the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25
Dr. Constable's Expository Notes Constable's Expository Notes
- 1 Chronicles
by Thomas Constable
The earliest Hebrew title for the Books of Chronicles translates as, "The Things Left Behind." This name describes Chronicles as containing remnants of the monarchy history not recorded in the preceding Old Testament historical books. A later title that appears in most copies of the Hebrew Bible is, "The Accounts of the Days," or "Daily Matters." This title emphasizes the nature of Chronicles as official annals (cf. Est_2:23; 1Ki_14:19). Chronicles contains the official records of Israel’s kings, especially those of the Southern Kingdom after the kingdom split. The English title "Chronicles" comes down to us from Jerome’s statement that the books contained "the chronicle of the whole of sacred history." [Note: Quoted in Tremper Longman III and Raymond B. Dillard, An Introduction to the Old Testament, p. 190.]
As was true of Samuel and Kings, the Septuagint (Greek) translation of the Hebrew Old Testament was responsible for dividing the single Book of Chronicles into 1 and 2 Chronicles. Scribes divided these long books to make them easier for copyists and readers to handle. We could translate the Septuagint title as, "Things Omitted." This title implies that Chronicles contains material left out of other inspired histories of Israel. This is true, but it also contains much material that the former historical books included.
". . . fully 50 percent, of 1 & 2 Chronicles is the same material found in 1 & 2 Samuel , 1 & 2 Kings." [Note: David M. Howard Jr., An Introduction to the Old Testament Historical Books, p. 231. See also Eugene H. Merrill, "The Chronicler: What Kind of Historian Was He Anyway?" Bibliotheca Sacra 165:660 (October-December 2008):397-412.]
WRITER AND DATE
Early Jewish tradition recorded in the Babylonian Talmud ascribed the authorship of Chronicles to Ezra and Nehemiah. [Note: Baba Bathra 15a.] Modern studies of the linguistic differences that exist between the Books of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles have led some scholars to reject this ancient view. [Note: E.g., Sara Japhet, "The Supposed Common Authorship of Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah Investigated Anew," Vetus Testamentum 18 (1968):330-71.] Internal evidence suggests that if the writer was not Ezra and or Nehemiah, he was probably a contemporary of these men. It is very common today to speak of the unknown writer as "the Chronicler."
There is quite a bit of difference of opinion, even among conservative evangelical scholars, regarding the date of composition. Most of them place it within Ezra’s lifetime (ca. 450-400 B.C.). [Note: Cf. Bruce K. Waltke, "The Samaritan Pentateuch and the Text of the Old Testament," in New Perspectives on the Old Testament, pp. 212-39; Eugene H. Merrill, "1 Chronicles," in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament, p. 589; Edward J. Young, An Introduction to the Old Testament, p. 413; Gleason L. Archer Jr., A Survey of Old Testament Introduction, p. 405; and J. Barton Payne, "First Chronicles," in The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, p. 367. See also John Bright, A History of Israel, p. 417.] This date would make Chronicles one of the last if not the last historical book of the Old Testament. In the Hebrew canon, 1 and 2 Chronicles conclude the third major section, the Writings, which also suggests that they were written late. The date of composition of Ezra was probably about 446 B.C. The Book of Nehemiah probably came into existence between 420 and 400 B.C. The date of writing of Esther was probably shortly after 473 B.C.
"It is now clear from comparison of Chronicles with the Samaritan Pentateuch and the Greek translations of the Pentateuch that the text Chronicles used was more like these texts than the MT [Masoretic Text]." [Note: J. A. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, p. 23.]
Some scholars hold a date as early as the middle of the fifth century B.C. (450 B.C.), while others date Chronicles as late as 200 B.C. [Note: For further discussion, see Archer, pp. 405-7; R. K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament, pp. 1153-57, 1169-71; or any of the major commentaries.]
"The best view is that Chronicles as a whole was in place by 500 B.C., but that additions as late as the early fourth century continued to be added, especially genealogies, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit." [Note: Eugene H. Merrill, "1 Chronicles," in The Old Testament Explorer, pp. 294-95.]
SCOPE AND PURPOSE
Chronicles covers a broader period of history than any other Old Testament book. In this, it is similar to Matthew, which also covers all of human history from creation to the writer’s day. Chronicles begins with Adam and ends with Anani who lived eight generations after King Jehoiachin (1Ch_3:24). If we allow 25 years for each generation, the birth of Anani would have been between 425 and 400 B.C., assuming this genealogy is complete.
"In Near Eastern antiquity, the generation (that is the years between a man’s birth and his begetting his first-born son) is ordinarily 25 years or less." [Note: Frank M. Cross, "A Reconstruction of the Judean Restoration," Interpretation 29:2 (1975):192-93.]
Since the writer had great interest in David’s family, it is unlikely that any of David’s descendants after Anani was known to him when he wrote the book. If they had been, the writer probably would have included their names.
Other Old Testament books, especially Genesis, Samuel, and Kings, cover over half the material that Chronicles contains. [Note: See Appendix 1 at the end of these notes for a table of passages unique to Chronicles.] There are two main reasons for this repetition. First, the writer wanted to give his readers another version of those events. In this respect, Chronicles and the other historical books are similar to the Gospels in the New Testament. Each gives a unique interpretation and emphasis. Each writer selected the historical materials that would present what he wanted to emphasize. Chronicles is more similar to John’s Gospel than the other Gospels. Both books are very sermonic, and each has a purpose that is easy to identify (Joh_20:30-31; 2Ch_7:14). Chronicles is also similar to Deuteronomy, the last book of the Pentateuch, which also preaches by recalling history.
Second, the writer of Chronicles explained and expounded the meaning of many events in Israel’s history, much like the writers of modern commentaries do. This was especially important since the original readers of Chronicles needed to remember their history and the spiritual issues that had molded and would mold their destiny. These observations would guide them as they sought to reestablish Israel in the Promised Land after the Babylonian captivity.
"The purpose of these two volumes [1 and 2 Chronicles] is to review the history of Israel from the dawn of the human race to the Babylonian captivity and Cyrus’ edict of restoration. This review is composed with a very definite purpose in mind, to give to the Jews of the Second Commonwealth the true spiritual foundations of their theocracy as the covenant people of Jehovah. This historian’s purpose is to show that the true glory of the Hebrew nation was found in its covenant relationship to God, as safeguarded by the prescribed forms of worship in the temple and administered by the divinely ordained priesthood under the protection of the divinely authorized dynasty of David. Always the emphasis is upon that which is sound and valid in Israel’s past as furnishing a reliable basis for the task of reconstruction which lay ahead. Great stress is placed upon the rich heritage of Israel and its unbroken connection with the patriarchal beginnings (hence the prominence accorded to genealogical lists)." [Note: Archer, p. 404. See also Eugene H. Merrill, "A Theology of Chronicles," in A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament, pp. 158, 185.]
". . . ’the Chronicler’ is no mere chronicler! He is a theologian, sharing with all the biblical writers the burden of interpreting God’s ways to human beings." [Note: J. G. McConville, I & II Chronicles, pp. 2-3.]
The writer saw principles operating in history. He selected unmistakable instances of them and applied them to his own times.
"If Kings, composed after the final collapse of the kingdom in 586 B.C., concentrates on how sin leads to defeat (2Ki_17:15; 2Ki_17:18), then Chronicles, coming after the two returns from exile in 537 and 458 B.C., recounts, from the same record, how ’faith is the victory’ (2Ch_20:20; 2Ch_20:22)." [Note: J. Barton Payne, "1, 2 Chronicles," in I Kings-Job, v. 4 of The Expository’s Bible Commentary, p. 303.]
". . . the Chronicler goes even further than the Deuteronomic historian [i.e., the writer of 1 and 2 Kings] in attempting to correlate blessing with faithfulness and judgment with disobedience within each separate generation." [Note: H. G. M. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, p. 31.]
Another statement of the purpose of Chronicles is as follows:
". . . to rally the returned remnant to hopeful temple worship . . . by demonstrating their link with the enduring Davidic promises." [Note: Jeffrey Townsend, "The Purpose of 1 and 2 Chronicles," Bibliotheca Sacra 145:575 (July-September 1987):283. Cf. John Goldingay, "The Chronicler As a Theologian," Biblical Theological Bulletin 5:2 (June 1975):99-126; and Kenneth R. Cooper, "King and Cultus: A Suggested Framework for a Theology of the Chronicles," Journal of Dispensational Theology 12:36 (August 2008):63-83.]
"The past is explained so that its institutions and religious principles become relevant to the present, and the ways of the present are legitimized anew by being connected to the prime source of authority-the formative period in the people’s past." [Note: Sara Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles and Its Place in Biblical Thought, pp. 515-16.]
Three major features of Chronicles appear when we isolate the material the writer included that is not in Samuel or Kings. First, the genealogies reflect the writer’s goal of encouraging Israel’s racial and religious purity. [Note: See M. D. Johnson, The Purpose of the Biblical Genealogies, pp 77-82. He identified nine purposes.] Second, the emphases on the temple, ark, and worship show his desire that the returned exiles reestablish worship according to the Mosaic Law. [Note: See Roddy L. Braun, "The Message of Chronicles: Rally ’Round the Temple," Concordia Theological Monthly 42:8 (September 1971):502-14.] Third, the record of David’s glories and the victories God gave his successors were his way of encouraging his original readers as they sought to reestablish their nation in the Promised Land. [Note: Payne, "1, 2 Chronicles," pp. 313-14. See Werner E. Lemke, "The Synoptic Problem in the Chronicler’s History," Harvard Theological Review 58 (1965):349-63.]
Conservative students of Chronicles differ in their opinion concerning the amount of Messianic expectation the Chronicler held out to his readers. My belief is that he presented much hope of a coming Messiah who would fulfill the promises given to David in the Davidic Covenant. I shall point this out at the appropriate places in the notes that follow. [Note: For a review of the history of the study of Chronicles, see Sara Japhet, "The Historical Reliability of Chronicles," Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 33 (October 1985):83-107.]
"I regard Chronicles as one of the richest mines of spirituality in all of Scripture." [Note: Simon J. De Vries, 1 and 2 Chronicles, p. xiv.]
I. Israel’s historical roots chs. 1-9
A. The lineage of David chs. 1-3
B. The house of Israel chs. 4-7
3. The families of Transjordan ch. 5
4. The family of Levi ch. 6
5. The remaining families of Israel ch. 7
C. The lineage of Saul chs. 8-9
II. The reign of David chs. 10-29
A. The death of Saul ch. 10
D. David and the ark chs. 13-16
1. The removal of the ark from Kiriath-jearim ch. 13
2. Restoring fellowship with Yahweh ch. 14
E. God’s covenant promises to David chs. 17-29
1. The first account of God’s promises to David chs. 17-21
2. The second account of God’s promises to David chs. 22-27
3. The third account of God’s promises to David chs. 28-29
(Continued in notes on 2 Chronicles)
|Passages Unique to Chronicles|
(In probable chronological order) [Note: Compiled from W. D. Crockett, A Harmony of the Books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles.]
|Genealogies||The genealogical tables||1 Chronicles 1-9|
|David||The list of the men who came to David at Ziklag||1Ch_12:1-7|
|The list of the men who joined David on his way to Ziklag||1Ch_12:19-22|
|Data concerning the number of warriors who made David king||1Ch_12:23-40|
|The Gadites who "separated themselves unto David"||1Ch_12:8-15|
|David’s hymn of praise when he moved the ark||1Ch_16:4-36|
|David’s final preparations for the building of the temple||1Ch_22:1-19|
|The national convention||1Ch_23:1 to 1Ch_29:22|
|Solomon||The making of the altar of brass||2Ch_4:1|
|The close of Solomon’s dedicatory prayer||2Ch_6:40-42|
|Rehoboam||The adherence of the Levites in all Israel to Rehoboam||2Ch_11:13-14|
|The immigration of other pious Israelites to Judah||2Ch_11:16-17|
|Asa||The ten years of peace under Asa||2Ch_14:1|
|Asa’s defense policy||2Ch_14:6-8|
|Asa’s victory over Zerah the Ethiopian||2Ch_14:9-15|
|The warning of the prophet Azariah||2Ch_15:1-7|
|The four years of peace under Asa||2Ch_15:19|
|The renewal of the covenant||2Ch_15:9-15|
|The warning of the prophet Hanani||2Ch_16:7-9|
|Jehoshaphat||Jehoshaphat’s strengthening of his kingdom||2Ch_17:1-7|
|The mission of the princes, Levites and priests||2Ch_17:7-9|
|Jehoshaphat’s increasing power||2Ch_17:10 to 2Ch_8:1|
|The prophet Jehu’s judgment on Jehoshaphat||2Ch_19:1-3|
|Jehoshaphat’s further reforms in worship and law||2Ch_19:4-11|
|The deliverance from Moab and Ammon on Mt. Seir||2Ch_20:1-30|
|Jehoram||The posthumous message of Elijah to Jehoram||2Ch_21:12-15|
|The invasion of the Philistines and Arabians||2Ch_21:16-17|
|Joash||Joash’s matrimonial affairs||2Ch_24:3|
|The temple worship||2Ch_24:14|
|The death of Jehoiada||2Ch_24:15-16|
|The sins of Joash||2Ch_24:17-19|
|The stoning of Zechariah||2Ch_24:20-22|
|The reverses of Judah due to Hazael’s operations||2Ch_24:23-24|
|Amaziah||Amaziah’s planned expedition against Edom||2Ch_25:5|
|Amaziah’s hiring of 100,000 mercenaries out of Israel and dismissing them||2Ch_25:6-10|
|The pillage of the cities of Judah by the dismissed mercenaries||2Ch_25:13|
|Amaziah’s further wickedness||2Ch_25:14-16|
|Uzziah||Uzziah’s success in war||2Ch_26:6-8|
|Uzziah’s building and farming||2Ch_26:9-10; 2Ch_26:15|
|Uzziah’s fame||2Ch_26:8; 2Ch_26:15|
|Jotham||Jotham’s subjugation of the Ammonites||2Ch_27:5-6|
|Ahaz||Obed the prophet’s obtaining the release of the Jewish captives during Ahaz’s war with Rezin and Pekah||2Ch_28:9-15|
|The Edomite and Philistine invasions under Ahaz||2Ch_28:17-19|
|Hezekiah||The cleansing of the temple by Hezekiah||2Ch_29:3-19|
|The consecration of the temple||2Ch_29:20-36|
|Preparations for the Passover||2Ch_30:1-12|
|The keeping of the Passover||2Ch_30:13-22|
|The keeping of "other seven days"||2Ch_30:23-27|
|Hezekiah’s further religious reforms||2Ch_31:1-21|
|Hezekiah’s wealth and building||2Ch_32:27-30|
|Sennacherib’s second entry into Judah for invasion||2Ch_32:1|
|Hezekiah’s precautions in view of Sennacherib’s second entry into Judah for invasion||2Ch_32:2-8|
|Hezekiah’s renewed prosperity||2Ch_32:23|
|Manasseh’s repentance and restoration||2Ch_33:12-13|
|The acts of Manasseh after his restoration||2Ch_33:14-16|
|The spiritual condition of the people||2Ch_33:17|
|Josiah||Josiah’s early reformations||2Ch_34:3-7|
|Captivity||The length of the captivity||2Ch_36:20-21|
|Cyrus’ proclamation permitting return from the captivity||2Ch_36:22-23|
|Numbers in Chronicles That Disagree|
With Their Old Testament Parallels [Note: Content from Payne, "1, 2 Chronicles," p. 561.]
|Higher||Same||Lower||Parallel Passage||Evaluation of Chronicles|
|A||1Ch_11:11||300 slain by Jashobeam, not 800||2Sa_23:8||Scribal error|
|B||1Ch_18:4||Hadadezer’s 1,000 chariots and 7,000 horsemen, not 1,000 [chariots] and 700 horsemen||2Sa_8:4||Correct|
|C||1Ch_19:18 a||7,000 Syrian charioteers slain, not 700||2Sa_10:18 a||Correct|
|D||1Ch_19:18 b [Note: The number is the same in 1 Chronicles and in 2 Samuel, but Payne listed the number in 1 Chronicles as lower, for some reason. The difference is not in the number but in the type of soldier described.]||and 40,000 foot soldiers, not horsemen||2Sa_10:18 b||Correct|
|E||1Ch_21:5 a||Israel’s 1,100,000 troops, not 800,000||2Sa_24:9 a||Different objects|
|F||1Ch_21:5 b||Judah’s 470,000 troops, not 500,000||2Sa_24:9 b||More precise|
|G||1Ch_21:12||Three years of famine, not seven||2Sa_24:13||Correct|
|H||1Ch_21:25||Ornan paid 600 gold shekels, not 50 silver||2Sa_24:24||Different objects of purchase|
|I||2Ch_2:2||3,600 to supervise the temple construction, not 3,300||1Ki_5:16||Different method of reckoning|
|J||2Ch_2:10||22,000 baths of oil to Hiram’s woodmen, not 20 kors (=200 baths)||1Ki_5:11||Different objects|
|K||2Ch_2:18||3,600 to supervise the temple construction, not 3,300||1Ki_5:16||Different method of reckoning|
|L||2Ch_3:15||Temple pillars 35 cubits, not 18||1Ki_7:15||Scribal error|
|M||2Ch_4:5||Sea holding 3,000 baths, not 2,000||1Ki_7:26||Scribal error|
|Numbers in Chronicles That Disagree|
With Their Old Testament Parallels (cont.)
|N||2Ch_8:10||250 chief officers for building the temple, not 550||1Ki_9:23||Different method of reckoning|
|O||2Ch_8:18||450 gold talents from Ophir, not 420||1Ki_9:28||Correct or scribal error|
|P||2Ch_9:16||300 gold bekas per shield, not 3 minas||1Ki_10:17||Different method of reckoning|
|Q||2Ch_9:25||4,000 stalls for horses, not 40,000||1Ki_4:26||Correct|
|R||2Ch_22:2||Ahaziah king at 42 years, not 22||2Ki_8:26||Scribal error|
|S||2Ch_36:9||Jehoiachin king at 8, not 18||2Ki_24:8||Scribal error|
There is a total of 19 disagreements out of 213 paralleled numbers. Note that K repeats I above.
Ackroyd, Peter R. I and II Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah. London: SCM Press, 1973.
Aharoni, Yohanan, and Michael Avi-Yonah. The Macmillan Bible Atlas. Revised ed., New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1977.
Albright, William F. Archaeology and the Religion of Israel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1946.
_____. The Archaeology of Palestine. 1949. Revised ed. Pelican Archaeology series. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Eng.: Penguin Books, 1956.
Allen, Leslie C. "Kerygmatic Units in 1 & 2 Chronicles." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 41 (June 1988):21-36.
Archer, Gleason L., Jr. A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Revised ed. Chicago: Moody Press, 1974.
Barnes, W. E. The Books of Chronicles. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges series. Cambridge, Eng.: University Press, 1899.
Baxter, J. Sidlow. Explore the Book. 6 vols. London: Marshall, Morgan, and Scott, 1965.
Braun, Roddy L. 1 Chronicles. Word Biblical Commentary series. Waco: Word Books, 1986.
_____. "The Message of Chronicles: Rally ’Round the Temple." Concordia Theological Monthly 42:8 (September 1971):502-14.
Bright, John A. A History of Israel. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1959.
Bury, J. B.; S. A. Cook; and F. E. Adcock, eds. The Cambridge Ancient History. 12 vols. 2nd ed. reprinted. Cambridge, Eng.: University Press, 1928.
Chisholm, Robert B., Jr. "Does God Deceive?" Bibliotheca Sacra 155:617 (January-March 1998):11-28.
Constable, Thomas L. "A Theology of Joshua, Judges, and Ruth." In A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament, pp. 89-113. Edited by Roy B. Zuck. Chicago: Moody Press, 1991.
Cooper, David L. "The Prayer of Jabez." Biblical Research Monthly 9:1 (January 1944):3-4.
Cooper, Kenneth R. "King and Cultus: A Suggested Framework for a Theology of the Chronicles." Journal of Dispensational Theology 12:36 (August 2008):63-83.
Crockett, William Day. A Harmony of the Books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1973.
Cross, Frank Moore, Jr. "A Reconstruction of the Judean Restoration." Interpretation 29:2 (1975):187-201.
Curtis, Edward Lewis, and Albert Alonzo Madsen. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Chronicles. International Critical Commentary series. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1910.
Darby, John Nelson. Synopsis of the Books of the Bible. 5 vols. Revised ed. New York: Loizeaux Brothers Publishers, 1942.
Davis, John J., and John C. Whitcomb. A History of Israel. Reprint ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1980.
de Vaux, Roland. Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions. 2 vols. Translated by John McHugh. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961.
De Vries, Simon J. 1 and 2 Chronicles. The Forms of the Old Testament Literature series. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1989.
_____. "The Forms of Prophetic Address in Chronicles." Hebrew Annual Review 10 (1986):15-35.
Dillard, Raymond B. "The Chronicler’s Solomon." Westminster Theological Journal 43 (1981):289-300.
Dyer, Charles H., and Eugene H. Merrill. The Old Testament Explorer. Nashville: Word Publishing, 2001. Reissued as Nelson’s Old Testament Survey. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2001.
Elmslie, W. A. L. The Books of Chronicles. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges series. Cambridge, Eng.: University Press, 1916.
Freedman, David Noel. "The Chronicler’s Purpose." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 23 (1961):436-42.
Gaebelein, Arno C. The Annotated Bible. 4 vols. Reprint ed. Chicago: Moody Press, and New York: Loizeaux Brothers, Inc., 1970.
Goldingay, John. "The Chronicler As a Theologian." Biblical Theology Bulletin 5:2 (June 1975):99-126.
Harrison, R. K. Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1969.
Harton, George M. "Fulfillment of Deuteronomy 28-30 in History and in Eschatology." Th.D. dissertation, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1981.
Hiebert, D. Edmond. Working With God: Scriptural Studies in Intercession. New York: Carlton Press, 1987.
Hodges, Zane C. "Conflicts in the Biblical Account of the Ammonite-Syrian War." Bibliotheca Sacra 119:475 (July-September 1962):238-43.
Howard, David M., Jr. An Introduction to the Old Testament Historical Books. Chicago: Moody Press, 1993.
Japhat, Sara. I & II Chronicles. Old Testament Library series. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1993.
_____. "The Historical Reliability of Chronicles." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 33 (October 1985):83-107.
_____. The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles and Its Place in Biblical Thought. New York: Peter Lang, 1989.
_____. "The Supposed Common Authorship of Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah Investigated Anew." Vetus Testamentum 18 (1968):330-71.
Johnson, Aubrey. Sacral Kingship in Ancient Israel. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1955.
Johnson, M. D. The Purpose of the Biblical Genealogies. Second ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Josephus, Flavius. The Works of Flavius Josephus. Translated by William Whiston. Antiquities of the Jews. London: T. Nelson and Sons, 1866.
Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. Toward an Old Testament Theology. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1978.
Keil, C. F. The Books of the Chronicles. Translated by Andrew Harper. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., n.d.
Kitchen, K. A. The Bible In Its World. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1977.
Kleinig, J. W. "The Divine Institution of the Lord’s Song in Chronicles." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 55 (1992):75-83.
Knights, C. H. "The Text of 1 Chronicles IV 12: A Reappraisal." Vetus Testamentum 37:3 (July 1987):375-77.
Lange, John Peter, ed. Commentary on the Holy Scriptures. 12 vols. Reprint ed., Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1960. Vol. 4: Chronicles-Job, by Otto Zockler, Fr. W. Schultz, and Howard Crosby. Translated, enlarged, and edited by James G. Murphy, Charles A. Briggs, James Strong, and L. J. Evans.
Lemke, Werner E. "The Synoptic Problem in the Chronicler’s History." Harvard Theological Review 58 (1965):349-63.
Longman, Tremper, III and Raymond B. Dillard. An Introduction to the Old Testament. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006.
Lorenz, Wolfgang. "’For We are Strangers before Thee and Sojourners’-2  Chron. 29:15." American Baptist Quarterly 9:4 (December 1990):268-80.
Mazar, Benjamin. "The Military Elite of King David." Vetus Testamentum 13 (1963):10-20.
McConville, J. Gordon. I & II Chronicles. Daily Study Bible series. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1984.
Merrill, Eugene H. "1 Chronicles." In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament, pp. 589-617. Edited by John F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck. Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications, Victor Books, 1985.
_____. 1, 2 Chronicles. Bible Study Commentary series. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, Lamplighter Books, 1988.
_____. "The Book of Ruth: Narration and Shared Themes." Bibliotheca Sacra 142:566 (April-June 1985):130-41.
_____. "The Chronicler: What Kind of Historian Was He Anyway?" Bibliotheca Sacra 165:660 (October-December 2008):397-412.
_____. "Ebla and Biblical Historical Inerrancy." Bibliotheca Sacra 140:550 (October-December 1983):302-21.
_____. Kingdom of Priests. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1987.
_____. "A Theology of Chronicles." In A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament, pp. 157-87. Edited by Roy B. Zuck. Chicago: Moody Press, 1991.
Monson, James M. The Land Between. Jerusalem: By the author, P.O. Box 1276, 1983.
Morgan, G. Campbell. Living Messages of the Books of the Bible. 2 vols. New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1912.
Myers, Jacob M. I Chronicles. Anchor Bible series. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1965.
Newsome, James D., Jr. ed. A Synotic Harmony of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1986.
The NET (New English Translation) Bible. First beta printing. Spokane, Wash.: Biblical Studies Press, 2001.
The New Scofield Reference Bible. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein, William Culbertson, et al. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.
Page, Sydney H. T. "Satan: God’s Servant." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 50:3 (September 2007):449-65.
Payne, J. Barton. "1, 2 Chronicles." In I Kings-Job. Vol. 4 of The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. 12 vols. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein and Richard D. Polcyn. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1988.
_____. "First Chronicles." In The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, pp. 367- 90. Edited by Charles F. Pfeiffer and Everett F. Harrison. Chicago: Moody Press, 1962.
_____. The Theology of the Older Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1962.
_____. "The Validity of the Numbers in Chronicles." Bibliotheca Sacra 136:542 (April-June 1979):109-28; 543 (July-September 1979):206-20.
Pettinato, Giovanni. "The Royal Archives of Tell Mardekh-Ebla." Biblical Archaeologist 39 (May 1976):44-52.
Pfeiffer, Charles F., and Howard F. Vos. The Wycliffe Historical Geography of Bible Lands. Chicago: Moody Press, 1967.
Sailhamer, John. "1Ch_21:1 -A Study in Inter-biblical Interpretation." Trinity Journal 10NS:1 (Spring 1989):33-48.
_____. First and Second Chronicles. Everyman’s Bible Commentary series. Chicago: Moody Press, 1983.
Schwantes, Siegfried J. A Short History of the Ancient Near East. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1965.
Slotki, I.W. Chronicles. London: Soncino Press, 1952.
Student Map Manual. Jerusalem: Pictorial Archive (Near Eastern History) Est., 1979.
Thompson, J. A. 1, 2 Chronicles. New American Commentary series. N.c.: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1994.
Townsend, Jeffrey L. "The Purpose of 1 and 2 Chronicles." Bibliotheca Sacra 145:575 (July-September 1987):277-92.
Waltke, Bruce K. An Old Testament Theology. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 2007.
_____. "The Samaritan Pentateuch and the Text of the Old Testament." In New Perspectives on the Old Testament, pp. 212-39. Edited by J. Barton Payne. Waco: Word Books, 1970.
Wenham, G. J. "Were David’s Sons Priests?" Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 87:1 (1975):79-82.
Wilcock, Michael. The Message of Chronicles. The Bible Speaks Today series. Leicester, Eng. and Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1987.
Williamson, H. G. M. 1 and 2 Chronicles. New Century Bible Commentary series. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., and London: Marshall, Morgan, and Scott, 1982.
_____. "The Accession of Solomon in the Book of Chronicles." Vetus Testamentum 26 (1976):351-61.
Wilson, R. R. Genealogy and History in the Biblical World. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.
Wood, Leon. The Prophets of Israel. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1979.
_____. A Survey of Israel’s History. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1970.
Wright, J. W. "Guarding the Gates: 1Ch_26:1-18 and the Roles of Gatekeepers in Chronicles." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 48 (1990):69-81.
Young, Edward J. An Introduction to the Old Testament. Revised ed. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1960.
Zalewski, Saul. "The Purpose of the Story of the Death of Saul in 1 Chronicles X." Vetus Testamentum 39:4 (October 1989):449-467.