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We now begin the third and final division of the Book, in which is set forth the arrangements made for settlement of the cities. It is the last piece of history which the Old Testament contains. Some revelation of later conditions is obtainable from the study of the prophets, but nothing more is directly written until, after a lapse of four centuries, the history is resumed in the New Testament.
In this chapter begins the account of the settlement of Jerusalem particularly. Perhaps not more than fifty thousand of the people, all told, had returned from captivity. By no means all of these had come to Jerusalem. Many of them were scattered through the surrounding cities. Jerusalem was peculiarly difficult of settlement, in that it was the center of danger and of possible attack. It was therefore arranged that the princes should dwell in the city, and that ten per cent of the people, selected by lot, must take up their abode there. In addition to these, some voluntarily came forward to dwell in the place of danger. These were especially honored by all the people (11:2).
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Morgan, G. Campbell. "Commentary on Nehemiah 11". "Morgan's Exposition on the Bible". https://studylight.org/
the Second Week of Advent