Lectionary Calendar
Saturday, December 9th, 2023
the First Week of Advent
We are taking food to Ukrainians still living near the front lines. You can help by getting your church involved.
Click to donate today!

Bible Commentaries
Acts 25

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

Search for…
Enter query below:
Additional Authors

Verse 1


1) "Now when Festus was come into the province," (phestos oun epibas te eparcheion) "When therefore Festus had entered the province," of Judea in Caesarea. He was appointed by Nero to succeed Felix about A.D. 60 or 61 and died within two years, according to Josephus Antiq. 20:8, 9.

2) "After three days," (meta treis hemeras) "After three days had passed," after he had settled down in the castle in Caesarea.

3) "He ascended from Caesarea to Jerusalem." (anebe eis lerosoluma apo Kaisareias) "He went up to Jerusalem from Caesarea," to familiarize himself with this great central city of his new territorial government, and to become acquainted with her Jewish people in particular.

Verse 2

1) "Then the high priest and the chief of the Jews," (hoi archiereis kai protoi ton loudaion) "The chief (presiding priests) and the chiefs of the Jews," the Jewish officials, including the priests, elders, and Sanhedrin council; Ananias, the former high priest, had been succeeded by Ishmael, son of Phabi; at this time, according to-Josephus Antiq, 20:8. They are later called "the whole multitude of the Jews," Acts 25:24.

2) "Informed him against Paul," (enephanisan te auto) "And informed him," (kata tou Paulou) "Against Paul," filled his ear with accusations. and complaints against Paul, laid out slanted information against him before Festus, Acts 25:15. They rehashed what they had given to Felix, the former governor, Acts 21:27-31; Acts 24:1; Acts 24:5-6.

3) "And besought him," (kai parekaloun auton) "And they besought him," they appealed to Festus; They attempted to motivate or influence him, with ulterior motives, against Paul and the church of Jesus Christ, Matthew 5:10-11.

Verse 3

1) "And desired favor against him," (aitoumenoi charin kat’ autou) "Appealing (for) a favor against him," against Paul. Likely some of those 40 conspirators, who had more than two years earlier vowed "neither to eat or drink" until Paul was murdered, were back among the Jewish officials, trying again to help them secure an "ambush," against Paul, to liquidate him, Acts 23:12-15.

2) "That he would send for him to Jerusalem," (hopos metapempsetai auton eis lerousalem) "That he (Festus) would summon him (Paul) to Jerusalem," from Caesarea, with a plan or plot of premeditated murder aforethought in their hearts and minds, Jeremiah 17:9; Matthew 15:18-19; Mark 7:21. For Felix to have granted their request would have been a judgement of guilt, without a trial, absolutely against the morals and ethics of both Jewish and Roman law, See? Acts 25:15-16; John 8:17; 2 Corinthians 13:1.

3) "Laying wait in the way to kill him." (endran poiountes anelein auton kata ten hodon) "Pursuing a plot, setting an ambush, to kill him, by the way," to murder him while he was being moved from Caesarea back up to Jerusalem, very similar to their plot more than two years earlier, Acts 23:12-15; Acts 23:20-21.


Two years had passed, yet the hatred of the Sadducaic members of the Sanhedrin remained as bitter and their purpose of assassination as determined as ever. Their malevolent feeling had originated in the vast Christian work Paul had wrought. It had been fostered and intensified by the effective use he had made of his prison liberty at Caesarea, in still further spreading the Christian truth almost before their very eyes. In all his labor, perhaps most of all in this Caesarean ministry, he had been undermining their prestige and destroying their power as leaders of the Jewish people.

- Butler.

Verse 4

1) "But Festus answered," (ho men oun phestos aperkrithe) "Then Festus replied," to them, the Jews from Jerusalem, the priests and leaders, the would-be lynch mob of murderous religious conspirators, who like their forefathers, had murdered true prophets of God, Acts 7:52.

2) "That Paul should be kept at Caesarea," (tereisthai ton Paulon eis Kaisareian) "That Paul was to be held under guard or custody in Caesarea;" Festus did not enter into collusion or the devious conspiracy that had long been made among the chief priests, elders, and officials of the Jews in Israel.

3) "And that he himself would depart shortly thither." (heauton de mellein en tachei ekporeuesthai) "And that he himself intended to go (there) soon," to go back to Caesarea, the official judgement place of Caesar in Judea. In effect he refused to bring or authorize Paul to be released from prison in Caesarea and be returned and exposed to their blood thirsty area in Jerusalem, Acts 25:16.

Verse 5

1) "Let them therefore, said he," (hoi oun phesin) "Therefore, let those, he said" let the numerous ones.

2) "Which among you are able, go down with me," (en humin dunatoi sugkatabantes) "Who are able among you all go down with me," to Caesarea, where he is being securely detained under guard. Let those who are expert witnesses, those with power, weight, or real influence among you go with me, in company, intimate association along with me, as I return to Caesarea,

3) "And accuse this man," (kategoreitosan autou) "And let them accuse him," right in Caesar’s court. Festus’ legal position was that he could not reverse the decision or release the custody of Paul, as detained by Felix, his predecessor, without a public hearing, Psalms 37:32-33; Isaiah 8:9-10.

4) "If there be any wickedness in him." (ei ti estin en to andri atopon) "If there is (even exists) in the man anything amiss or out of place," if he is out of place, off-center, as you surely allege that he is, Acts 24:5-9.

Verse 6

1) "And when he had tarried among them," (diatriphas de en autois) "Then when he had stayed among them," seeking to get acquainted with them, and himself curry their good will and political influence.

2) "More than ten days," (hemeras ou pleious okto e deka) "Not more than eight or ten days," a little more than a week, during the first month of his administration as governor, Acts 24:27; Acts 25:1.

3) "He went down unto Caesarea," (katabas eis Kaisareian) "He went down (from Jerusalem) into Caesarea," or Festus returned to his palace and court back in Caesarea by the seaside.

4) "And the next day sitting on the judgement seat," (te epaurion kathesas epi tou besmatos) "On the following day, sitting on the tribunal or judgement seat," with no time lost, to accommodate and try to curry favor of the Jewish officials of influence who had come down from Jerusalem.

5) "Commanded Paul to be brought." (ekeleusen ton

Paulon achthenai) "He commanded (that) Paul be brought," brought from prison or detainment, to appear before him and his accusers, who had now had more than two years to reshape their accusations against him. Festus, taking p the case immediately does not necessarily indicate that the Jews in Jerusalem had prejudiced him against Paul, since the case had already been pending more than two years, Acts 24:27; Acts 25:18.

Verse 7

1) "And when he was come," (paragenomenou de autou) "And when he arrived," when Paul arrived in court, from where he had been in chains, bound for two years, Acts 24:26-27.

2) "The Jews which came down from Jerusalem, (hoi apo leurosolumon katabebekotes loudaioi) "The Jews who had come down from Jerusalem," the most influential ones that could be enlisted from the official Jewry, of priests, elders, and the Sanhedrin council, before whom Paul had appeared two years earlier, Acts 22:30; Acts 23:1-2; Acts 24:1.

3) "Stood round about," (periestasan auton) "Stood around him," in a circle-like formation, similar to the method by which the Jewish Sanhedrin stood the accused, in their semicircle midst, Acts 4:5-7; Acts 5:24; Acts 5:27; Acts 5:41.

4) "And laid many and grievous complaints against Paul," (polla kai barea aitomata katapherontes) "And brought many heavy charges against him," against Paul; They, like Tertullus, two years earlier, brought weighty charges against Paul, laid it on thick. But to charge with guilt does not justify, if one has no evidence that the heavy, serious charges are true, See? Acts 24:5-8; Acts 24:13.

5) "Which they could not prove." (a ouk eschuon apo deiksai) "Which they were not able (strong enough) to prove, did not have evidence to sustain." The charges were hot-air-charges from sharp-tongued, devil directed, lying Jewish religious officials who were covetous of their popular positions in religious Judaism, positions of influence that they saw being supplanted by the power and influence of Jesus Christ and His church, Acts 25:18.

They had charged him with: 1) Sedition or treason, 2) Heresy, and 3) Profaning the temple of the Jews, none of which they could prove. The only thing they proved was that their hearts were not right with God, Jeremiah 17:9; Romans 10:9-13.

Verse 8

1) "While he answered for himself," (tou Paulou apologournenou) "While Paul defended himself," or served as his own witness and council, defending himself in the Roman court, regarding a) the law of Moses, b) the Holy Jewish Temple, and c) Caesar, or his respect for the Ron-ran government. To answer was blessed, Matthew 5:11.


2) "Neither against the law of the Jews," (hoti oute eis ton nomon ton loudaion) "That neither against the Law of the Jews," the Law of Moses.

3) "Neither against the temple," (oute eis to hieron) "Nor against the temple," of the Jews, the Jewish temple in Jerusalem where he had gone for purification and an offering, to worship.

4) "Nor yet against Caesar," (oute eis Kaisara) "Nor against Caesar," whose centurions, chief captain Lysias, the Roman soldiers, Felix and Festus, the Roman governors he had treated with highest respect.

5) "Have I offended any thing at all." (ti hemarton) "Have I missed the mark in anything at all," as relates to my civil, moral, or religious conduct.

This is the second time Paul had met these character assassin charges brought against him, without any substantial sustaining or corroborating evidence. Paul was innocent of the charges, and they had no truthful evidence against him, anymore than they had two years earlier when Felix gave their accusations a hearing, Acts 24:5-8; Acts 12:13; Acts 15:18.

Verse 9

1) "Put Festus, willing to do the Jews a pleasure," (ho Phestos de thelon tois loudaiois cherin katathesthai) "But Festus wishing very much to show the Jews a favor," covetously desiring to please the majority of them in his new post as their governor, as Pilate had done with Jesus Luke 23:24-25.

2) "Answered Paul and said," (apokritheis to Paulo eipen) "Replying to Paul, said," with what he considered to be political astuteness, that would secure the high sanction of the Jewish majority in Jerusalem and Judea. Like compromising Pilate he cared more for political expediency than he did for truth or justice, Luke 23:4; Luke 23:14-15; Luke 23:22; Luke 23:24.

3) "Wilt thou go up to Jerusalem," (theleis eis lerosoluma anabas) "Would you care to go up to Jerusalem?" or are you willing to go up to Jerusalem? Knowing full well of the plot to ambush him, kill him if he did.

4) "And there be judged of these things before me?" (ekei peri touton keithenai ep’ emou?) "And be judged concerning these charges there, standing before me? not before the Jews, Acts 25:20, Acts 24:27.

Verse 10


1) "Then said Paul," (eipen de ho Paulos) "Then Paul responded," to the proposition that he be led back up among the mania-mob of incited hate mongers in the Jerusalem area, who twice had laid plans to assassinate him, already, Acts 23:12-15; Acts 25:2-3.

2) "I stand at Caesar’s judgement seat," (hestos epi tou bematos Kaisaros eimi) "I am firmly standing before Caesar’s tribunal;- He chose the heathen, Gentile, Roman court to hear his cause, more impartially than the corrupted priesthood and Sanhedrin controlled Jewish court in Jerusalem at that time, Romans 13:1-7,

3) "Where I ought to be judged” (hou me dei keinesthai) "Where it is proper for me to be judged," here and before you as a Roman citizen, since the first charge against me is Sedition or treason, Acts 24:5-6; Acts 22:24-29.

4) "To the Jews have I done no wrong," (Ioudaious ouden edikeka) "To (the) Jews I have done not one thing wrong," of the nature of their repeated charges, Acts 24:12-13; Acts 25:18-19.

5) "As thou very well knowest." (hos kai su kallion epiginoskeis) "As you know very well," and that I am entitled to freedom, rather than even the harassment of a trial, where cruel charges are repeatedly made without a shred of sustaining evidence, your honor. And Festus knew better than to press upon him to go back up to Jerusalem among the nest of assassins to try to secure a fair trial. It was like proposing that one try raising baby chickens in a cage of foxes or baby ducks in a cage or pit with rattlesnakes.

Verse 11

1) "For if I be an offender," (ei men oun adiko) "if I therefore do wrong," am found to do wrong, to be a malicious law-breaker, of Roman or Jewish law.

2) "Or have committed any thing " (pepracha ti) "Or I have practiced anything," repeatedly done anything, with deliberate intent and purpose, even subject to death under my nation’s religious laws, Exodus 20:1-17.

3) "Worthy of death," (kai aksion thanatou) "Ever worthy of death," any crime of capital punishment nature, worthy of death, or that merits death. And he had not, a matter confirmed by both Festus and Agrippa, Acts 25:25; Acts 26:30-32.

4) “I refuse not to die:” (ou paraitoumai to apothanein) "I do not refuse (will not draw back) to die;" or beg off. A Roman is willing to die, a Christian is ready to die. This shows his patriotism, his preparation for a better abode with Christ, 2 Corinthians 5:1-9.

5) "But if there be none of these thing " (ei de ouden estin hon houtoi) "Yet, if there exists not a single thing," not even one factual thing, Acts 23:29-30.

6) "Whereof these accuse me," (kategorusin) "Of which they accuse me," repeatedly, hashing the same things over and over, as generalization charges, submitting no evidentiary material of his actual guilt, Acts 24:5-9.

7) "No man may deliver me unto them," (oudeis me’ dunati autois charisasthai) "There is no one who can grant me to them," who can turn me over to them, based on Roman law, Acts 26:32.

8) "I appeal unto Caesar." (Kaisara epikaloumai) "So I appeal to Caesar," to his jurisdiction alone over me, Acts 28:19-21. By this appeal the Jews were robbed-of their prey, Acts 21:32; Acts 23:27.

Verse 12

1) "Then Festus, when he had conferred with the council," (tote ho phestos sullalesas meta tou sumbouliou) "Then after Festus had conferred with the council," his own councilors, assistants he had chosen to assist him in making decisions in administering justice. He accepted the premise that wisdom or safety existed "in the midst of the council," Proverbs 11:14.

2) "Answered, hast thou appealed unto Caesar?" (apekrithe Kaisara epikeklesai) "He replied (to Paul) you have appealed to Caesar." By this time it appears that Paul had detected a bias in Festus, that would incline his decision more favorably to the Jewish murderous wolf-pack for political gain, than toward any semblance of justice. To call for an appeal of a case to Caesar, verbally, was all required under the Roman law, and all further proceedings were then suspended, in cases of life and death.

3) "Unto Caesar shalt thou go." (epi Kaisara poreuse) "You shall go to Caesar," to be tried before Caesar in Rome, where God had promised him that one day he would go to witness, Acts 19:21; Acts 23:11. The idea of this phrase is "and see if you fare better, get better treatment there." Festus perhaps also felt that Paul had come to mistrust his impartiality and character in this matter, based on what he had seen and heard of Festus.

Verse 13

1) "And after certain days," (hemeron de diagenomenon tinon) "Then after several days had passed," following Paul’s appeal to Caesar, before Festus, Acts 25:11-12.

2) "King Agrippa and Bernice," (Agrippas ho basileus kai Bernike) "King Agrippa and Bernice," his wife, as a mistress-sister, who after two marriages lived with him, as reported, in an incestuous manner. This is Agrippa II, whose father Herod Agrippa died in a despicable manner, reported, Acts 12:19-23. Bernice and Drusilla, Acts 24:24, wife of Felix, were sisters of Herod Agrippa II.

3) "Came unto Caesarea," (katentesan eis Kaisareian) "Arrived at Caesarea," to pay his respects to Festus upon his entering the office of procurator or governor of Judea.

4) "To salute Festus." (aspasamenoi ton Pheston) "To greet Festus," the new governor of the territory who succeeded Felix, and who was his brother-in-law. The three sisters of Herod Agrippa II were, Bernice the elder, Drusilla the second, and Mariamne the third, each of which, according to Josephus, dropped and swapped husbands promiscuously, Joseph Antiq. ch. 20:1, 3. It was this Herod Agrippa who built a large palace at Jerusalem. He died A.D. 100, at the age of 70 years, in the 51st year of his reign. His sister- mistress, Bernice, a beautiful woman also became mistress of, first Vespasius, then Titus, following Herod’s death.

Verse 14

1) "And when they had been there many days," (his de peious herneras dietribon ekei) "And as they stayed there an extended number of days," several days.

2) "Festus declared Paul’s cause unto the king " (ho Phestos to basilei anetheto ta kata ton Paulon) "Festus set before the king (explained) the matters regarding Paul; Agrippa was governor over the Jerusalem Temple, which Paul was said to have profaned. He laid out the matter before the king.

3) "There is a certain man," (legon aner tis estin) "Saying, there is (exists) here a certain man," a rather special man, involved in Jewish and Christian religious matters of controversy.

4) "Left in bonds by Felix: ’ (kataleleimmenos hupo Phelikos desmios) "A prisoner of chains who was left behind by Felix," Acts 24:26-27; Acts 25:9. It was natural for Festus to consult King Herod, first because of his jurisdiction over the Temple in appointing the high priests, and second because he was an older brother-in-law.

Verse 15

1) "About whom when I was in Jerusalem," (peri ou genoumenou mou eis lerosolema) "About whom when I was in Jerusalem," a few days, to become acquainted with the Jews and their chief officials, Acts 25:1-5.

2) "The chief priest and the elders informed me," (enephanisan hoi archiereis kai hoi presbuteroi ton loudaion) "The chief priests and the elders of the Jews informed me," filled my ear with accusations, aspersions, and complaints against him (Paul), Acts 25:2; Acts 24:1; Acts 25:7.

3) "Desiring to have judgement against him." (aitoumenoi kat- autou katadiken) "Appealing for a sentence against him," without a trial first, to assist them in setting up an ambush plot, by which they would assassinate him, (Acts 25:2-3) a thing I learned from Felix they had attempted two years earlier, Acts 23:12-21. And second they desired an immediate trial, sending their most able, influential men down here to Caesarea to testify against him.

Verse 16

1) “To whom I answered," (pros ous apekrithen) "To whom I replied," gave a statement regarding my legal responsibility in the matter as a Roman judge.

2) "It is not the manner of the Romans," (hoti ouk estin ethos hromaiois) "That it is not a custom or an ethical practice with Romans,"

3) "To deliver any man to die," (charizesthai tina anthropon) "To grant sentence to any man to die," a result the Jews wanted from him, without a trial, Acts 25:7.

4) "Before that he which is accused," (prin e ho kategoroumenos) "Before he who is accused stands before," is given opportunity to stand before his accuser. It was in this light, Paul later affirmed, "I have fought a good fight," 2 Timothy 4:7-8.

5) "Have the accusers face to face, (kata prosopon echoi tous kategorous) "He should have the accusers face to face," before him, to look him in the eye, Acts 23:27-35.

6) "And have license to answer for himself," (topon te apologias laboi) "And then have a place or opportunity of defence," to defend himself in the presence of the accusers, against the crime charged to him and against him.

7) "Concerning the crime laid against him.” (pen tou egklematos) "Concerning the criminal charge brought against him;" It is considered that the first principle of justice, or equity, in a controversy, is to define the crime or offence, and give the accused offender or criminal an opportunity to make a confession or offer a defence, a thing these hateful Jews wanted to deprive Paul of, 1 Peter 3:15.

Verse 17

1) "Therefore, when they were come hither," (sunelthonton oun enthade) "When they had therefore come together," when the colleague of Paul-hating Jewish conspirators had come together, in collusion against Paul, at Caesarea.

2) "Without any delay," (anabolen medemian poiesamenos) "Making no delay," whatsoever in arranging for their requested opportunity to "lay it on the line against Paul," in Caesar’s public court in Caesarea. The idea of Festus was to show Agrippa that his constituents in Jerusalem had been extended courtesy of the court at Caesarea, without delay, since he had taken over.

3) "On the morrow I sat on the judgement seat," (te ekses kathisas epi tou benatos) "On the very next day while I was sitting in the tribunal, the judgement seat," to hear the trial in a manner of Roman court dignity.

4) "And commanded the man to be brought forth

(ekeleusa achthenai ton andra) "I commanded the man to be brought," the man being Paul, against whom they had entered accusations of 1) Sedition or treason, 2) Heresy, and 3) Profaning or desecrating the temple, Acts 24:5-9.

Verse 18

1) "Against whom when the accusers stood up," (peri hou stathentes hoi kategoroi) "Concerning whom the accusers standing," with contention, kept on standing, mouthing the same slanderous accusations over and over again, without providing any specific evidence for a single charge, as they did two years earlier, just parroting what their hired orator, Tertullus had stated, Acts 24:9.

2) "They brought none accusation," (oudemian aitian eperon) "Not one actual charge they put forth," before me and my appointed counselors, advisors, or assistants who confer with me on adjudication of matters of controversy.

3) "Of such things as I supposed:” (hon ego hupenooun poneron) "Of such wicked or morally vicious nature as I suspected they would bring," as treason or sedition as I had been led by them to believe, when they bugged my ear for a week, when I was among them in Jerusalem, Acts 25:2-3; after I heard their rambling, conflicting generalizations against Paul, and his more definitive, intelligible, apparently honest replies, Acts 25:7-11.

Verse 19

1) "But had certain questions against him," (zetemata de tina peri) "But instead they had certain questions concerning," certain questions of theology and philosophy against him, which was not, in my judgement, a matter of my jurisdiction, as also expressed, Acts 18:15; Acts 23:29.

2) "Of their own superstition," (tes idias desidiaimonias) "Of their own religion," or religious concepts, on which they-themselves are at great odds, between the Pharisees and Sadducees, Acts 23:8.

3) "And of one Jesus, which was dead," (kai peritinos lesou tethnekotos) "And concerning a certain Jesus who had died, " was crucified some years ago, Romans 8:11; Philippians 3:20-21.

4) "Whom Paul affirmed to be alive." (hon ephasken ho Paulos zen) "Whom Paul asserted to be alive," to live yet today. These Jews had understood enough of Paul’s preaching that he believed and taught that Jesus was alive forevermore, and had "become the firstfruits of them that slept in death," 1 Corinthians 15:1-4; 1 Corinthians 15:20-23; 1 Corinthians 15:51-58; 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18; Hebrews 10:37.

Verse 20

1) "And because I doubted of such manner of questions," (aporoumenos de ego ten peri touton zetesin) "And being perplexed about these kind of things to be debated in court," when they (the Jews) made the issue a purely theological and philosophical conflict, totally abandoning their primary claim or complaint that he was a seditionist, guilty of treason. Festus frankly stated that he as a Roman judge, was not qualified, nor was Caesar’s court the place, to adjudicate such purely religious matters.

2) "I asked him whether he would go to Jerusalem," (elegon ei bouloito poreuesthai eis lerousoluma) "I then, at that point, asked him if he wished to go up to Jerusalem," the center of Jewish worship, tradition, and Jewish law regulations, which Roman law then permitted. It was like asking one if he would mind sitting down before a yellow jacket or hornet nest to talk over their complaints against him, see?

3) "And there be judged of these matters." (kakei krinesthai peri touton) "And up there be judged concerning these (religious conflict) matters," that involved a) the law of Moses, b) the resurrection of the dead, and c) Jesus Christ and the testimony and labors of His church, d) and a particular decree of death charge, already loudly declared against Paul publicly and privately in Jerusalem. Such was like asking a young rooster if he would mind going into the cage of a fox or a fox den to be tried by a pack of hungry foxes or wolves, Ecclesiastes 5:8; Isaiah 56:1; Isaiah 59:14-15. There is a time when every secret thing will be "brought up again," in judgement, Ecclesiastes 12:14; Matthew 12:36.

Verse 21

1) "But when Paul had appealed," (tou de Paulou epikalesamenou) "Then Paul appealed," made his appeal, or "then upon the appeal of Paul," on the basis of it, Acts 25:11, because the first charge was one of treason or sedition, which if proved against him, carried the death penalty.

2) "To be reserved unto the hearing of Augustus," (terethenai auton eis ten tou Sebastou diagnosin) "To be himself kept (guarded) to the decision of Augustus," the court of Augustus Caesar, in Rome at that time; Tho Nero had become the Roman Caesar or Emperor, Acts 25:12.

3) “I commanded him to be kept," (ekeleusa tereisthai auton) "I then commanded him to be kept," held under guard, in detainment, for a convenient time to send him under guard by ship to Rome, Acts 25:12.

4) "Till I might send him to Caesar." (heos hou anapempso auton pros Kaisara) "Until I may be able to send him to Caesar;" Caesar was a dynasty title, here alluding to Nero, then Emperor." Festus was likely waiting for a ship bound for Italy on which he could send both Paul and other Roman prisoners, Acts 25:13-18.

Verse 22

1) "Then Agrippa said unto Festus," (Agrippas de pros to Pheston) "Then Agrippa requested (of) Festus," for a personal privilege of hearing this man questioned in his presence.

2) “I would also hear the man myself," (eboulomen kai autos tou anthropou akousai) "I would also like to hear the man myself," unknowingly entering into fulfillment of prophecy regarding Paul’s trials, Acts 9:15. The imperfect tense indicates a long held desire that Agrippa had to hear Paul; Whether or not this was a primary wish that brought him to Caesarea, or a secondary occasion for it, is not clear.

3) "To morrow, said he, thou shalt hear him," (aurion phesin akouse autou) "Tomorrow, Festus replied, you shall hear him, for yourself, without delay, have your unfulfilled wish fulfilled tomorrow, Acts 26:26-32.

Verse 23

1) "And on the morrow," (te oun epaurion) "Therefore on the following day," after Festus had rehearsed Paul’s present religious and legal state or condition, as he had observed it, to Agrippa, his brother-in-law King.

2) "When Agrippa was come, and Bernice," (elthontos tou Agrippa kai Bernikes) "When Agrippa and Bernice his wife arrived," or his mistress-sister who was allegedly living a life of incest with him.

3) "With great pomp," (meta polles phantasias) "With much fanfare," pomp, or public display, such as befit the kings of that day - In royalty robes and splendid insignia, they were paraded in, under protection of a marching retinue, they entered the open theatre court.

4) "And was entered into the place of hearing," (kai eiselthonton eis to akroaterion) "And had entered and found a prominent place in the audience (the theater)," for the hearing of Paul by the seaside, the praetorium hall of the court in Caesarea.

5) "With the chief captains," (sun te chiliarchois) "In company, close association or identity with, the chief captains," of the Roman band, under their security guard presence.

6) "And the principal men of the city," (kai andrasin tois kat’ eksochen tes poleos) "And closely identified with the officials or prominent men of the city," both Romans and Jews who gloried in being socially and intimately near the king who was brother-in-law to their governor.

7) "At Festus’ commandment Paul was brought fort

(kai keleusantos tou Phestou echthe ho Paulos) "And when Festus commanded (gave the orders) Paul was brought forth," on public parade, as a caged or chained animal (lion), as he was made a spectacle for a moment, before the world, 1 Corinthians 4:9. This was the most influential and dignified audience Paul had ever had occasion to address- - -yet it fulfilled Acts 9:15; Acts 27:24; 2 Timothy 4:16-17,

Verse 24

1) "And Festus said," (kai phesin ho Phestos) "And Festus began, saying," made the following opening or introductory remarks:

2) "King Agrippa, and all men which are here present with us," (Agrippa basileu kai pantes oi sumparontes hemin andres) "King Agrippa and all men who are present in concord or harmony with us," in this fine peaceful gathering.

3) "Ye see this man," (theoreite touton) "You all observe this man," take a good look at him, get an eyeful of this man, bound with chains like a wild animal or criminal.

4) "About whom all the multitude," (peri hou hapan to plethos) "Concerning whom, or regarding whom, all the multitude," the masses.

5) "Of the Jews have dealt with me," (ton loudaion enethchon moi) "Of the Jews have petitioned me," put pressure on me, by their representatives who have demanded his death, Acts 22:22; 1 Corinthians 4:9; Acts 24:27.

6) "Both at Jerusalem and also here," (en te lerosolumois kai enthade) "Both in Jerusalem and in this place, here in Caesarea," Jeopardizing his life, insisting he is too wicked to live, dangerous to the law of the Romans, society, and our sacred religion, Acts 25:2-3.

7) "Crying that he ought not to live any longer." (bontes me dein auton zen meketi) "Crying aloud (just bellowing out publicly) that he ought not to live, another day," no longer at all, 2 Corinthians 6:9; Romans 8:36; Acts 25:7; Acts 25:18-19; as they had cried two years earlier, Acts 21:27-31; Acts 22:22-23.

Verse 25

1) "But when I found," (ego de katelabomen) "But I discovered," I found out by meticulous inquiry.

2) "That he had committed nothing worthy of death," (meden aksion auton thanatou peprachenai) "Not one thing he had done worthy of or that merited death," so far as a criminal deed was concerned, under Roman law, so far as my jurisdiction reaches; Acts 25:11; Acts 23:9; Acts 23:29.

3) "And that he himself hath appealed to Augustus," (autou de toutou epikalesamenou ton Sebaston) "Then when he himself appealed to Caesar Augustus," to the Roman Emperor, Acts 25:12.

4) “I have determined to send him." (ekrina pempein) "I decided to send him," when it was convenient, Acts 25:12; Acts 26:31-32. I made a judgement that there was nothing also I could do, on the basis of his own public appeal, and the fact or evidence that he is a freeborn Roman, Acts 21:25-29; Acts 25:10-12.

Verse 26

1) "Of whom I have no certain thing to write unto my lord," (peri hou asphales ti grapsai to kurio ouk echo) "Concerning whom I have nothing special (of criminal nature) to write to the lord Caesar," to the Emperor Nero, using the term lord to refer to the emperor and his high officials, as profanely used of "lords, many and gods many," 1 Corinthians 8:5.

2) "Wherefore I have brought him forth before you," (kio proegagon auton eph’ humon) "Because of this, I have brought him forth before you all," for the carnival affair of a trial, almost as hypocritical and farcical in nature as that of our Lord, Matthew 5:11-12; John 15:20-22.

3) "And specially before thee, 0 king Agrippa," (kai malesta epi aou basileu Agrippa) "And most of all before you personally, King Agrippa," more astute in minute and definitive matters of both Jewish and Roman law than I am.

4) "That after examination had," (kopos tes anskriseos genomenes) "So that when there has been an examination," this time, if possible, after a fourth public hearing of Paul over this matter: 1) Jerusalem before the Sanhedrin, Acts 22:30; Acts 24:10-13; Acts 25:1-7; Acts 26:1-2) Felix in Caesarea, 3) Festus in Caesarea, 4) Agrippa in Caesarea.

5) “I might have somewhat to write." (scho ti grapso) "I may have something that I may write," something of substance to write to Caesar, of a criminal nature, if there be such, after you hear him in particular, King Agrippa; There had to be crimes definitively filed formally against Paul, to justify his being sent before the Emperor or Caesar in Rome.

Verse 27

1) "For it seemeth to me unreasonable," (alogon gar moi dokei) "For it seems unreasonable to me," or to be without warrant for me. Three times, already, Paul, like his Lord, had been acquitted; But political position, pride, and covetousness, had held a) the Sanhedrin, b) Felix, and c) Festus in indecision for fear of man, 1 John 4:13.

2) "To send a prisoner," (pemponta desmion) "That upon sending a prisoner," before Caesar, the highest court of appeal in Roman law. His sending a prisoner implied that the prisoner was charged with crimes of grave danger to the Roman world and her people.

3) "And not withal to signify the crimes laid against him." (me kai tas kat’ autou aitias semanai) "Not even (to send) an abstract of particulars, summarizing some specific criminal charge or charges of substance against him." God was overruling the wickedness of man to His honor, as He had promised, Acts 23:11. The wrath of man is caused to praise Him, Psalms 76:10; a matter of concern of Festus, even after this fourth public defense of Paul, Acts 26:30-32.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Acts 25". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/acts-25.html. 1985.
adsFree icon
Ads FreeProfile