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This short chapter contains a single simile and its application, designed to show that Israel, having failed to fulfil the purpose for which they had been chosen, were worthless, and could have no other end than destruction.
(2) What is the vine tree?—The comparison of Israel to a vine or to a vineyard is common in Scripture (Psalms 80:8-13; Isaiah 5:1-7; Jeremiah 2:21; Hosea 10:1; Matthew 21:33-41, &c.) and is very apt; for the vine, bringing forth its appointed fruit, was among the most precious of the earth’s productions, but failing this, was utterly worthless for anything but fuel. The fact that Israel did not yield the fruit required is not especially mentioned, being taken for granted here, and abundantly expressed in the connected prophecies. The fruit of righteousness, as our Lord has shown in John 15:1-8, under the same figure of the vine, is only possible by a steadfast clinging to the Source of righteousness, and this was the point in which the Jews of this time had signally failed.
(5) How much less shall it be meet?—The worthlessness of the wood of the vine having been shown in Ezekiel 15:3, and it having been said in Ezekiel 15:4 that it is therefore “cast into the fire,” the climax is here reached. According to Ezekiel 15:4, it is burned off at the ends, and then the remnants are pushed also into the fire to be burned, just as one would do with grape branches to save the trouble of cutting them up. This comparison is carried out in Ezekiel 15:7.
(7) Shall go out from one fire and another fire . . .—The words one and another are not in the original and may be omitted, and the articles inserted: “they go from the fire, and the fire devours them.” This was exactly the condition of Israel. Partially consumed in the fire of the Divine judgments, they had been again and again overtaken. The “ends” were already gone; now “the midst of it” was to be burned up—the final result, as always, being a recognition of God.
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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Ezekiel 15". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://studylight.org/
the Second Week of Advent