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Bible Commentaries

Dummelow's Commentary on the Bible

Esther 9

Verses 1-32


The Jews Slay their Enemies. Institution of Purim

3. All the rulers, etc.] The great massacre described in Esther 9:16 is thus represented as being in part the work of the Persian authorities with the forces at their disposal.

10. On the spoil, etc.] In this respect they did not carry out the king’s decree (Esther 8:11); their vengeance was not sullied by sordid motives.

12. What have they done, etc.] An exclamation, not a question. What is thy petition? etc.] The king was willing to gratify Esther further, perhaps to make amends for having been unable to grant her earlier request (Esther 8:5-8).

13. Be hanged] i.e. let their dead bodies be exposed, such exposure being a mark of infamy.

16. Had rest] This anticipates what took place on the ’fourteenth’ of Adar (Esther 9:17).

Seventy and five thousand] LXX has ’fifteen thousand.’

19. The Jews of the villages] better, ’the Jews of the country districts.’

Sending portions] i.e. to the poor among them: cp. Nehemiah 8:10.

20. Mordecai wrote these things] This refers not to the existing book of Esther, but to an account contained in the letters sent to effect the purpose indicated in Esther 9:21, Esther 9:22. This was the establishment as yearly festivals for all Jews throughout the empire both the fourteenth and fifteenth days of Adar; and consequently involved a modification of the usage described in Esther 9:17-18, according to which only a single day (in Susa the fifteenth, in the country districts the fourteenth) was so observed.

23. As they had begun.. written unto them] i.e. they undertook to celebrate both the day observed at first (Esther 9:17-18) and also the additional day suggested by Mordecai.

25. When Esther came] The name ’Esther’ does not occur in the Heb., so that the correct rendering may be ’when it’ (i.e. Haman’s device) ’came before the king.’

26. For all] RV ’because of all.’ This letter] the ’letters’ of Esther 9:20.

27. Such as joined themselves unto them] i.e. religious proselytes: cp. Esther 8:17.

29. This second letter] ’second’ in relation to the letter mentioned in Esther 9:20.

31. The matters of the fastings and their cry] Seemingly it was directed that there should be a commemoration not only of the deliverance granted to the Jews, but also of the distress that preceded it: see Esther 4:3. No account is here given of the day thus appointed for fasting and lamentation; but in later times the thirteenth day of Adar, as being that which Haman had fixed for the destruction of the Jews (Esther 3:12), was observed as a day of humiliation.

32. In the book] probably a book, not now extant, dealing with the Purim festival; but some authorities think that ’the book of the chronicles of the kings of Media and Persia’ (Esther 10:2) is meant.

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Bibliographical Information
Dummelow, John. "Commentary on Esther 9". "Dummelow's Commentary on the Bible". https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/dcb/esther-9.html. 1909.