Bible Commentaries
Luke 19

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1


1) "And Jesus entered," (kai eiselthon) "And when he had entered," Went into Jericho, six miles from the Jordan River, and fifteen miles from Jerusalem to the East, Joshua 6:26; 1 Kings 16:34. It is said to be the oldest city in the world.

2) "And passed through Jericho." (diercheto ten lercho) "He passed through Jericho," called the "city of Palms," Deuteronomy 34:3; Judges 1:16. It was known for its dates and balsam and abundant springs, 2 Kings 2:24.

Verse 2

1) "And, behold, there was a man named Zacchaeus," (kai idou aner onomati kaloumenos Zakchaios) "And behold (take note) there was a man who was called Zacchaeus," from the Hebrew word "Zaccai", meaning pure or innocent, Ezra 2:9; Nehemiah 7:14.

2) "Which was the chief among the publicans," (kai autos en architelotes) "And he was a chief tax collector or administrator of tax collecting, a chief publican, an high revenue official; Their usual character is described Matthew 5:46; Luke 15:1.

3) "And he was rich." (kai autos plousios) "And he (was) rich, wealthy, or plutocratic," had accumulated much wealth, some of it ill-gotten. Such were not accustomed to follow Jesus. While the "love of riches" is the root of all (all kinds of) evil, this does not mean that God’s grace will not save such, 1 Timothy 6:10. For even rich, wealthy men may trust in God. Abraham, David, Solomon, and Zacchaeus are examples of such.

Verse 3

1) "And he sought to see Jesus who he was;" (kai ezeti idein ton lesoun tis estin) "And he sought (searched for a viewing place) to see Jesus, who he was," among the traveling entourage passing through, as Jesus went up to Jerusalem, to the passover, accompanied by His disciples and many other curious followers.

2) "And could not for the press," (kai ouk edunato apo tou ochlou) "And he was not able to do it from out of the crowd," because of the press of the jostling crowd.

3) "Because he was little of stature." (hoti te helikia mikros en) "Because he was little in stature," very short. The kindness of Jesus toward sinners, and His known compassion and miracle helps and healing on their behalf, caused Zacchaeus to yearn to see and know Him, even as it did Nicodemus, John 3:2.

Verse 4

1)"And he ran before," (kai prodramon eis to emprosthen) "And when he had run forward, to the front of the crowd."

2) "And climbed up in a sycamore tree," (anebe epi sukomorean) "He went up (climbed) upon a sycamore tree," so that he might see Jesus as He passed that way, Genesis 22:6. This sycamore tree was also known as the Egyptian fig tree, with long spreading branches, differing from the sycamore tree, or black mulberry tree of Luke 17:6.

3) "To see him:" (hina ide auton) "in order that he might see him," just get a good view of Him. The Spirit of God is nigh to all those who are strong in desire to see and know Jesus, John 7:17.

4) "For he was to pass that way." (hoti ekeines emellen derchesthai) "Because he was about to pass along that way," the regular route for travelers and pilgrims going up to Jerusalem for the passover from the southern area of Perea, beyond Jordan, Luke 18:31-33.

Verse 5

1) "And when Jesus came to the place," (kai hos elthen epi ton topon) "And when Jesus came upon the place," to the location, where Zacchaeus had climbed into the sycamore tree, Luke 19:4.

2) "He looked up, and saw him, and said unto him," (anablepsas ho lesous eipen, pros auton) "Jesus looked up and said directly to him," to Zacchaeus; For He knows all things, purposes and desires that are in men, John 2:24-25; John 7:17. Even so He saw Adam and Nathaniel, Psalms 139:1-3; Genesis 3:8; Job 31:33; Jeremiah 23:24; John 1:48.

3) "Zacchaeus, make haste, and come down;" (Zakchaie speusas katabethi) "Zacchaeus you make haste, come down," at once, without delay; As the Son of God, in wisdom and knowledge, He knew the need and desire of the heart of Zacchaeus and was interested in him, as He is in the souls of all men, Luke 19:10; 2 Peter 3:9.

4) "For today I must abide at thy house." (semeron gar en to oiko sou dei me meinai) "For today I must remain or reside in your home or residence," perhaps over night, to meet a need in the life of Zacchaeus, even as He "must needs go through Samaria," to meet and save the Samaritan woman and many men of that city, John 4:4; John 4:15; John 4:38.

Divine plans were fixed in every event of our Lord’s ministry, as also stated Luke 4:43; Luke 13:33; John 14:23. Royalty invited itself into the home of this wealthy sinner because Jesus saw a needy, empty soul.

Jesus knocked for entrance into the home and heart of Zacchaeus that day and Zacchaeus said, "Come in," and he found salvation when he did, Revelation 3:20.

Verse 6

1) "And he made haste and came down," (kai speusas katebe) "And making haste he came down," for the king’s business requireth haste, 1 Samuel 21:8, at the bidding of and in obedience to the command of Jesus. 0, that every man would so respond to His call, John 2:5; John 14:15; John 15:14.

2) "And received him joyfully." (kai hpuedeksato auton chairon) "And, he (Zacchaeus) welcomed him, (Jesus) rejoicing," receiving everlasting life, John 1:12; Revelation 22:17; John 6:37; Matthew 11:28-30.

Verse 7

1) "And when they saw it, they all murmured, saying," (kai idontes pantes diegonguzon legontes) "And all those beholding murmured, complained, found fault, repeatedly saying," among themselves, as a reflection of their national prejudice against tax collectors or publicans.

2) "That he was gone to be guest," (hoti eiselthen katalusai) "That he was gone in to lodge," to be a guest or as a guest, to accept the hospitality of a wealthy tax collector, Luke 19:2.

3) "With a man that is a sinner." (para hamartolo andri) "In association with a lawless man," an immoral and unethical sinner, despised especially by the Jewish rulers, as reflected in Matthew 9:11; Matthew 9:13. Yet, Jesus came to call sinners to repentance, not good men, Luke 19:10.

Verse 8

1) "And Zacchaeus stood, and said unto the Lord;" (statheis de Zakchaios eipen pros ton kurion) "Then Zacchaeus stood, openly (took a stand) and said directly to the Lord," as a matter of open commitment of his ways to the Lord, Psalms 37:5.

2) "Behold, Lord, the half of my goods," (idou ta hemise mou ton huparchonton kurie) "Lord, behold (take note) the half of my possessions," what I have accumulated in goods; His conscience, prompted by the spirit, after he met Jesus, motivated him to say:

3) “I give to the poor" (tois plochois didomi) "I give or dole out to the poor," or commit myself, right now, to give to the impoverished; not that I am in the habit of doing it, but I now and hereafter purpose to dole out to the poor, Psalms 41:1.

4) "And If I have taken any thing from any man by false accusation," (kai ei tions ti esukophantesa) "And if anyone I have accuse falsely," defrauded, extorted, or overcharged to get anything that I have; Or whatever I have taken dishonestly; He does not deny his sinful conduct of the past, Exodus 22:1-15. Such was too frequently done among the publicans, Luke 3:12-13.

5) “I restore him fourfold." (apodidomi tetraploun) "I restore voluntarily fourfold," of my own will and accord; Yet as prescribed by the law, Exodus 22:1. Thus the principle of restitution for wrong was repaid, with dividend for loss or injury, Numbers 5:6-7. Restitution for wrong is a fruit of true conversion.

Verse 9

1) "And Jesus said unto him," (eipen de pros auton ho lesous) "Then Jesus said directly and personally to him,"

2) "This day is salvation come to this house," (semrton solteria to oiko touto egeneto) "Salvation came to this house today," evidently the same day Jesus met Zacchaeus and went into his house, not the following morning, John 4:34-35. This emphasizes the prompt mercy and grace of Jesus to the penitent, Luke 23:43.

3) "Forsomuch as he also is a son of Abraham." (kathoi kai autos huios Abraham (estin), "Because he even exists as a son of Abraham," Luke 13:16; John 8:39; An heir of faith, who has trusted in me, confessed his sins, and offered restitution to any person he has cheated of anything, Romans 4:3-5; Romans 4:16.

Verse 10

1) "For the Son of man is come," (elthen gar ho huios tou anthropou) "For the heir of mankind came," and is come, is here, now present, to meet the needs of men like Zacchaeus, of even rich sinners, John 3:17; Luke 18:25-27.

2) "To seek and to save that which was lost." (zetesai kai sosai to, apolosos) "To seek and to save (by his own voluntary initiative) the thing (that which) has been and is lost," the entire (kosmos) or universe, both the human race and the original creation, in entirety, John 6:38; John 17:4; John 20:21. Those lost without moral integrity and holiness, may yet be saved by receiving Jesus, Ezekiel 34:16; Romans 5:6.

Verse 11


V. 11-27

1) "And as they heard these things," (akouonton de auton tauta) "Then as they heard these things," that He said.

2) "He added and spake a parable," (prostheis eipen parabolen) "He added to his statement a parable," to clarify what He had said and done, and to make it clear that He was not among them to set up His Messianic, earthly kingdom, at that time.

3) "Because he was nigh to Jerusalem" (dis to engus einei lerousalem auton) "Because he had come to be near Jerusalem," now some fifteen or twenty miles away, in the Jericho area, Luke 19:1. His earthly pilgrimage was growing Short.

4) "And because they thought," (kai dokei autous) "And because they had come to think," both the church disciples, and many others who followed Him, only out, of curiosity, as expressed Acts 1:6.

5) "That the kingdom of God should immediately appear." (hoti parachrema mellei he basileia tou theou anaphanesthai) "That the kingdom of God was about to appear at once," that just any minute it would make a physical appearance. And some continued to think this way, even after His resurrection, Acts 1:6-7. These evidently thought He would do it as soon as He came to Jerusalem.

Verse 12

1) "He said therefore," (eipen oun) "Therefore he said," in relating the parable, to emphasize that He was not about to set up or inaugurate His Kingdom, until the coming age.

2) "A certain nobleman went into a far country," (anthropos tis eugenes eporeuthe eis choran makran) "A certain well-born man (one of nobility) went into a far country," went abroad. That nobleman was Jesus Christ, who left heaven’s holy fellowship and glory, Matthew 2:2; 2 Corinthians 8:9. This differs from Matthew 25:14; Mark 13:34-35.

3) "To receive for himself a kingdom," (labein heauto basileian) "To take for himself a kingdom," and He did; It was the "kingdom of heaven," the church that He established, not Moses, He established and is building, not a mere man; He received it from material called and prepared by John the Baptist, Matthew 3:1-8; Matthew 2, 3, 10; John 3:28-29.

4) "And to return." (kai hupostrepsai) "And to return," to be invested with royalty, to His homeland or native country, to heaven itself. But He appointed administration of His kingdom work to a people He called His church, for this age, Matthew 16:18; Luke 12:32; Luke 22:28-30; John 14:1-3; John 15:16; John 15:27; John 20:21.


Jamie and Eddie had quarreled. So, as Jamie had been most to blame, he was sent up stairs alone to think over his sins and repent. When his mother called him down, she asked him what he had been doing. He replied, "praying." "Well, my boy, what did you pray for?" His reply was, "I prayed God to pardon Eddie and make him a good boy, and bless all my deeds." A very good illustration of self-righteousness.

Verse 13

1) "And he called his ten servants," (kalesas de deka doulous heautou) "Then he called ten of his own slave-servants," ten being the number of human governments among men. He simply called His church and delivered to them His trust, Luke 22:28-30.

2) "And delivered them ten pounds, and said unto them," (edoken autois deka mnas) "And he gave to their care ten minas or pounds," one pound each. (kai eipen pros autous) "And said directly to them," what He desired them to do in administering His work, while He was away, that it might grow and help men, Matthew 28:18-20; Mark 13:34-37.

3) "Occupy till I come." (pragateusasthe en ho erchomai) "While I am gone and returning, you all trade," or negotiate, be profitably engaged in business exchange with the resources I have entrusted to you. Sow and reap for me, Plant and water for me; Harvest and gather in for me, till I return, Hebrews 10:30; Hebrews 10:37; Matthew 5:15-16; Acts 1:8; Matthew 28:18-20. Persevere till I come.

Verse 14

1) "But his citizens hated him," (ho de politai emisou autou) "However his citizens hated him," those of His own race, John 1:11; John 15:18; Matthew 23:37-39. Just as "the servants" are members of His new covenant fellowship of church disciples, John 15:10.

2) "And sent a message after him, saying," (kai apesteilan presbeian opiso autou legontes) "And they commissioned, mandated, or dispatched a delegation after him, repeatedly saying," asserting, as an embassy, Luke 14:32.

3) "We will not have this man to reign over us." (ou thelomen touton basileusai ep’ hemas) "We do not will this one to reign over us," at all, as a Messiah, especially. They called Him "this man," not even wanting to mention His name, as if He were unclean, a criminal, or obnoxious to them. But one day they will, Luke 1:31-33; 1 Corinthians 15:24-28.

Verse 15

1) "And it came to pass," (kai egeneto) "And it happened," occurred or came to be fulfilled.

2) "That when he was returned," (en to epanelthein auton) "When he returned," from that journey afar, as the nobleman, and as the house-builder, Mark 13:34-37; Hebrews 3:3-6; 1 Timothy 3:15. This alludes to the return of Jesus.

3) "Having the kingdom," (lubonta ten basileian) "Having taken or received the kingdom," that He went away to take or receive, as He caught the living ones up alive into the air and heaven, for rewards of blessings of position, for their coming earthly rule and reign with Him, Matthew 25:1-12; Acts 1:11; 2 Corinthians 11:2; Revelation 19:5-9.

4) "Then he commanded these servants to be called unto him," (kai eipen phonethenai auto tous doulous toutous) "And he gave instructions the slaves were to be called to him," for an accounting, at His return, in the air, 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18; Mark 13:35-37.

5) "To whom he had given the money," (hois dedokei to arguion) "To whom he had given over the money," the silver they were given for capital gain investment purposes, as a witness of their obedience, as steward-servants to the nobleman, 1 Corinthians 4:2.

6) "That he might know how much every man had gained by trading." (hina gnoi tis ti diepagmateusato) "in order that he might know what (how much) each had gained by trading," the degree of each’s trustworthiness, will be brought to light, 1 Corinthians 3:9; Matthew 12:36; Matthew 18:23; Romans 14:12; Hebrews 13:17; 1 Peter 4:5.

Verse 16

1) "Then came the first, saying," (paregeneto de ho protos legon) "Then the first in order, in rank came saying, explaining," with seeming gladness, and joy. Those who serve well will come gladly to meet when the bridegroom shout comes, Matthew 25:6.

2) "Lord, thy pound hath gained ten pounds." (kurie he mna sou deka prosergasato mnas) "Master the pound you gave me to invest has gained ten pounds," or one thousand percent, ten times its original amount, an high return, enlarged by proper usage of that which belonged to his nobleman master, Luke 6:38. The servant did not claim credit for, or brag about what he had done, but about what his master’s money had done.

Verse 17

1) "And he said unto him, Well," (kai eipen auto eu ge) "And he said to him, well, good," you have done well, a kind commendation. The account is personal and minute, Ecclesiastes 12:14.

2) "Thou good servant:" (agathe doule? "You good servant," you supremely good servant, Romans 6:16. Fidelity in little things reflect true character in a person.

3) "Because thou hast been faithful in a very little," (hoti en elachisto pistos egenon) "Because you were faithful in managing (being a steward-investor over) a small amount," in the least or lessor assigned task. This is the emphasis of the parable, that one is to be faithful in managing whatever and everything that God entrusts to him, large and small.

4) "Have thou authority over ten cities." (eshi eksoisian echon epano deka poleon) "You have (may have) administrative authority over ten cities," of my kingdom, in the coming Golden era, as I sit on my Father David’s throne, and the twelve apostles sit on twelve thrones of Israel, and you all of my "kingdom of heaven", new covenant church disciples, who have been loyal will receive fair and eminent positions of honor and service, see? Luke 1:31-33; Luke 22:28-30; Matthew 19:28; 2 Timothy 2:12.

Verse 18

1) "And the second came, saying," (kai elthen ho deuteros legon) "And the second came saying," reporting, giving account of his investment labors, for every man shall give account of his life’s labors, and trust, 1 Corinthians 3:13-15.

2) "Lord, thy pound hath gained five pounds." (he mna sou kurie epoiesen pente mnas) "Lord, your pound made five pounds;" He too did not claim the money as his own or any merit for what it had gained. His nobleman master was the judge. He was only a witness, and an accounting servant-steward, one who too had been wise and faithful, persevering, Acts 1:8; Revelation 2:10; Revelation 22:12.

Verse 19

1) "And he said likewise to him," (ei pen de kai touto) "Then he said also to this one," to this investment slave laborer, 1 Corinthians 3:8-9.

2) "Be thou also over five cities." (kai su epano ginou pente poleon) "You also may be over five cities," in an administrative position, in my kingdom I have taken to myself; It is mine because I founded it, loved it, taught it, died for it, and shall receive and give to my Father glory through it, even in the golden millennial kingdom era, over which I shall reign, a reign in which you all "my church" shall share, Romans 8:17; Revelation 5:9-10; 2 Timothy 2:12.

Verse 20

1) "And another came, saying, Lord, behold, here is thy pound," (kai ho heteros elthen legon kurie) "And the other (of a different kind and attitude) came explaining (apologetically and defensively) Master," (idou he mna sou) "Behold, just look, it is your pound," just what and all that you left me, unused, but it is all here, Matthew 25:24. He should not have taken it, if he was unwilling to use it.

2) "Which I have kept laid up in a napkin:" (hen eichon apokeimenen en sudario) "Which I had, being put away all the -time in an handkerchief," had hoarded. But what had this servant gained to help the Lord, master, or nobleman replace the expense of this servant’s livelihood? He not only, made nothing but also lived off his matter’s property; depreciating and devaluing it, with no return at all. Such slothfulness and fear is wicked, 1 John 4:18. He claimed credit for care and vigilance, like one looking at seed, but never planting them.

Verse 21

1) "For I feared thee," (ephobournin gar se) "For I feared you," was fearful of you; Romans 8:15; 2 Timothy 1:6-7. This was a sure evidence that he did not love his master, for "perfect or mature love casts out fear," 1 John 4:18; Exodus 20:19-20; 1 Samuel 12:20; James 2:19.

2) "Because thou art an austere man:" (hoti anthropos austeros ei) "Because you are an exacting (kind of man," so much the more reason he should have labored diligently. He was an hard, close-fisted, tenacious, rugged man.

3) "Thou takest up that thou layedst not down," (aireis ho ouk ethekas) "You take up what you did not lay down," a margin of profit above what he invested, even as the farmer expects and profits from the multiplication of all that he sows or plants.

4) "And reapest that thou didst not sow." (kai therizeis ho ouk espeitas) "And you reap what you did not sow," but the fruit of what he provided to be planted, a percentage of which every sower is fairly due. If the man-servant had not been willing to use the pound, then he should not have accepted it, see?

Verse 22

1) "And he saith unto him," (legei auto) "He then replied to him," to his inexcusable excuses, Romans 2:1.

2) "Out of thine own mouth will I judge thee," (ek tou stomatos sou krino se) "Out of your own mouth I will judge you," 1 Corinthians 15:25; Hebrews 10:13; Revelation 19:11; Revelation 19:21.

3) "Thou wicked servant." (ponere doule) "You wicked servant;" you wicked servant at heart, in attitude toward my trust, which you accepted. indicated you would use. You wanted the pay, without the work. Unplanted seed and uninvested money are alike, they do not make any profit for anyone.

4) "Thou knewest that I was an austere man," (edeis hoti ego anthropos austeros eimi) "You know that I am an exacting man," one who expects and requires fruit from the trust I gave to your stewardship of service, or a dividend of profit from the money I left you to invest.

5) "Taking up that I laid not down," (airon ho ouk etheka) "Taking up what I laid not down," personally. I only loaned to you, expecting return of the principle, and a percentage of what you made from its use.

6) "And reaping that I did not sow:" (kai therizon ho ouk espeira) "And reaping what I did not sow," didn’t you? I always expect a part of what you made off of my land, my seed, and what you used that belonged to me, is the idea. This was a standard moral and ethical practice of landlords and sharecroppers, etc. The lord or master did not himself do the sowing, but the was expected to reap a part of what had been made on his investment.

Verse 23

1) "Wherefore then gavest not thou my money into the bank," (kai ti ouk edokas mou to argurion epi trapezan) "And why did you not give my money upon a table?" a banker or money changer’s table, so as to realize a gain for its use, while I was away. Why did you not loan it out or invest it, so that the profit would both help pay you something and furnish me a margin of benefit for my livelihood? This is the stinging reproof, not "slothful in business," but fervent in spirit, serving the Lord, Romans 12:11.

2) "That at my coming," (kago elthon) "And upon my coming," or when I returned, as I surely will, Hebrews 10:36-37.

3) “I might have required mine own with usury?" (sun toko an auto epraksa) "With interest it would have exacted or produced," something for me? The term "usury" means "Interest" on my investment. One unwilling to work should lose his job, his position, go hungry, until he is willing to earn his bread by the sweat of his face, even till death. Laziness and slothfulness are sins against society, ones family, and against God, Genesis 3:19; 1 Thessalonians 4:11; 2 Thessalonians 3:10.

Verse 24

1) "And he said unto them that stood by," (kai tois parestosin eipen) "And he said to those who stood by," other servants nearby, Matthew 25:26; Matthew 25:28.

2) "Take from him the pound," (arate ap’ autou ten mnan) "You all take from him the pound," that he received from his lord, Luke 19:13, that he has hid so long in a napkin, without any use or profit, Luke 19:20, for he is a sluggard, Proverbs 20:4.

3) "And give to him that hath ten pounds." (kai dote to tas deka mnas echonti) "And give it to the one who has ten pounds," who invested so profitably while I was away, who obediently, wisely, or prudently administered, as a good and faithful servant and steward, what was entrusted to him, Luke 19:17. The sluggard, the laggard, the idler is a leech on society, his family, and a sinner against God, Proverbs 12:27; Proverbs 18:9; Hebrews 6:12.

Verse 25

1) "(And they said unto him, Lord," (kai eipen auto, kurie) "And they said to him, Master," or Lord. The bystanders raised the question, to which our Lord gave no response.

2) "He hath ten pounds.)" (echei deka mnas) "He has ten pounds," already, as if the Lord did not know it, Luke 19:17. Then the Lord proceeded without any interruption to reply. That the most faithful should have the most.

Verse 26

1) "For I say unto you," (lego humin) I tell you all," as a conclusion on the matter.

2) "That unto every one which hath shall be given;" (hoti panti to echonti dithesetai) "That to everyone who has, it will be given," to everyone who holds, possesses, or manages what has been entrusted to him. This parable, like that of Matthew 25:1-46, refers to a loss of positional honor, service, and rewards, at the coming of Christ, to such as claim to be His servants, but do not serve.

3) "And from him that hath not," (apo de tou me enchontos) "Then from the one not having, holding, or managing," what was entrusted to him, but has laid it up, or laid it aside, Luke 19:20.

4) "Even that he hath shall be taken from him." (kai ho echei arthesetai) "Even what he has (but is not using discreetly) will be taken," or what he seems to have, from his management, trusteeship, or stewardship, Luke 8:18.

Verse 27

1) "But those mine enemies," (plen tous echthrous mou toutous) "However these enemies of mine," the Jews who willfully rejected and finally crucified Him, John 1:11-12; Matthew 23:37-39; 1 Thessalonians 2:14-15.

2) "Which would not that I should reign over them," (tous me thelesantas me nasileusai ep’ autous) "Who do not wish for me to reign over them," in my kingdom, do not receive me as their redeemer Messiah. This regards both Israel’s rejecting their own Messiah, and an individual’s rejecting Jesus Christ as his Savior and, or a committal to Him as Master of life.

3) "Bring hither," (agagete hode) "You all bring (them) here," in my presence; The "you all bring here" or bring forward, ’seems to be addressed to His judgment administering angel servants, Hebrews 1:14; Matthew 13:49-50.

4) "And slay them before me." (kai kataspaksate autous emprosthen mou) "And you slay them before me," in my presence, evidently referring to the dispersion from Jerusalem, AD 70, and second to their judgment that awaits them during The Tribulation The Great.

Verse 28

1) "And when he had thus spoken," (kai eipon tauta) "And when he had said these things," regarding accountability for faithfulness in stewardship, and a time of judgment for each servant, 1 Corinthians 3:13-15; 2 Corinthians 5:10-12; Ecclesiastes 12:13-14.

2) "He went before," (eporeueto emprosthen) "He went in front," or led them in their journey; Went before or led His disciples, Mark 10:32.

3) "Ascending up to Jerusalem." (anabainon eis lerouluma) "As they went up into Jerusalem;" The winding road from Jericho up the mountains to Jerusalem is a fifteen mile ascent, uphill all the way. Our Lord asks His own to travel no road, climb no mountain, to walk no valley, or to face no storm, that He has not Himself endured, Hebrews 4:14-16.

Verse 29

1) "And it came to pass," (kai egeneto) "And it happened," or occurred, as He went up the mountain, tediously climbing, ascending for His last time, from Jericho to Jerusalem.

2) "When he was come nigh," (hos engisen) "As he drew near," was come near, in view of Jerusalem, near two miles East of Jerusalem.

3) "To Bethphage and Bethany," (eis Bethphage kai Bethanain) "Into (the area of) Bethphage and Bethany." Bethphage was a village believed to be East of Bethany and the name means "house of unripe figs." While Bethany, home of Mary, Martha, and Lazarus means "house of dates," Matthew 21:1. It is near where the road to Jericho begins a rapid descent.

4) "At the mount called the mount of Olives," (pros to oros to kaloumenon elaion) "Toward the mount called mount of Olives," a mountain range extending some three miles Eastward from the city of Jerusalem. It was the area near where Jesus ascended into heaven, shortly thereafter, Luke 24:50-51.

5) "He sent two of his disciples," (apesteilen duo ton matheton legon) "He mandated or sent on a mission, two of His disciples, saying," or instructing them, Matthew 21:2. It is believed to have been Peter and John.

Verse 30

1) "Saying, Go ye into the village over against you;" (hupagete eis ten katenanti komen) "You all go into the opposite village,"

2) "In the which at your entering ye shall find a colt tied," (en he eispoteuomenoi heuresete polon dedemenon) "In which when you have entered you will find a colt that has been tied." Matthew 21:2 describes both the colt and his mother that was with it; The Savior later rode the colt while the mother was led along beside it.

3) "Whereon yet never man sat:" (eph’ hon oudeis popoto anthropon ekathisen) "Upon which not one of all men has ever yet sat," an untamed colt, to be used for a Divine purpose, by the Redeemer. Israel (the mother donkey) had now rejected the King who in harmony with the Scriptures, took the untamed colt (the Gentiles) to be His burden bearer for this age, calling from among them a people, His church, for His name’s sake, Acts 15:14; Matthew 4:12-17; Acts 10:37.

4) "Loose him, and bring him hither." (kai lusantes auton agagete) "And when you have loosed it, bring it here," to me, or "bring them," as recounted Matthew 21:2. The red heifer that had never had a yoke or been broken to the yoke of service, was slain "without the camp," outside the holy city; Yet its blood and ashes were to be used in acknowledging sin for Israel, within the city or camp, and for strangers coming up to Jerusalem, and for Israel while on a journey, as described Numbers 19:2-22; Deuteronomy 21:1-9; 1 Samuel 6:7.

Verse 31

1) "And if any man ask you," (kai ean tis humas erota) "And if anyone asks you," inquires, or tries to interrupt or detain you in doing this, asking:

2) "Why do ye loose him?" (dia ti luere) "Why are you all loosening him?" Matthew 21:3.

3) "Thus shall ye say unto him," (houtos ereite) "You shall say in reply," or reply this way, Matthew 21:3.

4) "Because the Lord hath need of him." (hoti ho kurios autou cherian echei) "Because the master has a need of him," of his use, Matthew 21:3; Do what I tell you, and you will always be prepared for any confrontation, 1 Peter 3:15; 2 Timothy 2:15. The Lord needed this colt; and it belonged to Him, Psalms 50:10. So He used His own property when needed.

Verse 32

1) "And they that were sent went their way," (apelthontes de hoi apestalmenoi) "Then those who had been sent went," directly to do just what the Lord had said, an act of wisdom that each of His children should emulate, John 2:5; John 15:14; James 1:22.

2) "And found even as he had said unto them." (heuron kathos eipen autois) "And found just as he told them;" The lesson is that the Word of God can be trusted, in all that it directs one to do, John 2:5; Psalms 119:160; Matthew 28:20; Hebrews 13:5.

Verse 33

1) "And as they were loosing the colt," (luonton de auton ton polon) "Then as they were loosening the colt," God’s property, as described, Psalms 50:10.

2) "The owners thereof said unto them," (elpon hoi kurioi autou pros autous) "The owners of it said directly to them," confronting them for what they were doing. The owners were just really "stewards" who had some of God’s property in their trust that His Son needed at this time, Ps 241; 1 Corinthians 10:26.

3) "Why loose ye the colt?" (ti luete ton polon) "Just why are you all loosening the colt?" It was a normal question for an owner or trustee or steward who saw property in his care being taken.

Verse 34

1) "And they said," (hoi de eipan) "Then they said," in reply, as the Lord had directed; And note, obedience to God always pays dividends, whether one understands it all or not, Acts 4:19-20; Acts 5:29; 1 Samuel 15:22.

2) "The Lord hath need of him." (hot! ho kurios autou chreian echei) "Because the master has a need of it," and that should be reason enough for a child of God to surrender whatever he manages, that God needs in His service, for any special occasion, or need, Luke 6:38. He still needs the use of human hearts, human influence, and human talent.

Verse 35

1) "And they brought him to Jesus:" (kai egagon auton pros ton lesoun) "And they led it to Jesus," as He had bidden them to do, Luke 19:30; Matthew 21:2. All this was done that a specific prophecy might be fulfilled, as certified Zechariah 9:9; Matthew 21:4-6. The owner gladly surrendered the colt for the Master’s use.

2) "And they cast their garments upon the colt," (kai epiripsantes atton ta himatia epi ton polon) "And they threw their garments, (upper garments) upon the colt," Matthew 21:7; as in honor of a King, 2 Kings 9:13.

3) "And they sat Jesus thereon." (epebibasan ton lesoun) "And they put Jesus on it," on the donkey, not on a white horse, such as He shall one day ride at the coronation, in triumphal honor. He rode the despised donkey, the unclean beast of burden that day into the holy city, that you and I might have our donkey nature redeemed, Job 11:12; Revelation 19:11-14.

Verse 36

1) "And as he went," (poreuomenou de autou) "Then as he was going," from the mount of Olives into Jerusalem, upon the back of a donkey, riding as the despised "ghetto king" of Nazareth, yet king of glory, as the rejected king of Israel.

2) "They spread their clothes in the way." (huperstronnuon ta himatia heauton en te hodo) "They spread their garments in the roadway." The "they" were His disciples, His true followers, and many whom He had healed, fed, taught, and befriended along three active years of His highway of life. Many also cast leaves of trees and palm branches before Him, in admiration, Matthew 21:8. The redeemed are to remember that to honor Christ they must repeatedly divest themselves of clothes of unrighteousness, Titus 3:5.

Verse 37

1) "And when he was come nigh," (engizontos de auton) "Then as he drew near," or came to; Luke alone gives the definitive point where the mighty triumphal procession began, as He left Bethany behind.

2) "Even now at the descent of the mount of Olives," (ede pros te katabasei tou orous ton elaion) "Even already directly to the descent of the mount of Olives," where it leads down into Jerusalem from the east, overlooking Mount Zion. A huge crowd hearing of His coming had gone out to the peak of the final summit of the mount of Olives, to sweep down with Him into Jerusalem.

3) "The whole multitude of the disciples began to rejoice," (erksanto hapan to plethos ton matheton chairontes) "All the multitude of the disciples began rejoicing," led the Hosanna Shouts, as they came down the slopes of Olivet with Film into Jerusalem, for the last time of His earthly pilgrimage. Matthew recounts that "Multitudes went before and followed," Matthew 21:9.

4) "And praise God with a loud voice," (ainein ton theon phone megale) "And to praise God repeatedly with a great voice," or a great sound of voices, in a, loud, mega-phone-like voice, resounding across the mountains and valleys of the whole Jerusalem area, to the praise of God, and the hate of the Pharisees, Luke 19:39.

5) "For all the mighty works that they had seen;" (peri pason hon eipon dunameon) "Concerning all the dynamic deeds they had seen," the miracles that they had seen, with their own eyes, to which they now gave testimonial praise, witnessed, Psalms 107:2; Matthew 5:15-16; Acts 1:8; Acts 4:19-20; 1 John 1:3; 2 Peter 1:16-21.

Verse 38

1) "Saying, Blessed be the King that cometh in the name of the Lord:" (legontes eulogemenos ho erchomenos ho basileus en onomati kuriou) "Repeatedly saying, blessing is the king who comes in the name of the Lord," As the Son of David and King of Israel. They shouted "Hosanna to the son of David," to the Messiah, who had come in the name (by the authority) as authorized, prophesied, and fulfilled by the Lord (so loudly) that all Jerusalem was shook-up, Matthew 21:9-11; Mark 11:9-10.

2) "Peace In heaven," (eirene en ourano) "Peace (let) be in heaven," between God and man; and because of it through this Jesus, Romans 5:1; This is what the angels cried at His birth, Luke 2:1-14; Ephesians 2:14. The Hebrew Hosanna is omitted, as used in Luke 2:14, and here simply is translated the meaning, Psalms 118:25; John 12:13.

3) "And glory in the highest." (kai diksa en hupsistois) "And glory in (the) highest places." Let glory be given to God in the highest and to the highest decree; Let the glory shine and ring in heaven, before the throne of God, in Jerusalem, long known as the city of peace, by all you religious rulers, and above all let peace, and glory, and praise be given by Christ Jesus, through the church of this one, Jesus Christ, Ephesians 3:21.

Verse 39

1) "And some of the Pharisees," (kai tines ton Pharisaion) "And certain ones of the Pharisees," who had come out among the multitudes as snipers, wolves in sheep’s clothing, as vampire bats, Matthew 7:15; Matthew 5:20; Matthew 21:15-16. This passage is peculiar to Luke.

2) "From among the multitude said unto him," (apo tou ochlou eipan pros auton) "From (out of) the crowd said directly to him," to Jesus, the object and center or praise of the masses that day; To the chagrin, dismay, and humiliation of the proud and pious Pharisees, Jesus -was about to enter "their city", where His Father’s House was located, John 2:16.

3) "Master, rebuke thy disciples." (didaskale, epitimeson tois mathetais sou) "Teacher reprimand, rebuke, or scold your disciples." They are getting out of hand, embarrassing us as religious leaders, is the idea. And they were in for more embarrassment, when He got to the temple, Matthew 21:12.

Verse 40


1) "And he answered and said unto them, I tell you that," (kai apokritheis eipen lego humin) "And responding he said, I tell you all," you objecting Pharisees, you long seared, practicing hypocrites Matthew 3:7; Mark 7:5-7. Heretofore Jesus had discouraged demonstrations in honor of Him, but not this time.

2) "If these should hold their peace," (ean houti siopesousin) "If these should (become) silent," withhold their Hosanna shouting testimonies of me, they would be hypocrites like you all are, claiming to be believers in and followers of the law and the prophets, all of whom prophesied of me, Deuteronomy 18:15-18; Acts 10:43.

3) "The stones would immediately cry out." (hoi lithos kraksousin) "The stones (themselves) will cry out," in praise and glory to God; A statement similar to this was spoken by John the Baptist to them earlier, Matthew 3:9. The words were certainly metaphoric and proverbial in nature, Habakkuk 2:11. And they did, when later one stone was not left upon another, Luke 19:44.

Verse 41


1) "And when he was come near," (kai hos engisen) "And as he drew near," to Jerusalem, just overlooking the city from the East, near which He was soon to be crucified and buried, approaching the valley of Kedron, with the valley of Hinnom to the South, and the city towers and palaces before Him.

2) "He beheld the city," (Won ten polin) "Beholding the city," the city of peace, took a long last look at it, with its religious rulers having rejected Him, and then plotting His death; See La 3:51. Our Lord, as a man both rejoiced and wept.

3) "And wept over it." (eklausen ep’ auten) "He wept over it," wept aloud, being emotionally moved, very deeply, as also recounted Matthew 23:37-39; Luke 13:34-35; Hebrews 4:15-16.

Verse 42

1) "Saying, If thou hadst known," (legon hoti ei egnos) "Saying, If you just knew," as a city. If you had only recognized, realized, or comprehended, Luke 13:34; as is also recounted Matthew 23:37-39; Job 16:4.

2) "Even thou, at least in this thy day," (en te hemera taute kai su) "Even in this particular day," your day of opportunity, yet your limited day, after often being warned and informed by the law, and the prophets, and by me, Proverbs 29:1; For you have your day of grace, Deuteronomy 5:29; Psalms 29:7-8.

3) "The things belong unto thy peace!" (ta pros eirenen) "The things meant to be for your peace," to bring peace to you, of which the wicked are void, Isaiah 57:20-21; Luke 1:77; Luke 1:79; Isaiah 48:18; Acts 10:36; Romans 5:1; Ephesians 2:14.

4) "But now they are hid from thine eyes." (nun de ekruke apo ephthalmon sou) "Yet, now and hereafter forever, they are and will be hidden from your eyes," for the coming Gentile age; you all have chosen spiritual blindness for you and your children, as surely as Adam and Eve did in Eden, Romans 11:25; They were blind and willfully blind, ignorant and willfully ignorant, by the god of this world, by choice of rejecting Jesus Christ, John 1:11; 2 Corinthians 4:3-4. Having willfully closed their eyes to grace, they then had them judicially sealed, till the "times of the Gentiles," be fulfilled, Romans 11:26. Judicial blindness had set in upon them as a penalty for a long pursuit of moral perverseness by the leaders of the nation of Israel, Matthew 23:13-14.

Verse 43

1) "For the days shall come upon thee," (hoti eksousin hemerai epi se) "Because days will come upon you," as a city, and as a nation, a race, Isaiah 29:2-4. For your fate is sealed, you have gone too far, Judgment closes in on you now; An awful picture of judgment follows:

2) "That thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee," (kai parembalousin hoi echthroi sou charaka soi) "When your enemies-will raise up a rampart about you," an armed, fort from which they will militarily assault you.

3) "And compass thee round," (kai perikuklosousin se) "And they will surround or encircle you," as surely as Joshua and his army encircled Jericho to defeat it, Jeremiah 6:1-6.

4) "And keep thee in on every side." (kai suneksousin se pantothen) "And they will press upon you on all sides," to cause famine to come to you all within your city walls, a direct prophecy that alluded to the manner in which they were to be destroyed by the Roman army led by Titus, AD 70, Luke 21:20; Luke 21:24.

Verse 44

1) "And shall lay thee even with the ground," (kai edaphiousin se) "And they will dash or crash you to the ground," both the buildings and walls of the city of Jerusalem, Micah 3:12; Matthew 23:37. All shall be raised to the ground.

2) "And thy children within thee," (kai ta tekna sou en soi) "And your children in you," living in you, the Jewish people, not infants; This refers to the population of the Jews in the city.

3) "And they shall not leave in thee one stone upon another," (kai ouk aphesousin lithon epi lithon en soi) "And they will not leave a stone upon a stone in you," of any building in your city, Matthew 24:2. The temple, businesses, and residences, were to be totally destroyed, and the ground ploughed thereafter, Micah 3:12; 1 Kings 9:7-8; Mark 13:2.

4) "Because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation." (anth’ hon ouk entos ton kaiton tes episkopes soul "Because you did not know or recognize the era of your visitation," your gracious visitation, Daniel 9:24. When I cam to receive you as my own, Matthew 23:37; John 1:11; John 5:40; Luke 1:68; Isaiah 55:6; John 12:35; 2 Corinthians 6:1-2. The visitation refers to the day of grace, or free opportunity that was given to them, before judgment fell, Genesis 1:24; Exodus 4:31.

Verse 45


1) "And he went into the temple," (kai eiselthon eis to eron) "And upon entering into the temple," as also recounted Matthew 21:12; Mark 11:15.

2) "And began to cast out them that sold therein," (erksato ekballein tous polountas) "He began to expel or toss out, forcefully, those who were selling," commercializing in His house, as He had done on one previous occasion, John 2:13-22. They were selling cattle, sheep, pigeons, and doves, with a noisy, nasty, clamoring traffic, for sacrifices, Matthew 21:12-13; Mark 11:15; Mark 11:17.

3) "And them that bought;" (polountas) "As well as those who bought;" The pilgrims brought their own coins to be changed from Egypt, Syria, Greece, etc. Those who had come to buy their over-inflated priced animals, turtle doves, and pigeons for sacrifices. He simply closed down their commercializing secular traffic and desecration of and in the temple, His Father’s house, John 2:16.

Verse 46

1) "Saying unto them, It is written," (legon autois pegraptai) "Telling them (as he did it) It has been and is written," so that you all are without excuse, claiming to believe and obey the Scriptures, Psalms 93:5.

2) "My house is the house of prayer," (kai estai ho oikos mou oikos proseuvhes) "Even my house shall be an house of prayer," a place to reside for prayer, for devotion, for worship, Isaiah 56:7.

3) "Be ye have made it a den of thieves." (humeis de auton epoiesate spelaion leston) "However you all have made it (as) a conniving den of thieves," who engage in dishonest commercial gain in a sanctified place, Jeremiah 7:11. It is said that the priests had entered into collusion with leading Pharisees and Sadducees to condemn, as unfit for sacrifice, animals brought from afar, if they could find the slightest bruise or mark or blemish, or the doves or pigeons brought had feathers pulled off. Thus these commercial fellows gave pay-offs to crooked Priests.

Verse 47

1) "And he taught daily in the temple," (kai en didaskon to Kath’ hemeran en to hiero) "And he was teaching daily in the temple," that week of the Passover, after He cleansed the temple area, during His last week on earth, with a zeal, unto the end, Ecclesiastes 9:10.

2) "But the chief priests and the scribes," (hoi de archiereis kai hoi grammateis) "Then the administrative priests and the scribes," Mark 11:18; John 7:19; John 8:37, or the archives guardians in collusion with the regular priests; as it had been prophesied they would, Psalms 2:2; Psalms 2:6; Acts 4:23-26.

3) "And the chief of the people sought to destroy him." (ezoutoun auton apolesai kai hoi protoi tou laou) "And the first rank men of the people sought to destroy him," to liquidate him, or to "wipe him out," to get rid of him, even by assassination, if possible, like a mafia gang of today, a thing they eventually did, Acts 2:22-23; Acts 2:36; Acts 3:14-17; Acts 4:10; Acts 5:30; Acts 7:52; Acts 10:39; Acts 13:26-30; 1 Thessalonians 2:14-15.

Verse 48

1) "And could not find what they might do:" (kai ouch heuriskon to ti poiesosin) "And they did not find what they might do," in some covert way to destroy or get rid of Him, for they feared the masses of people, Luke 20:19; John 7:30. As yet they had not found Judas Iscariot, one of His own apostles.

2) "For all the people were very attentive to hear him." (ho laos gar hapas eksekremato autou akouon) "For all the people (of the multitudes) hung upon him to hear," Acts 16:14, what He had to say, as they were bidden to do, Luke 14:35; John 2:5.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Luke 19". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. 1985.