Consider helping today!
by Gary H. Everett
STUDY NOTES ON THE HOLY SCRIPTURES
Using a Theme-based Approach
to Identify Literary Structures
By Gary H. Everett
THE BOOK OF EXODUS
January 2013 Edition
All Scripture quotations in English are taken from the King James Version unless otherwise noted. Some words have been emphasized by the author of this commentary using bold or italics.
All Old Testament Scripture quotations in the Hebrew text are taken from Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: With Westminster Hebrew Morphology, electronic ed., Stuttgart; Glenside PA: German Bible Society, Westminster Seminary, 1996, c1925, morphology c1991, in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
All New Testament Scripture quotations in the Greek text are taken from Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition (with Morphology), eds. Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (United Bible Societies), c1966, 1993, 2006, in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
All Hebrew and Greek text for word studies are taken from James Strong in The New Strong's Dictionary of Hebrew and Greek Words, Nashville: Thomas Nelson, c1996, 1997, in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
The Crucifixion image on the book cover was created by the author’s daughter Victoria Everett in 2012.
© Gary H. Everett, 1981-2013
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form without prior permission of the author.
Foundational Theme The Lord God is the One, True God
Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD.
Structural Theme (1) God Redeems the Children of Israel and Enters into Covenant
And I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a God:
and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God,
which bringeth you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.
And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea;
1 Corinthians 10:2
Structural Theme (2) God Gives the Law of Moses to the Children of Israel
Wherefore the law is holy,
and the commandment holy, and just, and good.
Imperative Theme (1) Israel’s Faith in the God of Israel
Now I know that the LORD is greater than all gods:
for in the thing wherein they dealt proudly he was above them.
Imperative Theme (2) - Israel’s Obedience to Mosaic Law
Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ,
that we might be justified by faith.
INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK OF EXODUS
Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures supports the view of the verbal, plenary inspiration of the biblical text of the Holy Scriptures, meaning that every word originally written down by the authors in the sixty-six books of the Holy Canon were God-breathed when recorded by men, and that the Scriptures are therefore inerrant and infallible. Any view less than this contradicts the testimony of the Holy Scriptures themselves. For this reason, the Holy Scriptures contain both divine attributes and human attributes. While textual criticism engages with the variant readings of the biblical text, acknowledging its human attributes, faith in His Word acknowledges its divine attributes. These views demand the adherence of mankind to the supreme authority of the Holy Scriptures above all else. The Holy Scriptures can only be properly interpreted by the guidance of the Holy Spirit, an aspect of biblical scholarship that is denied by liberal views, causing much misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the Holy Scriptures.
Introductory Material - The introduction to the book of Exodus will deal with its historical setting, literary style, and theological framework.  These three aspects of introductory material will serve as an important foundation for understanding God’s message to us today from this divinely inspired book of the Holy Scriptures.
 Someone may associate these three categories with Hermann Gunkel’s well-known three-fold approach to form criticism when categorizing the genre found within the book of Psalms: (1) “a common setting in life,” (2) “thoughts and mood,” (3) “literary forms.” In addition, the Word Biblical Commentary uses “Form/Structure/Setting” preceding each commentary section. Although such similarities were not intentional, but rather coincidental, the author was aware of them and found encouragement from them when assigning the three-fold scheme of historical setting, literary style, and theological framework to his introductory material. See Hermann Gunkel, The Psalms: A Form-Critical Introduction, trans. Thomas M. Horner, in Biblical Series, vol. 19, ed. John Reumann (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967), 10; see also Word Biblical Commentary, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007).
“We dare not divorce our study from understanding the historical setting of every passage of Scripture
if we are going to come to grips with the truth and message of the Bible.”
(J. Hampton Keathley) 
 J. Hampton Keathley, III, “Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah,” (Bible.org) [on-line]; accessed 23 May 2012; available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.
Each book of the Holy Scriptures is cloaked within a unique historical setting. An examination of this setting is useful in the interpretation of the book because it provides the context of the passage of Scripture under examination. The section on the historical setting of the book of Exodus will provide a discussion on its title, historical background, authorship, date and place of writing, recipients, and occasion. This discussion supports the Jewish tradition that Moses was the author of the book of Exodus, writing during the period of Israel’s wilderness journey.
I. The Title
There are a number of ancient titles associated with the book of Exodus.
A. The Ancient Jewish Title “These Are the Names” Henry Swete says ancient Jews titled the five books of the Pentateuch, Proverbs, and Lamentations by identifying a key word in the opening verses.  The Hebrew title for Exodus was “Welesmoth” ( וְאֵ֗לֶּה שְׁמוֹת֙ ), which comes from the opening word of this book, meaning “and these are the names.” Origen (c. 185 c. 254) testifies to the use of this title by the Jews in his day.  Jerome (A.D. 342 to 420) was familiar with this title as well.  The titles ( שמות ) and ( ואלה שמות ) can be found in the standard work Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. 
 Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 214.
 Eusebius, the early Church historian, writes, “Exodus, Welesmoth, that is, ‘These are the names’;” Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 6.25.1-2 , trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 1, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (Oxford: Parker and Company, c1890, 1905), 272-3.
 Jerome says, “The second, Elle Smoth, which bears the name Exodus;” See Jerome, “Prefaces to the Books of the Vulgate Version of the Old Testament: The Books of Samuel and Kings,” trans. W. H. Freemantle, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series, vol. 6, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (New York: The Christian Literature Company, 1893), 489-90.
 Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, eds. A. Alt, O. Eißfelt, P. Kahle, and R. Kittle (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung, c1967-77); Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: With Westminster Hebrew Morphology, electronic ed., (Stuttgart; Glenside PA: German Bible Society; Westminster Seminary, 1996, c1925; morphology c1991), in in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004).
B. The Modern English Title “ Exodus” Today, English bibles use the title “Exodus,” which finds it origin in the Greek title used in the LXX “Έξοδυς,” which means “going out, away” in the Hebrew text ( Gesenius). Henry Swete suggests this title came from Exodus 19:1, “… τῆς ἐξόδου τῶν υἱῶν Ισραηλ ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου …”  Philo (20 B.C A.D. 50) called the book by its Greek name Έξοδυς.  This Greek title was known by Melito, bishop of Sardis (d. c. 190).  The Vulgate uses the Latin title “Exodus (liber),”  from which the English title is derived. There are some variations to this title. For example, the Codex Alexandrinus uses the longer title Έξοδυς Αίγύπτου.  Since the title “Exodus” is used as far back as the LXX, Henry Swete and George Gray believe this title is “of Alexandrian and pre-Christian origin.”  The Greek/English title reflects the contents of the book, which deals with Israel’s exodus from Egypt.
 Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 215.
 Herbert E. Ryle, Philo and Holy Scripture (London: Macmillan and Company, 1895), xxii.
 Eusbius writes, “‘I learned accurately the books of the Old Testament, and send them to thee as written below. Their names are as follows: Of Moses, five books: Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus, Deuteronomy; Jesus Nave, Judges, Ruth; of Kings, four books; of Chronicles, two; the Psalms of David; the Proverbs of Solomon, Wisdom also, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Job; of Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah; of the twelve prophets, one book; Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras. From which also I have made the extracts, dividing them into six books.’ Such are the words of Melito.” See Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 4.26.14 , trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 1, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff, (Oxford: Parker and Company, c1890, 1905), 206.
 Biblia Sacra Juxta Vulgatam Clementinam, ed. electronica (Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 2005), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004).
 Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 202.
 Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 215; George B. Gray, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Numbers, in The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, editors Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1903), xxi.
II. Historical Background
In the historical background, we will take a look at (A) the chronological dates of historical events in the nation of Israel, (B) Moses, the main character of Exodus through Deuteronomy, and (C) the construction of the Tabernacle.
A. Chronological Dates of Historical Events in the Nation of Israel It is possible to add up the years of some historical events in the nation of Israel, and thus estimate chronological dates for these events. In the book of Genesis, we are told that Abraham leaves Haran at age of seventy-five (Genesis 12:4); and Isaac is born when Abraham was one hundred years old (Genesis 17:21; Genesis 21:5); and Jacob is born when his grandfather Abraham was one hundred sixty years old, and his father Isaac was sixty years old (Genesis 25:26). We are told that the seventy souls of Israel went into Egypt when Jacob was one hundred thirty (130) years old (Genesis 47:9). Thus, Israel and his sons went into Egypt two hundred and sixty (260) years after Abraham left Haran. We are told that the children of Israel spent either four hundred (400) years in Egypt (Genesis 15:15, Acts 7:6), or four hundred thirty (430) years (Exodus 12:40, Galatians 3:17). Thus, the Exodus from Egypt took place at least six hundred ninety (690) years after Abraham left Haran. We know that the Israelites spend forty years in the wilderness, and that the conquest of Canaan under Joshua took five years (Joshua 14:10). We are told that from the time of the conquest of Canaan to Samuel is four hundred fifty (450) years (Acts 13:20), which appears to be an estimate. We are told that King Saul reigned forty years (Acts 13:21). King David reigned forty years (2 Samuel 5:4). King Solomon reigned forty years (1 Kings 11:42, 2 Chronicles 9:30). We are told that Solomon built the Temple four hundred and eighty (480) years after the Exodus, in the fourth year of his reign (1 Kings 6:1).
In working through these dates, there appears to be a discrepancy between the dates given in Acts 13:20, which says the period of the judges was 450 years, and 1 Kings 6:1, which says there were 480 years from the wilderness journey to King Solomon. The simplest way to reconcile these verses is to understand that the authors were giving estimated time periods.
Genesis 12:4, “So Abram departed, as the LORD had spoken unto him; and Lot went with him: and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran.”
Genesis 17:21, “But my covenant will I establish with Isaac, which Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the next year.”
Genesis 21:5, “And Abraham was an hundred years old, when his son Isaac was born unto him.”
Genesis 25:26, “And after that came his brother out, and his hand took hold on Esau's heel; and his name was called Jacob: and Isaac was threescore years old when she bare them.”
Genesis 47:9, “And Jacob said unto Pharaoh, The days of the years of my pilgrimage are an hundred and thirty years: few and evil have the days of the years of my life been, and have not attained unto the days of the years of the life of my fathers in the days of their pilgrimage.”
Genesis 15:13, “And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years;”
Acts 7:6, “And God spake on this wise, That his seed should sojourn in a strange land; and that they should bring them into bondage, and entreat them evil four hundred years.”
Exodus 12:40, “Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.”
Galatians 3:17, “And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect.”
Joshua 14:10, “And now, behold, the LORD hath kept me alive, as he said, these forty and five years, even since the LORD spake this word unto Moses, while the children of Israel wandered in the wilderness: and now, lo, I am this day fourscore and five years old.”
Acts 13:20, “And after that he gave unto them judges about the space of four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet.”
Acts 13:21, “And afterward they desired a king: and God gave unto them Saul the son of Cis, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, by the space of forty years.”
2 Samuel 5:4, “David was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years.”
1 Kings 11:42, “And the time that Solomon reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel was forty years.”
2 Chronicles 9:30, “And Solomon reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel forty years.”
1 Kings 6:1, “And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD.”
B. Moses, the Main Character of Exodus Through Deuteronomy The prophet Moses will be the main character in the books of Exodus through Deuteronomy. There are many references to Moses in the New Testament
1. Hebrews 3:2-5 - Moses was faithful to all of God’s houses, as a servant.
Hebrews 3:2-5, “Who was faithful to him that appointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his house. For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house. For every house is builded by some man; but he that built all things is God. And Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after.”
2. Hebrews 11:24-29
By faith he suffered with the children of Israel.
By faith he left Egypt.
By faith he kept the Passover.
By faith he passed through the Red Sea.
Hebrews 11:24, “By faith Moses, when he was come to years, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter; Choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season; Esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt: for he had respect unto the recompence of the reward. By faith he forsook Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king: for he endured, as seeing him who is invisible. Through faith he kept the passover, and the sprinkling of blood, lest he that destroyed the firstborn should touch them. By faith they passed through the Red sea as by dry land: which the Egyptians assaying to do were drowned.”
3. Acts 7:20-44 - Summary of Moses in Stephen's sermon.
C. The Construction of the Tabernacle - The first lengthy description of the building of the Tabernacle is found in Exodus 24:0 thru 31. This description is being given to Moses on the mount. He goes on top of the mount in chapter 24 and he comes down from the mount in chapter 32. Then in chapters 35 thru 40, the Israelites are building the Tabernacle.
See Introduction to the Pentateuch.
See Introduction to the Pentateuch.
See Introduction to the Pentateuch.
LITERARY STYLE (GENRE)
“Perhaps the most important issue in interpretation is the issue of genre.
If we misunderstand the genre of a text, the rest of our analysis will be askew.”
(Thomas Schreiner) 
 Thomas R. Schreiner, Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c1990, 2011), 11.
Within the historical setting of the children of Israel in the wilderness, the author of the book of Exodus chose to write using the literary styles of the historical narrative and the law. Thus, the first half of the book of Exodus is assigned to the literary genre called “historical narrative literature,” and the second half is assigned to the literary genre called “law.”
“Scholarly excellence requires a proper theological framework.”
(Andreas Kösenberger) 
 Andreas J. Kösenberger, Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011), 161.
Based upon the historical setting and literary style of the book of Exodus, an examination of the purpose, thematic scheme, and literary structure to this book of the Holy Scriptures will reveal its theological framework. This introductory section will sum up its theological framework in the form of an outline, which is then used to identify smaller units or pericopes within the book of Exodus for preaching and teaching passages of Scripture while following the overriding message of the book. Following this outline allows the minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to take his followers on a spiritual journey that brings them to the same destination that the author intended his readers to reach.
VIII. Thematic Scheme
The Pentateuch is woven together as the first major division of the Holy Scriptures with a three-fold thematic scheme. (1) Primary Theme - The primary, foundational theme of the Pentateuch is the claim found in Deuteronomy 6:4 and known to the Jews as “the Shema,” a verse that declares the God of Israel is one, true and living God, a theme that undergirds all five books of the Pentateuch. (2) Secondary Theme - Each book of the Pentateuch has a secondary theme that supports this central theme, providing the evidence to prove that the God of Israel is one God, who had dominion over all other gods worshipped by depraved humanity. Collectively, the secondary themes of the five books of the Pentateuch reveal the establishment of the nation of Israel above the nations of the earth through worship of YHWH, who has chosen Israel through His foreknowledge and divine election to be His chosen method of bringing redemption to mankind. The five books of the Pentateuch form a thematic scheme of God’s plan of redemption for the nation of Israel and for the heathen nations with their secondary themes. This thematic scheme follows the structure found in Romans 8:29-30, which is predestination, calling, justification, and glorification. (3) The Third Theme - The third theme of the Pentateuch is an imperative theme, and it is also found in the Shema, where Moses commands Israel to love YHWH their God with all of one’s heart, mind, and strength (Deuteronomy 6:5).
The book of Exodus offers a three-fold thematic scheme that supports the central claim of the Pentateuch, the claim found in Deuteronomy 6:4 and known to the Jews as “the Shema,” a verse that declares the God of Israel is one, true and living God, a theme that undergirds all five books of the Pentateuch. Thus, the foundational theme of Exodus is the central claim of the Pentateuch, a theme shared by all five books in this division of the Holy Scriptures. The book of Exodus carries two secondary themes that emphasize justification and indoctrination. God redeemed the children of Israel, brought them out from Egyptian bondage, and He made a covenant with them as His people. He then gave Israel the Mosaic Law and had them build the Tabernacle in order to obey the Law. Because the book of Exodus has two secondary themes, it also has two imperative themes. Israel is to trust in the Lord their God as their redeemer and they were to obey the commandments and statutes delivered to them.
A. Primary Theme (Foundational): The Lord is the One, True God - The foundational, underlying theme of the book of Exodus is the central claim of the Pentateuch, a claim which states that the God of Israel is the one true and holy God, who is orchestrating a plan of redemption for mankind. The central claim of the Pentateuch supports the underlying theme of the Old Testament itself, which is the theme of God the Father’s foreknowledge and divine election to redeem mankind through predestination, calling, justification, and redemption (Romans 8:29-30).
The Primary Theme of Exodus The book of Exodus reflects the primary theme of the Pentateuch as the Lord demonstrates His omnipotence and redemptive nature. He delivers the children of Israel from bondage and sets them apart above all nations.
B. Secondary Theme (Structural): (1) Justification - God Redeemed the Children of Israel, and (2) Indoctrination - God Gave Israel the Mosaic Law The secondary theme of the Pentateuch is the establishment of the nation of Israel by God’s foreknowledge and divine election as His chosen method of bringing redemption to mankind. It is this holy nation that will give birth to the Messiah who will again restore righteousness upon the earth. We can easily see the secondary theme of the Pentateuch by examining the secondary themes of the five books of the Pentateuch, which testify of predestination, calling, justification, indoctrination, divine service, perseverance, and glorification. The book of Exodus carries two of the secondary themes that make up the structure of the Pentateuch, that of justification and indoctrination.
The Secondary Theme of the Individual Books of the Pentateuch - The secondary theme of the first part of the book of Genesis is the predestination of mankind to take dominion upon the earth, and theme of the second part is the origin of the nation of Israel, God’s seed of righteousness, which He plans to use to accomplish the redemption of mankind. God will use several men who fulfilled their divine destinies to create the nation of Israel. These patriarchs, Adam, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph, will play leading roles in preparing for the establishment of this nation in much the same way the Gospels and the book of Acts reveals the origin of the Church and how men like Jesus Christ, Peter, Stephen, Philip the evangelist and Paul the apostle played leading roles in the establishment of the early Church. Thus, the book of Genesis is structured around the genealogies of these men of righteousness in order to explain its theme of the lineage of the nation of Israel. As the first part of the book of Exodus emphasizes deliverance, so do the Gospels testify of our redemption and set us apart from the world. As the last part of the book of Exodus emphasizes the doctrines of the nation of Israel, so to the Pauline Epistles establish Church doctrine. As the book of Leviticus establishes the order of worship for the Israelites, so does the Pastoral Epistles establish Church order. As the book of Numbers explains the perseverance of the “church” in the wilderness, so do the Catholic Epistles of Hebrews, James and 1 Peter explain the perseverance of the Church. As the book of Deuteronomy is the second giving of the Law with stern warnings to persevere, so do the Catholic Epistles of 2 Peter , 1, 2, 3 John and Jude emphasize this same theme. Finally, the story of the conquest of Canaan in the book of Joshua is figurative of the Church entering into Heaven, as is emphasized in the book of Revelation. Note that we find two verses in the New Testament that allow us to look at the Old Testament in a figurative way of the Christian life.
Romans 15:4, “For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope.”
1 Corinthians 10:11, “Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come.”
(1) The Secondary Theme of Exodus: Justification (Exodus 1-18) - The first part of the book of Exodus emphasizes the theme of Israel’s justification before the Lord in that He redeemed them, brought them out from Egyptian bondage, and made a covenant with them at Mount Sinai so that they became His chosen people.
(2) The Secondary Theme of Exodus: Indoctrination (Exodus 19-40) - The secondary theme of the book of Exodus is also the delivering of the Mosaic Law to the children of Israel at Mount Sinai. Before this holy mount Moses gave the people the Ten Commandments, which can be referred to as the “Moral Law.” He then delivered to them many statutes and ordinances regarding daily living and service in the Tabernacle. This set of rules and regulations can be referred to as the “Civil Laws.” The Ten Commandments became the foundation for the civil laws. Thus, the Ten Commandments dealt with a man’s heart, while the civil laws dealt with a man’s actions. Thus, the establishment of the nation of Israel through their covenant with God at Mount Sinai is the theme of the Pentateuch.
Jesus Christ expounded upon the Ten Commandments when He taught the Sermon on the Mount by teaching the people the true meaning of the Ten Commandments. He explained to the people the foundational laws from which the civil laws were derived. Jesus dealt with the heart of man, because the people were confused with the endless civil laws that the Pharisees had heaped upon them through the centuries.
C . Third Theme (Imperative): (1) Justification Trust in the Lord their God as Their Redeemer, (2) Indoctrination Obey the Commandments and Statutes of the Mosaic Law - Because the book of Exodus has two secondary themes, it also has two imperative themes that are based upon the themes of justification and indoctrination. These two themes reflect the third theme of the Pentateuch, which is the command to love the Lord God with all of one’s heart, mind, and strength.
(1) The Imperative Theme in Indoctrination (Exodus 1-18) - Israel is to trust in the Lord their God as their Redeemer.
(2) The Imperative Theme in Calling (Exodus 19-40) Israel is to obey the commandments and statutes of the Mosaic Law that was delivered unto them.
IX. Literary Structure
The book of Exodus has two major divisions that reflect Israel’s justification and indoctrination. We can see in the book of Exodus how the journey of the children of Israel represents our spiritual journey of sanctification as Christians.
1. Israel’s Justification (Exodus 1:1 to Exodus 18:27 ) The emphasis of Exodus 1:1 to Exodus 18:27 is Israel’s justification before God through the sacrificial atonement of the Mosaic Law. The Passover was the time when God cut a covenant with the children of Israel, and the Exodus testifies to His response of delivering His people as a part of His covenant promise of redemption. Israel’s justification was fulfilled in their deliverance from the bondages of Egypt. Hebrews 11:23-29 highlights these events in order to demonstrate the faith of Moses in fulfilling his divine commission. These events serve as an allegory of the Church’s covenant through the blood of Jesus Christ and our subsequent deliverance from the bondages and sins of this world.
2. Israel’s Indoctrination (Exodus 19:1 to Exodus 40:38 ) - The emphasis of Exodus 19:1 to Exodus 24:8 is Israel’s indoctrination through the giving of the Mosaic Law. Israel’s indoctrination was fulfilled in the delivery of the Ten Commandments by Moses, and in the writing of the many statutes that serve as practical rules in obeying the Ten Commandments. The building of the tabernacle (Exodus 24:9 to Exodus 40:38) is Israel’s response to obeying the commandments and statutes given to them by Moses. The giving of the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:1-26) is sometimes called the Moral Law; the giving of the statutes that accompany the Commandments (Exodus 21:1 to Exodus 23:33) is sometimes called the Civil Law; and the instructions on building the Tabernacle (Exodus 24:9 to Exodus 31:18) is sometimes called the Ceremonial Law. These events serve as an allegory of the Church’s indoctrination by learning the Word of God. The Law represents the renewing of our minds so that we can serve the Lord.
X. Outline of Book
Note the proposed outline for the book of Exodus:
I. Introduction: The Seventy Souls Exodus 1:1-7
II. Israel’s Justification (The Passover & Exodus) Exodus 1:8 to Exodus 18:27
A. The Birth of Moses Exodus 1:8 to Exodus 2:10
B. Moses’ Flight to Egypt Exodus 2:11-22
C. Moses’ Divine Commission Exodus 2:23 to Exodus 4:17
E. Moses Leads Israel Out of Bondage Exodus 4:18 to Exodus 13:16
1. Moses Returns to Egypt Exodus 4:18-31
2. Moses’ First Encounter with Pharaoh Exodus 5:1 to Exodus 6:1
3. Aaron Become Moses’ Spokesman Exodus 6:2 to Exodus 7:13
4. The Ten Plagues Exodus 7:14 to Exodus 11:10
a) The 1 st Plague of Blood Exodus 7:14-25
b) The 2 nd Plague of Frogs Exodus 8:1-15
c) The 3 rd Plague of Lice Exodus 8:16-19
d) The 4 th Plague of Flies Exodus 8:20-32
e) The 5 th Plague of Diseased Livestock Exodus 9:1-6
f) The 6 th Plague of Boils Exodus 9:7-12
g) The 7 th Plague of Hail Exodus 9:13-35
h) The 8 th Plague of Locusts Exodus 10:1-20
i) The 9 th Plague of Darkness Exodus 10:21-29
j) The 10 th Plague of Death of Firstborn Exodus 11:1 to Exodus 12:30
i) The Announcement of the Plague Exodus 11:1-10
ii) The Institution of the Passover Exodus 12:1-28
iii) The 10 th Plague Instituted Exodus 12:29-30
5. The Exodus Event Exodus 12:31 to Exodus 13:16
6. The Escape Thru the Red Sea Exodus 13:17 to Exodus 15:21
a) Israel Journeys Through the Wilderness Exodus 13:17-22
b) Israel Crosses the Red Sea Exodus 14:1-31
c) The Songs of Moses & Miriam Exodus 15:1-21
7. The Journey to Mount Sinai Exodus 15:22 to Exodus 18:27
a) Israel Encamps at Marah & Elim Exodus 15:22-27
b) Israel Encamps in the Wilderness of Sin Exodus 16:1-36
c) Israel Encamps at Rephidim Exodus 17:1-16
i) The Water from the Rock Exodus 17:1-7
ii) Israel’s Battle with the Amalekites Exodus 17:8-16
iii) Moses Honours Jethro Exodus 18:1-27
III. Israel’s Indoctrination (Giving of Laws & Statutes) Exodus 19:1 to Exodus 40:38
A. Moses on Mount Sinai Exodus 19:1-25
B. Institution of the Decalogue (Moral Laws) Exodus 20:1-21
C. The Primary Statutes (Civil Laws) Exodus 20:22 to Exodus 24:8
1. Statutes Concerning Worship Exodus 20:22-26
2. Statutes Concerning Servants Exodus 21:1-11
3. Statutes Concerning Direct Violence Exodus 21:12-27
4. Statutes Concerning Indirect Violence Exodus 21:28-36
5. Statutes Concerning Loss of Property Exodus 22:1-15
6. Statutes Concerning Moral Obligations Exodus 22:16 to Exodus 23:9
7. Statutes Concerning the Sabbath Year Exodus 23:10-13
8. Statutes Concerning Three Primary Feasts Exodus 23:14-19
9. Warnings Against Serving other Gods Exodus 23:20-33
10. Israel Enters into Covenant Exodus 24:1-8
D. Instructions to Build Tabernacle (Ceremonial Law) Exodus 24:9 to Exodus 31:18
1. God calls Moses up to Mount Sinai Exodus 24:9-18
2. The Offerings for the Sanctuary Exodus 25:1-9
3. The Furniture of the Tabernacle Exodus 25:10-40
a) The Ark of the Covenant, Mercy Seat & Cherubim Exodus 25:10-22
b) The Table of Shewbread & its Accessories Exodus 25:23-30
c) The Candlestick Exodus 25:31-39
d) Concluding Statement Exodus 25:40
4. The Building to House the Articles of the Tabernacle Exodus 26:1-37
5. The Altar of Burnt Offering Exodus 27:1-8
6. The Court of the Tabernacle Exodus 27:9-19
7. The Care of the Lampstand Exodus 27:20-21
8. The Garments for the Priesthood Exodus 28:1-43
a) Introduction Exodus 28:1-4
b) The Ephod Exodus 28:5-14
c) The Breastplate of Judgment Exodus 28:15-30
d) The Robe, Mitre, Girdle & Linen Breeches Exodus 28:31-42
e) Concluding Statement Exodus 28:43
9. The Consecration of Aaron and His Sons Exodus 29:1-35
10. The Consecration & Service of the Burnt Altar Exodus 29:36-46
11. The Altar of Incense Exodus 30:1-10
12. The Ransom Money Exodus 30:11-16
13. The Bronze Laver Exodus 30:17-21
14. The Holy Anointing Oil Exodus 30:22-33
15. The Incense Exodus 30:34-38
16. The Appointment of Craftsmen Exodus 31:1-11
17. Instructions Concerning the Sabbath Day Exodus 31:12-18
E. Israel’s Idolatry: The Golden Calf Exodus 33:1-23
F. Israel Renews Its Covenant Exodus 34:1-35
G. The Building of the Tabernacle
1. The Institution of the Sabbath Rest Exodus 35:1-3
2. Offerings Given to Build the Tabernacle Exodus 35:4-29
3. Moses Calls Bezalel & Aholiab to Lead Construction Exodus 35:30 to Exodus 6:1
4. Moses Hands Over the Offerings for Construction Exodus 36:2-7
5. Construction of the Curtains Exodus 36:8-38
6. Construction of the Ark of the Covenant Exodus 37:1-9
7. Construction of the Table of Shewbread Exodus 37:10-16
8. Construction of the Lampstand Exodus 37:17-24
9. Construction of the Altar of Incense Exodus 37:25-28
10. The Anointing Oil and Incense Exodus 37:29
11. Construction of the Altar of Burnt Offering Exodus 38:1-7
12. Construction of the Bronze Laver Exodus 38:8
13. Construction of the Hangings of the Court Exodus 38:9-20
14. Inventory of Construction Materials Exodus 38:21-31
15. Making of Priestly Garments Exodus 39:1
16. Making of the Priestly Ephod Exodus 39:2-7
17. Making of the Priestly Breastplate Exodus 39:8-21
18. Making of Priestly Robe, Tunic, Turban, & Crown Exodus 39:22-31
19. The Tabernacle Handed Over to Moses Exodus 39:32-43
H. The Consecration of the Tabernacle Exodus 40:1-38
Clarke, Adam. Exodus. In Adam Clarke's Commentary, Electronic Database. Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc., 1996. In P.C. Study Bible, v. 3.1 [CD-ROM]. Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc., 1993-2000.
Cook, F. C. Exodus. In The Holy Bible According to the Authorized Version (A.D. 1611), with an Explanation and Critical Commentary and a Revision of the Translation, by Bishops and Clergy of the Anglican Church, vol. 1, part 1. Ed. F. C. Cook. London: John Murray, 1871.
Durham, John I. Exodus. In Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol. 3. Eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Dallas: Word Inc., 2002. In Libronix Digital Library System, v. 3.0b [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2004.
Gill, John. Exodus. In John Gill’s Expositor. In e-Sword, v. 7.7.7 [CD-ROM] Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005.
Gray, George B. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Numbers, in The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. Editors, Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1903.
Keil, C. F., and F. Delitzsch. Pentateuch, vol. 2. In Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Trans. James Martin. In P.C. Study Bible, v. 3.1 [CD-ROM]. Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc., 1993-2000.
McGee, J. Vernon. Exodus. In Thru the Bible With J. Vernon McGee Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub., 1998. In Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
Metzger, Bruce M., David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker, eds. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007.
Rawlinson, G. Exodus. In The Pulpit Commentary. Ed. H. D. M. Spence and Joseph Exell Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1950. In Ages Digital Library, v. 1.0 [CD-ROM] Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc., 2001.
Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Eds. A. Alt, O. Eißfelt, P. Kahle, and R. Kittle. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung, c1967-77.
Biblia Sacra juxta Vulgatam Clementinam (Ed. electronica). In Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 2005.
The Book of Jubilees. Trans. R. H. Charles. In The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 2, ed. R. H. Charles, 1-82. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913.
Breasted, James H. Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1912.
Bruce, F. F. The Books and the Parchments. Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1963.
Bynum, Juanita. Weapons of Power. On Trinity Broadcasting Network. Santa Ana, California. Television program.
Church, Joseph E. Quest for the Highest. Exeter, UK: The Paternoster Press, 1981.
Clement of Alexander. The Stromata, or Miscellanies. In The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2. Eds. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Buffalo, New York: The Christian Literature Publishing Company, 1885.
Conder, C. R. “Sinai.” In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., c1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v. 1.5.11 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.
Davis, John J. Moses and the Gods of Egypt: Studies in Exodus , 2 nd ed. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1971.
Epistle of Barnabas. In The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1. Eds. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, c1885, 1913.
Etheridge, J. W., ed., The Targum of Jonathan Ben Uzziel On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee. London: Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, 1862.
Eusebius. Ecclesiastical History. Trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius. In A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 1. Eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff. Oxford: Parker and Company, c1890, 1905.
Gunkel, Hermann. The Psalms: A Form-Critical Introduction. Trans. Thomas M. Horner. In Biblical Series, vol. 19. Ed. John Reumann. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967.
Hagin, Kenneth. Following God’s Plan For Your Life. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c1993, 1994.
Hayes, Norvel. Financial Dominion: How To Take Charge Of You Finances. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Harrison House, c1986.
Hayes, Norvel. “Sermon.” Word of Faith Family Church, Dallas, Texas 1989-99;
Hinn, Benny. This is Your Day. Irving, Texas. On Trinity Broadcasting Network. Santa Ana, California. Television program.
Humphreys, Colin. The Miracles of Exodus: A Scientist's Discovery of the Extraordinary Natural Causes of the Biblical Stories. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.
Josephus, Flavius. The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged. Trans. William Whiston. Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson, c1987, 1996. In Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
Joyner, Rick. The Call, Charlotte, North Carolina: Morning Star Publications, 1999.
Kaufman, Stephen A., ed. Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon. In Targum Pseudo-Jonathan to the Pentateuch Jerusalem: Hebrew Union College, 2005. In Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
Keathley, III, J. Hampton. “Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah.” (Bible.org) [on-line]. Accessed 23 May 2012. Available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.
Killian, Greg. The Oral Law. Lacey, Washington: The Watchman. [on-line]. Accessed 25 February 2009. Available from http://www.betemunah.org/orallaw.html; Internet.
Kittel, Gerhard, G. W. Bromiley, and Gerhard Friedrich, eds. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Compiled by Ronald Pitkin, (electronic ed.) Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1964-c1976. In Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
Kösenberger, Andreas J. Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011.
Lesko, Leonard H. “Pharaoh.” In The World Book Encyclopedia, vol. 16. Chicago: World Book, Inc, 1993.
Lichtheim, Miriam. Ancient Egyptian Literature: Vol. I: The Old and Middle Kingdoms Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973-80. In Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
Masterman, E. W. G. “Bitter herbs.” In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., c1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v. 1.5.11 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.
Masterman, E. W. G. “Cassia.” In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., c1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v. 1.5.11 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.
Masterman, E. W. G. “Myrrh.” In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., c1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v. 1.5.11 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.
McEachran, John D. “Re.” In The World Book Encyclopedia, vol. 16. Chicago: World Book, Inc, 1993.
Missler, Chuck. The Real Mt. Sinai? (March 1998). [on-line]. Accessed 5 March 2009. Available from http://www.khouse.org/articles/1998/153/; Internet.
Old, Hughes Oliphant. “The Reading and Preaching of Scriptures in the Worship of the Christian Church.” Expository Homiletical Conference. Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. Hamilton, Massachusetts, 14 October 2011.
Origen. Commentary on Matthew. Giesen, Germany: New Advent, 2008. [on-line]. Accessed 24 February 2009. Available from http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/101614.htm: Internet.
Origen. Against Celsus. In The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 4. Eds. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson Buffalo, New York: The Christian Literature Publishing Company, 1885.
Ovid. Metamorphoses, vol. 2. Trans. Frank J. Miller. In The Loeb Classical Library. Eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse. London: William Heinemann Ltd, 1958.
Padfield, David. Against All The Gods Of Egypt (#1). Zion, Illinois: Church of Christ, 2009. [on-line]. Accessed 2 March 2009. Available from http://www.biblelandhistory.com/egypt/plagues-egypt-3.html; Internet.
Parr, Windell. “Sermon.” Calvary Cathedral International, Fort Worth, Texas.
Petrie, W. M. Finders. The Religion of Ancient Egypt. London: Archibald Constable and Co. Ltd, 1906.
Rodkinson, Michael L. New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, 20 vols. Boston, Mass: New Talmud Publishing Company, 1903.
Roberts, Frances J. Come Away My Beloved. Ojai, California: King’s Farspan, Inc., 1973.
Ryle, Herbert E. Philo and Holy Scripture. London: Macmillan and Company, 1895.
Sailhamer, John H. Introduction to Old Testament Theology. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, c1995.
Schreiner, Thomas R. Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c1990, 2011.
Singh, Sadhu Sundar. At the Master’s Feet. Trans. Arthur Parker. London: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1922. [on-line]. Accessed 26 October 2008. Available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/singh/feet.html; Internet.
Swaggart, Jimmy. “The Preaching of the Cross.” Sonshine Radio, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Radio program, 22 February 2011.
Swete, Henry B. An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek. Cambridge: University Press, 1902.
Tests Show Poisoning May Last Four Generations: Result of toxin exposure could pass through male descendants. Washington: Reuters. In Gulf News. Dubai, United Arab Emirates ( Saturday, June 4, 2005).
Tighe, Mary and Hudson Gurney. The Defense of Apuleius. In The Works of Apuleius. London: William Clowes and Sons, 1878.
Walvoord, John F. Every Prophecy of the Bible. Colorado Springs, CO: David C. Cook, c1990, 1999.
Wintermute, Orval. “Seth.” In The World Book Encyclopedia, vol. 17. Chicago: World Book, Inc, 1993.
Wyatt, Ron. The Exodus Revealed: Search for the Red Sea Crossing. Prod. Discovery Media Productions, Portland, Oregon, 82 min., 2000, 2004, DVD.
Young, C. D. The Works of Philo Judaes, vol. 3 London: Henry G. Bohn, 1855.
YOUNGBLOOD, R. F., F. F. BRUCE, R. K. HARRISON, AND THOMAS NELSON PUBLISHERS. NELSON'S NEW ILLUSTRATED BIBLE DICTIONARY, REV. ED. NASHVILLE, TN: THOMAS NELSON PUBLISHERS, 1995. IN LIBRONIX DIGITAL LIBRARY SYSTEM, V. 2.1C [CD-ROM] BELLINGHAM, WA: LIBRONIX CORP., 2000 -2004.
the First Week of Advent