that the children of Israel brought the Lord an offering, a sacrificial lamb, prior to this gift of favour in the sight of the Egyptians. When we give, God gives back. The children of Israel were not indulging in covetousness, but rather, they were taking their wages from years of slavery. This transfer of the world’s wealth was declared by God to Moses at the burning bush, saying, “And I will give this people favour in the sight of the Egyptians: and it shall come to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go empty: But every woman shall borrow of her neighbour, and of her that sojourneth in her house, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters; and ye shall spoil the Egyptians.” (Exodus 3:21-22)

A few months later, God would ask them to give of a willing heart for the building of the Tabernacle. God blessed the children of Israel in order that they might also learn to give willingly and abundantly.

Exodus 25:1-2, “And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring me an offering: of every man that giveth it willingly with his heart ye shall take my offering.”

Israel’s receiving Egypt’s wealth and giving it to build the Tabernacle in the wilderness is an excellent example of 2 Corinthians 9:10, “Now he that ministereth seed to the sower both minister bread for your food, and multiply your seed sown, and increase the fruits of your righteousness;”

Exodus 12:37 “And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses” Word Study on “Rameses” - Strong tells us that the name “Rameses” “rah-mes-ace'” ( רַעְמְסֵס ) (H7486) means “child son of the sun.” PTW says it means, “child of the sun.”

Comments - Rameses is first mentioned in Genesis 47:11 as the land where Israel and the seventy souls that Joseph brought into Egypt first settled, where it is called the best of the land of Egypt, perhaps referring to its fertility in the Nile River delta. According to Exodus 12:37 this was the home of the Israelites for their entire four hundred-year stay in the land of Egypt. In Exodus 1:11 the Israelites built a city called Raamses ( רַעַמְסֵֽס ) (H7486), spelled differently, but the same Hebrew word is used.

Genesis 47:11, “And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses , as Pharaoh had commanded.”

Exodus 1:11, “Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Raamses .”

Exodus 12:37 Word Study on “to Succoth” Strong and BDB say the name “Succoth” ( סֻכּוֹת ) (H5523) means, “booths.” PTW says it means, “tents.”

Exodus 12:37 “about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children” - Comments - The question arises as to how seventy souls entered into Egypt and multiplied into six hundred thousand men. If we consider the fact that there were initially twelve sons born to Jacob, and according to the list found in Genesis 46:8-27 these twelve sons bore fifty-one sons that were brought into Egypt; and if we consider the fact the Israelites were in Egypt four (thirty) hundred years (Exodus 12:40-41, Acts 7:6), we can make an approximate calculation of their growth using mathematics to reach this large number of six hundred thousand men who came out of Egypt. We know that 12 sons of Jacob enter Egypt with their 51 sons. If we estimate that an average of four sons were born to of the twelve sons of Jacob, noting that they bore a total of fifty-one sons (51 sons / 12 sons = 4.25 sons), and if we say that approximately eight generations of children were born in Egypt since the average man would bear his sons by the age of fifty, then the calculations would look like this:

First Generation: 51 sons x 4 sons = 204 sons after 50 years Second Generation: 204 sons x 4 sons = 816 sons after 100 years Third Generation: 816 sons x 4 sons = 3,264 sons after 150 years Fourth Generation: 3,264 sons x 4 sons = 13,056 sons after 200 years Fifth Generation: 13,056 sons x 4 sons = 52,224 sons after 250 years Sixth Generation: 52,224 sons x 4 sons = 208,896 sons after 300 years Seventh Generation: 208,896 sons x 4 sons = 835,584 sons after 350 years Seventh Generation: 835,584 sons x 4 sons = 3,342,336 sons after 400 years Scholars may calculate these figures in various ways; but the point is that four (thirty) hundred years was plenty of time for the nation of Israel to multiply into the 600,000 men recorded in Exodus 12:37, even with a large number of Israelite men losing their lives before bearing children, and with infant male mortality by the Egyptians taking place during the later generations.

Exodus 12:37 “about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children” - Comments - Note in Numbers 1:46 that two years later (Numbers 1:1) there were “603,550 men able to go to war, who were 20 years old and upward.” Thus, the number of Israelites were increasing in the wilderness.

Numbers 1:46, “Even all they that were numbered were six hundred thousand and three thousand and five hundred and fifty.”

Numbers 1:1, “And the LORD spake unto Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the tabernacle of the congregation, on the first day of the second month, in the second year after they were come out of the land of Egypt, saying,”

Exodus 12:38 And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.

Exodus 12:38 Word Study on “mixed” Strong says that the Hebrew word “mixed” “ay'-reb” ( עֶרֶב ) (H6154) means, “woof (as mixed and interwoven), or (as knitted material),” and it carries the meaning, “a mixture, a mixed people, a mixed company.” Enhanced Strong tells us this word is used 11 times in the Old Testament being translated in the KJV as “woof 9, mixed multitude 2”. Strong says this Hebrew word is derived from the primitive root ( עָרַב ) (6148), which means, “to braid, to intermix,” and “to give or be security.” Its only other use as a reference to people is found in Nehemiah 13:3.

Nehemiah 13:3, “Now it came to pass, when they had heard the law, that they separated from Israel all the mixed multitude.”

Exodus 12:38 Comments - The children of Israel went out of Egyptian bondage with a group of non-Israelites who joined themselves with God’s people. God shows mercy to other nations who can turn to the Lord by faith. This seems to be a prediction that God will one day send the Gospel to the Gentiles so that they will be grafted into the remnant of the people of Israel.

In Exodus 12:43-49 the Lord will give Moses the rules on how to incorporate these Gentiles into Israeli worship and life.

Exodus 12:39 And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual.

Exodus 12:40 Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.

Exodus 12:40 Comments - Although the exact date of the exodus has not been determined, scholars dated this event from 1446 B. C. to 1290 B.C. [67]

[67] R. F. Youngblood, F. F. Bruce, R. K. Harrison, and Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, rev. ed. (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004), “Exodus.”

Exodus 12:41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.

Exodus 12:41 “four hundred and thirty years” Comments - Two other Scripture references say the Israelites were in bondage for four hundred years.

Genesis 15:13, “And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years;”

Acts 7:6, “And God spake on this wise, That his seed should sojourn in a strange land; and that they should bring them into bondage, and entreat them evil four hundred years.”

Exodus 12:41 “on the very same day” Comments - The phrase “on the very same day (Exodus 12:41) means that Jacob and his family entered Egypt on the day of Passover.

Exodus 12:40-41 Comments The Significance of the Date of the Exodus - The Book of Jubilees, written by a Pharisee during the second century B.C., states that there were exactly fifty Jubilees from the time of Adam until the day the children of Israel entered into the Promised Land.

“there are forty-nine jubilees from the days of Adam until this day, [2410 A.M.] and one week and two years: and there are yet forty years to come (lit. 'distant') for learning the [2450 A.M.] commandments of the Lord, until they pass over into the land of Canaan, crossing the Jordan to the west.” ( The Book of Jubilees 50.4-5)

It is interesting to note that the Exodus took place approximately on the fiftieth jubilee since Adam was created, which is a period of 2,546 years. This means that a jubilee of fifty years had elapsed upon the earth fifty consecutive times. Note the simple arithmetic.

Adam to Seth 130 years

Seth to Enos 105 years

Enos to Cainan 90 years

Cainan to Mahalaleel 70 years

Mahalaleel to Jared 65 years

Jared to Enoch 162 years

Enoch to Methuselah 65 years

Methuselah to Lamech 187 years

Lamech to Noah 182 years

Noah to Shem, Ham, Jepheth 500 years

Shem to Arphaxad 100 years

Arphaxad to Salah 35 years

Salah to Eber 30 years

Eber to Peleg 34 years

Peleg to Reu 30 years

Reu to Serug 32 years

Serug to Nahor 30 years

Nahor to Terah 29 years

Terah to Abraham, Nahor, Teran 70 years

Abraham to Isaac 100 years

Isaac to Jacob 40 years

Jacob into Egypt - 130 years

Into Egypt until the Exodus 430 years

These numbers add up to a total of 2,546 years.

Exodus 12:46 “neither shall ye break a bone thereof” - Comments - Jesus is the sacrificial lamb. Like the Passover lamb, His bones were not broken (Psalms 34:20, John 19:33-36).

Numbers 9:12, “They shall leave none of it unto the morning, nor break any bone of it : according to all the ordinances of the Passover they shall keep it.”

Psalms 34:20, “ He keepeth all his bones: not one of them is broken .”

John 19:33-36, “But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs: But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water. And he that saw it bare record, and his record is true: and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe. For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken .”

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Bibliographical Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Exodus 12". Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghe/exodus-12.html. 2013.