the First Week of Advent
Click here to join the effort!
Dr. Constable's Expository Notes Constable's Expository Notes
by Thomas Constable
The Hebrews derived the title of this book from the first word in it, wayyiqra’, translated "And He [the Lord] called" (Lev_1:1). "And" or "then" is a conjunction that shows that what follows in Leviticus is a continuation of the narrative of Exodus. There is no break in the flow of thought. This is the third book of the Torah (Law).
The English title comes from the Vulgate (Latin version), which called this book Liber Leviticus. The Vulgate title came from the Septuagint (Greek version), which had as the title Leuitikon, meaning "relating to the Levites." This title is appropriate since the book contains requirements of the Mosaic Covenant that relate to the Levites, or more specifically, the priests.
"It would be wrong, however, to describe Leviticus simply as a manual for priests. It is equally, if not more, concerned with the part the laity should play in worship. Many of the regulations explain what the layman should sacrifice. They tell him when to go to the sanctuary, what to bring, and what he may expect the priest to do when he arrives. Most of the laws apply to all Israel: only a few sections specifically concern the priests alone, e.g., chs. 21-22. The lay orientation of the legislation is particularly noticeable in ch. 23, where the whole emphasis lies on the days that must be observed as days of sabbath rest." [Note: Gordon J. Wenham, The Book of Leviticus, p. 3.]
DATE AND WRITER
Almost all Jewish and Christian scholars regarded Moses as the writer of all five books of the Law until about 150 years ago. [Note: See the excellent discussion and critique of the Documentary Hypothesis in Mark F. Rooker, Leviticus, pp. 23-38.] God evidently revealed the material Moses recorded in Leviticus after He renewed the covenant with Israel (Lev_1:1; cf. Exo_34:1-28). Leviticus is unique in that it is largely a record of God’s instructions to Moses.
"There is no book in the whole compass of that inspired Volume which the Holy Spirit has given us, that contains more of the very words of God than Leviticus. It is God that is the direct speaker in almost every page; His gracious words are recorded in the form wherein they were uttered." [Note: Andrew A. Bonar, A Commentary on Leviticus, p. 1. For a fuller discussion of authorship and date, see R. K. Harrison, Leviticus, pp. 15-25, Wenham, pp. 8-13; or Allan P. Ross, Holiness to the LORD, pp. 33-42.]
As noted, Leviticus contains revelation that was particularly appropriate for the priests. While ritual and legal matters predominate, Moses wove them into the historical narratives so, as one reads Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers in order, there is chronological movement forward. As we shall see, the legislation appears in the narrative at significant and reasonable places.
"The content of Leviticus supplements and completes that of Exodus in the religious and social spheres-and particularly the religious and ritual aspects of the covenant as made, broken and renewed actually at Sinai; this would be reflected by the terminal blessings and curses of Leviticus 26." [Note: Kenneth Kitchen, "The Old Testament in its Context: 2 From Egypt to the Jordan," Theological Students’ Fellowship Bulletin 60 (1971):3.]
"Leviticus enlarges upon matters involving the ordering of worship at the divine sanctuary that are mentioned only briefly in Exodus. Whereas the latter described the specifications and construction of the tabernacle, Leviticus narrates the way in which the priests are to care for the sanctuary and throne room of the Great King. The work is a fundamentally important legal treatise because it contains the regulations by which the religious and civil life of the Hebrew nation was to be governed once the land of Canaan was occupied." [Note: Harrison, pp. 13-14.]
Historically the book fits within the one month between God’s occupation of the tabernacle (Exo_40:17; Exo_40:34-38) and the taking of the census at Sinai (Num_1:1-3). However because it contains so much legal material, we should consider it along with the rest of the Mosaic Law that God began to reveal in Exodus.
"It carries on to its completion the giving of the law at Sinai, which commenced at Exodus 25, and by which the covenant constitution was firmly established." [Note: C. F. Keil and Franz Delitzsch, Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament: Pentateuch, 2:261.]
"Though the covenant arrangement up to this point clearly specified the need for Israel, the vassal, to appear before her Lord on stated occasions and singled out first Moses and then the priesthood as mediators in this encounter, there yet remained the need to describe the nature of the tribute to be presented, the precise meaning and function of the priesthood, the definition of holiness and unholiness, and a more strict clarification of the places and times of pilgrimage to the dwelling place of the great King. This is the purpose of the book of Leviticus." [Note: Eugene H. Merrill, "A Theology of the Pentateuch," in A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament, p. 56.]
"The central theme of the book is holiness. The book intends to show how Israel was to fulfill its covenant responsibility to be ’a kingdom of priests and a holy nation’ (Exo_19:6; Lev_26:5 [sic 2])." [Note: John H. Sailhamer, The Pentateuch as Narrative, p. 323.]
"The purpose of the book is to provide guidelines to priests and laypeople concerning appropriate behavior in the presence of a holy God, thus the emphasis is on communicating information, not on subtle or artificial literary plays." [Note: Tremper Longman III and Raymond B. Dillard, An Introduction to the Old Testament, p. 84.]
"How to maintain the vital covenantal relationship between the Israelites and their God is the concern of the book of Leviticus." [Note: Samuel J. Schultz, Leviticus: God Among His People, p. 7.]
"New Testament theology makes full use of the idea of holiness. All Christians are holy, ’saints’ in most English translations. That is, they have been called by God to be his people just as ancient Israel had been (Col_1:2; 1Pe_1:2; 1Pe_2:9-10; cf. Exo_19:5-6). But this state of holiness must find expression in holy living (Col_1:22; 1Pe_1:15). Sanctification is expressed through obedience to the standard of teaching (Rom_6:17-19), just as in Leviticus through obedience to the law. Peter urges his readers to make the motto of Leviticus their own: ’Be holy, for I am holy’ (1Pe_1:16). The imitation of God is a theme that unites the ethics of Old and New Testaments (cf. Mat_5:48; 1Co_11:1)." [Note: Wenham, p. 25.]
". . . the principles underlying the OT are valid and authoritative for the Christian, but the particular applications found in the OT may not be. The moral principles are the same today, but insofar as our situation often differs from the OT setting, the application of the principles in our society may well be different now." [Note: Ibid., p. 35.]
". . . the Levitical rituals are still of immense relevance. It was in terms of these sacrifices that Jesus himself and the early church understood his atoning death. Leviticus provided the theological models for their understanding. If we wish to walk in our Lord’s steps and think his thoughts after him, we must attempt to understand the sacrificial system of Leviticus. It was established by the same God who sent his Son to die for us; and in rediscovering the principles of OT worship written there, we may learn something of the way we should approach a holy God." [Note: Ibid., p. 37.]
Leviticus is essentially a narrative document that relates the events that transpired in the life of the Israelites while the nation camped at the base of Mt. Sinai. However most of the material in the book is legal in genre. The legal sections prepare the reader to understand the narrative sections not only in Leviticus but also in Numbers and the rest of the Bible.
"The story exists for the sake of the laws which it frames." [Note: D. Damrosch, "Leviticus," in The Literary Guide to the Bible, p. 66.]
There are two clear narrative sections (chs. 8-10; Lev_24:10-23). However, the hinge chapter in the book, chapter 16, reads as narrative even though it is legislative (legal) material. As a whole, this book, like the rest of the Torah, is theological instructional history. [Note: Longman and Dillard, p. 83.]
A Legal chs. 1-7
B Narrative chs. 8-10
A Legal chs. 11-15
C Legal written as narrative ch. 16
A Legal Lev_17:1 to Lev_24:9
B Narrative Lev_24:10-23
A Legal chs. 25-27
". . . it is no exaggeration to claim that the Book of Leviticus has had more impact on Judaism than any other book of the Old Testament. Traditionally it was the first book taught to Jewish children, and over half the commentary of the Talmud is concerned with understanding its contents." [Note: Rooker, p. 22. See also Ross, pp. 42-58, for discussion of the main theological revelations in Leviticus, and pp. 58-65 for explanation of the interpretation and application of the Law in the church.]
"Without a basic knowledge of Leviticus, Hebrews will remain a closed book to the Christian." [Note: Herbert M. Wolf, An Introduction to the Old Testament Pentateuch, p. 165.]
"At first sight the book of Leviticus might appear to be a haphazard, even repetitious arrangement of enactments involving the future life in Canaan of the Israelite people. Closer examination will reveal, however, that quite apart from the division of the work into two basic themes, many of the chapters have their own literary structure. Examples of this can be seen in material patterned after the fashion of a Mesopotamian tablet, with its title, textual content and colophon, as in Lev_1:3 to Lev_7:38. [A colophon is an inscription, usually at the end of an ancient book, giving facts about its production.] Other chapters exhibit a distinct form of construction, which would doubtless prove extremely valuable for purposes of memorizing the contents. Examples of this are to be found in the triadic pattern of the leprosy regulations introduced by the phrase ’The Lord said to Moses’ (Lev_13:1; Lev_14:1; Lev_14:33), or the concentric arrangement of propositions (palistrophe) in Lev_24:16-22. A particularly attractive literary form is the introverted (chiastic) passage occurring in Lev_15:2-30, suggesting considerable artistic ability on the part of the writer." [Note: Harrison, p. 15.]
I. The public worship of the Israelites chs. 1-16
A. The laws of sacrifice chs. 1-7
1. The burnt offering ch. 1
2. The meal offering ch. 2
3. The peace offerings ch. 3
B. The institution of the Aaronic priesthood chs. 8-10
1. The consecration of the priests and the sanctuary ch. 8
2. The entrance of Aaron and his sons into their office ch. 9
3. The sanctification of the priesthood ch. 10
C. Laws relating to ritual cleanliness chs. 11-15
1. Uncleanness due to contact with certain animals ch. 11
2. Uncleanness due to childbirth ch. 12
3. Uncleanness due to skin and covering abnormalities chs. 13-14
4. Uncleanness due to bodily discharges associated with reproduction ch. 15
D. The Day of Atonement ch. 16
II. The private worship of the Israelites chs. 17-27
A. Holiness of conduct on the Israelites’ part chs. 17-20
1. Holiness of food ch. 17
2. Holiness of the marriage relationship ch. 18
3. Holiness of behavior toward God and man ch. 19
4. Punishments for serious crimes ch. 20
B. Holiness of the priests, gifts, and sacrifices chs. 21-22
3. The third list of regulations for priests ch. 22
C. Sanctification of the Sabbath and the feasts of Yahweh ch. 23
F. Sanctification of the possession of land by the sabbatical and jubilee years ch. 25
G. Promises and warnings ch. 26
H. Directions concerning vows ch. 27
Genesis reveals how people can have a relationship with God. This comes through trust in God and obedience to Him. Faith is the key word in Genesis. God proves Himself faithful in this book.
Exodus reveals that God is also sovereign. He is the ultimate ruler of the universe. The sovereign God provided redemption for people so they could have an even deeper relationship with Himself. Man’s response should be worship and obedience.
Leviticus reveals that God is also holy. He is different from people in that He is sinless. The proper human response to this revelation of God’s character is worship on the part of sinners. In order for a holy God to have a close relationship with sinful people someone must do something about sin. This is true even in the case of redeemed sinners. Atonement is the solution that God provided.
The first half of Leviticus reveals the laws that the redeemed Israelites had to observe in their public life so they could enjoy an ongoing intimate relationship with God (chs. 1-16). These included laws concerning sacrifices (chs. 1-7), the priesthood (chs. 8-10), and the means of purification from various defilements (chs. 11-16).
The second half of the book reveals God’s provisions for the maintenance of covenant fellowship in the private lives of redeemed Israelites (chs. 17-25). This involved holiness of conduct by the people (chs. 17-20) and the priests (chs. 21-22) in all their time (ch. 23), their worship (ch. 24), and their land (ch. 25).
The book closes with God formally exhorting the nation to obey and remain faithful to the covenant that He had established (ch. 26). He also gave directions concerning the vows His people would make out of devotion to Him (ch. 27). Obedience would maximize His blessings.
Leviticus focuses on priestly activity, but it is also a great revelation of the character of God and His will to bless people. In it God’s people can learn what is necessary for sinners, even redeemed sinners, to have an intimate relationship with a holy God who has entered into covenant with us. These necessities include sacrifice, mediation, atonement, cleansing, purity, etc., all of which Jesus Christ ultimately provided. This revelational value of the book continues even though its regulatory value (i.e., how the Israelites were to behave) ended with the termination of the Mosaic Law (cf. Mar_7:18-19; Act_10:11-15; Rom_7:1-4; Rom_10:4; Rom_14:17; 1Co_8:8; Gal_3:24; Gal_4:9-11; Col_2:17; Heb_9:10).
Aharoni, Yohanan, and Michael Avi-Yonah. The Macmillan Bible Atlas. Revised ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1977.
Albright, William Foxwell, The Archaeology of Palestine. 1949. Revised ed. Pelican Archaeology series. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1956.
Archer, Gleason L., Jr. A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Revised ed. Chicago: Moody Press, 1994.
Bacchiocchi, Samuele. "Sabbatical Typologies of Messianic Redemption." Journal for the Study of Judaism 17:2 (December 1986):153-76.
Baillie, Rebecca A., and E. Eugene Baillie. "Biblical Leprosy as Compared to Present-Day Leprosy." Christian Medical Society Journal 14:3 (Fall 1983):27-29.
Baker, David W. "Division Markers and the Structure of Leviticus 1-7." In Studia Biblica 1978: I, pp. 9-15. Edited by E. Livingstone. Sheffield, England: Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 1979.
Bare, G. Plants and Animals of the Bible. N.c.: United Bible Societies, 1969.
Bayliss, M. "The Cult of Dead Kin in Assyria and Babylon." Iraq 35 (1973):115-25.
Blosser, Don. "The Sabbath Year Cycle in Josephus." Hebrew Union College Annual 52 (1981):129-39.
Bonar, Andrew A. A Commentary on Leviticus 5 th ed. Geneva Series Commentary series. London: Banner of Truth Trust; reprint ed., 1966.
Bowen, Otis R. "Safer Behavior against AIDS Reiterated for Minorities." American Medical News, December 11, 1987, p. 59.
Browne, S. G. Leprosy in the Bible. London: Christian Medical Fellowship, 1970.
Bush, George. Notes, Critical and Practical, on the Book of Leviticus. New York: Newman and Ivison, 1852; reprint ed. Minneapolis: James & Klock Publishing Co., 1976.
Cansdale, G. S. Animals of the Bible. Exeter, England: Paternoster Press, 1970.
Cardona, Dwardu. "The Rites of Molech." Kronos 9:3 (Summer 1984):20-39.
Carmichael, Calum M. "Forbidden Mixtures." Vetus Testamentum 32:4 (1982):394-415.
Chan, Kim-Kwong. "You Shall Not Eat These Abominable Things: An Examination Of Different Interpretations On Deu_14:3-20." East Asia Journal of Theology 3:1 (1985):88-106.
Chiu, Andrew. "Is There Ancestor Worship in the Old Testament?" Evangelical Review of Theology 8:2 (October 1984):217-24.
Clements, Ronald E. "Leviticus." In The Broadman Bible Commentary. 12 vols. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1969-72.
Cole, Sherwood A. "Biology, Homosexuality, and Moral Culpability." Bibliotheca Sacra 154:615 (July-September 1997):355-66.
Damrosch, D. "Leviticus." In The Literary Guide to the Bible. Edited by R. Alter and F. Kermode. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987.
Darby, John Nelson. Synopsis of the Books of the Bible. Revised ed. 5 vols. New York: Loizeaux Brothers Publishers, 1942.
Davies, D. J. "An Interpretation of Sacrifice in Leviticus." Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 89 (1977):387-99.
de Vaux, Roland. Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions. 2 vols. Translated by John McHugh. New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., 1961.
Douglas, Mary. Purity and Danger. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966.
Dressler, Herold H. P. "The Sabbath in the Old Testament." In From Sabbath to Lord’s Day, pp. 21-41. Edited by D. A. Carson. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1982.
Dyer, Charles H., and Eugene H. Merrill. The Old Testament Explorer. Nashville: Word Publishing, 2001. Reissued as Nelson’s Old Testament Survey. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2001.
Eichrodt, Walther. Theology of the Old Testament. Old Testament Library series. 2 vols. Translated by J. A Baker. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1961.
Fawver, Jay D. and R. Larry Overstreet. "Moses and Preventive Medicine." Bibliotheca Sacra 147:587 (July-September 1990):270-85.
Fee, Gordon D., and Douglas Stuart. How to Read the Bible for All It’s Worth. Second ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1993.
Feinberg, Charles Lee. "Hanakkah." Fundamentalist Journal 5:1 (December 1986):16-18.
Friedland, Eric L. "The Atonement Memorial Service in the American Mahzor." Hebrew Union College Annual 55 (1984):243-82.
Gerstenberger, E. S. Leviticus. Old Testament Library series. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1993.
Gnuse, Robert. "Jubilee Legislation in Leviticus: Israel’s Vision of Social Reform." Biblical Theology Bulletin 15:2 (April 1985):43-48.
Goldberg, Louis. Leviticus: A Study Guide Commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1980.
Goldberg, Michael. "Expository Articles: Exo_1:13-14." Interpretation 37:4 (October 1983):389-91.
Gowan, Donald E. "Wealth and Poverty in the Old Testament." Interpretation 41:4 (October 1987):341-53.
Grabbe, Lester L. "The Scapegoat Tradition: A Study in Early Jewish Interpretation." Journal for the Study of Judaism 18:2 (December 1987):152-67.
Harris, R. Laird. "Leviticus." In Genesis-Numbers. Vol. 2 of The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. 12 vols. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein and Richard P. Polcyn. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1990.
Harrison, R. K. Leviticus. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries series. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1980.
Hartley, J. E. Leviticus. Word Biblical Commentary series. Dallas: Word Publishers, 1992.
Hays, J. Daniel. "Applying the Old Testament Law Today." Bibliotheca Sacra 158:629 (January-March 2001):21-35.
Hertz, J. H. Leviticus. London: Oxford University Press, 1932.
Hoffner, Harry A. "Incest, Sodomy and Bestiality in the Ancient Near East." In Orient and Occident. Essays Presented to Cyrus H. Gordon on the Occasion of His Sixty-fifth Birthday, pp. 81-90. Edited by H. A. Hoffner. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 1973.
Holt, L., Jr. and R McIntosh. Holt Pediatrics. 12th ed. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1953.
Horton, Fred L., Jr. "Form and Structure in Laws Relating to Women: Lev_18:6-18." In Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers, pp. 20-33. Edited by George W. MacRae. Cambridge, Mass.: Scholars Press, 1973.
Hui, Timothy K. "The Purpose of Israel’s Annual Feasts." Bibliotheca Sacra 147:586 (April-June 1990):143-54.
Hulbert, Terry C. "The Eschatological Significance of Israel’s Annual Feasts." Th.D. dissertation, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1965.
Hulse, E. V. "The Nature of Biblical ’Leprosy’ and the Use of Alternative Medical Terms in Modern Translations of the Bible." Palestine Exploration Quarterly 107 (1975):87-105.
Johnson, James R. "Toward a Biblical Approach to Masturbation." Journal of Psychology and Theology 10:2 (Summer 1982):137-46.
Johnson, Luke T. "The Use of Leviticus 19 in the Letter of James." Journal of Biblical Literature 101:3 (1982):391-401.
Josephus, Flavius. The Works of Flavius Josephus. Translated by William Whiston. Antiquities of the Jews. London: T. Nelson and Sons, l866.
Judisch, Douglas McC. L. "Propitiation in the Language and Typology of the Old Testament." Concordia Theological Quarterly 48:2-3 (April-July 1984):121-43.
Jukes, Andrew. The Law of the Offerings. 17th ed. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1966.
Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. "Leviticus." In The Interpreter’s Bible. Nashville: Abingdon, 1994.
_____. Toward Old Testament Ethics. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1983.
Keil, C. F. Manual of Biblical Archaeology. 2 vols. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1887-88.
Keil, C. F., and Franz Delitzsch. The Pentateuch. 3 vols. Translated by James Martin. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. N.p.; reprint ed., Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., n.d.
Kellogg, Samuel H. The Book of Leviticus. The Expositors’ Bible series. New York: George H. Doran Co., n.d.
King, Marchant A. "Pentecost and the Fall Feasts." Moody Monthly 85:10 (June 1985):55-58.
_____. "The Sabbath and the Spring Feasts." Moody Monthly 85:9 (May 1985):46-48.
Kitchen, Kenneth A. Ancient Orient and Old Testament. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1966.
_____. The Bible In Its World: The Bible and Archaeology Today. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1977.
_____. "The Old Testament in its Context: 2 From Egypt to the Jordan." Theological Students’ Fellowship Bulletin 60 (1971):3-11.
Lange, John Peter, ed. Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, 12 vols. Reprint ed., Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1960. Vol. 1: Genesis-Leviticus, by John Peter Lange and Frederic Gardiner. Translated by Tayler Lewis, A. Gosman, and Charles M. Mead.
Leach, E. R. Culture and Communication. Cambridge: University Press, 1976
Lemche, N. P. "The Manumission of Slaves - The Fallow Year - The Sabbatical Year - The Jobel Year." Vetus Testamentum 26 (January 1976):38-59.
Levine, B. A. In the Presence of the Lord. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1974.
Lindsey, F. Duane. "Leviticus." In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament, pp. 163-214. Edited by John F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck. Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications, Victor Books, 1985.
Livingston, Dennis H. "The Crime of Leviticus XXIV 11." Vetus Testamentum 36:3 (July 1986):352-53.
Livingston, G. Herbert. The Pentateuch in Its Cultural Environment. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1974.
Longman, Tremper, III and Raymond B. Dillard. An Introduction to the Old Testament. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006.
Macht, D. I. "A Scientific Appreciation of Lev_12:1-5." Journal of Biblical Literature 52 (1933):253-60.
Magonet, Jonathan. "The Structure and Meaning of Leviticus 19." Hebrew Annual Review 7 (1983):151-67.
Margotta, R. The Story of Medicine. New York: Golden Press, 1967.
Master, John R. "The Place of Chapter 24 in the Structure of the Book of Leviticus." Bibliotheca Sacra 159:636 (October-December 2002):415-24.
Mathews, Kenneth A. Genesis 1-11:26. New American Commentary series. N.c.: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1996.
Mendelsohn, I. Slavery in the Ancient Near East. New York: Oxford University Press, 1949.
McMillen, Sim I. None of These Diseases. Westwood, N.J.: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1963.
Merrill, Eugene H. "A Theology of the Pentateuch." In A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament, pp. 7-87. Edited by Roy B. Zuck. Chicago: Moody Press, 1991.
Milgrom, Jacob. "The Biblical Diet Laws as an Ethical System." Interpretation 17 (1963):288-301.
_____. "The Compass of Biblical Sancta." Jewish Quarterly Review 65 (April 1975):205-16.
_____. Cult and Conscience: The "Asham" and the Priestly Doctrine of Repentance. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1976.
_____. "The Graduated Hatta’t [Sin Offering] of Lev_5:1-13." Journal of the American Oriental Society 103:1 (January-March 1983):249-54.
_____. Leviticus 1-16. Anchor Bible series. New York: Doubleday, 1991.
_____. Leviticus 17-22. Anchor Bible series. New York: Doubleday, 2000.
_____. Leviticus 23-27. Anchor Bible series. New York: Doubleday, 2001.
_____. "The Priestly Doctrine of Repentance." Revue Biblique 82 (April 1975):186-205.
_____. "Two Kinds of Hatta’t [Sin Offering]." Vetus Testamentum 26 (1976):333-37.
Mitchell, Bill. "Lev_24:6 : The Bread of the Presence-Rows or Piles?" Bible Translator 33:4 (October 1982):447-48.
Mitchell, Mike. "The Go’el: Kinsman Redeemer." Biblical Illustrator 13:1 (Fall 1986):13-15.
Morgan, G. Campbell. Living Messages of the Books of the Bible. 2 vols. New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1912.
Morganstern, Julian. "The Decalogue of the Holiness Code." Hebrew Union College Annual 26 (1955):1-27.
Murray, John. Principles of Conduct. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1957.
Neufeld, Edward. "The Prohibitions Against Loans at Interest in Ancient Hebrew Laws." Hebrew Union College Annual 26 (1955):355-412.
The NET (New English Translation) Bible. First beta printing. Spokane, Wash.: Biblical Studies Press, 2001.
The New Bible Dictionary, 1962 ed. S.v. "Clean and Unclean," by Charles L. Feinberg.
_____. S.v. "Frankincense," by R. K. Harrison.
_____. S.v. "Salt," by R. K. Harrison.
Noordtzij, A. Leviticus. Translated by Raymond Togtman. Bible Student’s Commentary series. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1982.
North, Robert. Sociology of the Biblical Jubilee. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1954.
Noth, Martin. The Laws in the Pentateuch and Other Studies. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1966.
_____. Leviticus: A Commentary. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1977.
Penner, Clifford L. "A Reaction to Johnson’s Biblical Approach to Masturbation." Journal of Psychology and Theology 10:2 (Summer 1982):147-49.
Peter, Rene. "L’Imposition des Mains dans L’Ancien Testament." Vetus Testamentum 27:1 (1977):48-55.
Philip, James. Numbers. The Communicator’s Commentary series. Waco: Word Books, 1987.
Porter, J. R. Leviticus. Cambridge Bible Commentary series. Cambridge: University Press, 1976.
Rainey, A. F. "The Order of Sacrifices in OT Ritual Texts." Biblica 51 (1970):485-98.
Richard, Ramesh P. "Soteriological Inclusivism and Dispensationalism." Bibliotheca Sacra 151:601 (January-March 1994):85-108.
Riggans, Walter. Numbers. Daily Bible Study series. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1983.
Rooker, Mark F. Leviticus. The New American Commentary series. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000.
Rosner, Brian. "The Ritual of the Peace Offering: Lev_7:11-21." Exegesis and Exposition 2:1 (Summer 1987):83-94.
Ross, Allen P. Holiness to the LORD: A Guide to the Exposition of the Book of Leviticus. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, Baker Book House, 2002.
Ryrie, Charles C. Dispensationalism. Chicago: Moody Press, 1995.
_____. Dispensationalism Today. Chicago: Moody Press, 1965.
Sailhamer, John H. The Pentateuch as Narrative. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992.
Sansom, M. C. "Laying on of Hands in the Old Testament." Expository Times 94:11 (August 1983):323-26.
Schultz, Samuel J. Leviticus: God Among His People. Everyman’s Bible Commentary series. Chicago: Moody Press, 1983.
Schwantes, Siegfried J. A Short History of the Ancient Near East. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1965.
Snaith, Norman H. "The Cult of Molech." Vetus Testamentum 16 (1966):123-24.
_____. Leviticus and Numbers. New Century Bible series. London: Nelson, 1969.
Speiser, E. A. Oriental and Biblical Studies. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1967.
Sprinkle, Joe M. "Old Testament Perspectives on Divorce and Remarriage." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 40:4 (December 1997):529-50.
_____. "The Rationale of the Laws of Clean and Unclean in the Old Testament." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 43:4 (December 2000):637-57.
Stager, Lawrence E., and Samuel R Wolff. "Child Sacrifice at Carthage-Religious Rite or Population Control?" Biblical Archaeology Review 10:1 (January-February 1984):31-51.
Stuart, Douglas K. Ezekiel. The Communicator’s Commentary series. Dallas: Word Books, 1989.
Thomas, Robert L. Evangelical Hermeneutics: The New Versus the Old. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 2002.
Tidball, D. Discovering Leviticus. Leicester, England: Crossway, 1996.
Tosato, Angelo. "The Law of Lev_18:18 : A Reexamination." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 46 (1984):199-214.
Unger, Merrill F. Biblical Demonology: A Study of the Spiritual Forces behind the Present World Unrest. Wheaton, Ill.: Scripture Press, 1967.
_____. Demons in the World Today: A Study of Occultism in the Light of God’s Word. Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House Publishers, 1971.
Vermes, Geza. "Lev_18:21 in Ancient Jewish Bible Exegesis." In Studies in Aggadah, Targum and Jewish Liturgy in Memory of Joseph Heinemann, pp. 108-124. Edited by Jakob J. Petuchowski and Ezra Fleischer. Jerusalem: Magnes, 1981.
Waltke, Bruce K. "Cain and His Offering." Westminster Theological Journal 48:2 (Fall 1986):363-72.
_____. An Old Testament Theology. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 2007.
Walvoord, John F. The Holy Spirit. Wheaton, Ill.: Van Kampen Press, 1954; Findlay, Ohio: Dunham Publishing Co., 1958.
Wenham, Gordon J. The Book of Leviticus. New International Commentary on the Old Testament series. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1979.
_____. Numbers. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries series. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1981.
_____. "Why Does Sexual Intercourse Defile (Lev_15:18)?" Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 95:3 (1983):432-34.
West, J. Introduction to the Old Testament. New York: Macmillan, 1952.
Whybray, R. Norman. Introduction to the Pentateuch. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1995.
Wiersbe, Warren W. Be Holy. Wheaton: Victor Books, 1979.
Wilkinson, John. "Leprosy and Leviticus: The Problem of Description and Identification." Scottish Journal of Theology 30 (1984):153-69.
Wolf, Herbert M. An Introduction to the Old Testament Pentateuch. Chicago: Moody Press, 1991.
Wood, Leon. A Survey of Israel’s History. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1970.
Wright, Christopher J. H. "What Happened Every Seven Years in Israel?" Evangelical Quarterly 56:3 (July 1984):129-38; 56:4 (October 1984):193-201.
Wright, David P. "The Gesture of Hand Placement in the Hebrew Bible and in Hittite Literature." Journal of the American Oriental Society 106:3 (July-September 1986):433-46.
_____. "Observations on the Ethical Foundations of the Biblical Dietary Laws: A Response to Jacob Milgrom." In Religion and Law: Biblical-Judaic and Islamic Perspectives, pp. 193-98. Edited by Edwin B. Firmage, Bernard G. Weiss, and John W. Welch. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1990.
Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia. 1975 ed. S.v. "Food," by Ralph E. Powell.
Zimmerli, Walther. I Am Yahweh. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1982.
Zohar, Noam. "Repentance and Purification: The Significance and Semantics of ht’t in the Pentateuch." Journal of Biblical Studies 107:4 (1988):609-18.