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Bible Commentaries

Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Proverbs 19

Verse 1

Better. See note on Proverbs 8:11 .

the poor = a needy one. Hebrew. rush. See note on Proverbs 6:11 . Same as in verses: Proverbs 19:7 , Proverbs 19:22 ; not the same as in verses: Proverbs 19:4 , Proverbs 19:17 .

he that is. Figure of speech Ellipsis ( App-6 ), better supplied thus: "Than [the rich that is] perverse", &c.

lips. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), for what is spoken by them.

fool. Hebrew. kesil . See note on Proverbs 1:7 . Same word as in verses: Proverbs 19:10 , Proverbs 19:13 , Proverbs 19:29 ; not the same as in Proverbs 19:3 .

Verse 2

not good. Illustrations: Syrians (1 Kings 20:28 ); Jews (Isaiah 5:12 , Isaiah 5:13 ); Saul (1 Timothy 1:13 .Acts 26:11; Acts 26:11 ); People and Priests (Hosea 4:6 ); Pharisees (Matthew 12:7 ); Judah (Hosea 6:6 ); Peter (Matthew 16:22 ); the rulers (Acts 13:27 . 1 Corinthians 2:8 ); Job (Job 33:8 , Job 33:9 ; Job 34:5 , Job 34:9 , Job 34:35 ; Job 35:16 ; Job 42:3 , Job 42:5 , Job 42:6 ); Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 32:31 ); Peter (Luke 22:33 , Luke 22:34 ).

hasteth, &c. Illustrations: Joshua (Joshua 9:15 ); Saul (1 Samuel 13:9 , 1Sa 13:10 , 1 Samuel 13:13 , 1 Samuel 13:14 ; 1 Samuel 14:24-45 ); David (2 Samuel 16:4 ); the Prophet (1 Kings 13:18 , 1 Kings 13:19 ); Peter (John 18:10 ).

sinneth. Hebrew. chata App-44 .

Verse 3

foolishness. Hebrew. 'evil. See note on Proverbs 1:7 . Not the same word as in verses: Proverbs 19:1 , Proverbs 19:10 , Proverbs 19:13 , Proverbs 1:29 .

man. Hebrew. 'adam. App-14 .

perverteth: or subverteth.

fretteth against = is angry with. Illustrations: Adam (Genesis 3:12 ); Cain (Genesis 4:13 , Genesis 4:14 ); Jehoram (2 Kings 3:10 , 2 Kings 3:13 ; 2 Kings 6:33 ); Jonah (Jonah 4:1 , Jonah 4:4 , Jonah 4:9 ); Israel (Numbers 14:2 , Numbers 14:3 ; Numbers 20:2-5 ; Numbers 21:4-6 . Deuteronomy 9:23 , Deuteronomy 9:24 ).

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .

Verse 4

the poor = a weak one. Hebrew. dal. See note on Proverbs 6:11 . Same word as in Proverbs 19:17 ; not the same word as in verses: Proverbs 19:1 , Proverbs 19:7 , Proverbs 19:22 .

Verse 5

unpunished = acquitted, or held innocent.

speaketh = breatheth forth.

Verse 6

him that giveth gifts. Hebrew a man of gifts = a generous man.

Verse 7

go far = withdraw.

pursueth, &c.: or, seeketh words [of friendship], but there are none.

Verse 8

wisdom. Hebrew "heart", put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for the understanding. See note on Proverbs 1:2 .

understanding. Hebrew. btnah. See note on Proverbs 1:2 .

Verse 9

A false witness, &c. The repetition of Proverbs 19:6 is needed, and punishment is denned.

Verse 10

Delight = Luxury.

Verse 11

deferreth his anger. Illustrations: Joseph (Genesis 40:15 ); Moses (Numbers 12:0 ); David (1 Samuel 24:0 ; 1 Samuel 26:5 , &c.); the Prophet (1 Kings 13:6 , &c).

Verse 12

dew = night mist.

Verse 13

is the calamity = is a great trouble to. Hebrew "troubles" (plural) for great trouble. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), put for action of the foolish son which brings it on.

Verse 14

a prudent wife. See Proverbs 18:22 .

Verse 16

keepeth = guardeth.

die = die prematurely.

Verse 18

Chasten = Correct, or discipline.

let not, &c. This is not a caution against excess of severity, but against a cruel kindness which ends in death, by withholding seasonable correction.

Verse 19

A man of great wrath = one in a rage (compare Daniel 11:44 . Compare 2 Kings 22:13 ).

shall suffer = suffereth.

suffer punishment = incurreth a penalty. Hebrew. 'onesh = a fine, or indemnity. (Oxford Gesenius).

thou deliver = thou rescue him [by paying the penalty] thou must do it continually.

Verse 20

instruction = correction, or discipline.

Verse 21

many devices = many schemes.

Nevertheless, &c. Illustrations: Joseph's brethren (Genesis 37:19 , &c. Compare Psalms 76:10 ); Pharaoh (Exodus 1:10 . Compare Exodus 15:0 ); the rulers (Matthew 27:63-66 ); Saul (Acts 9:1 , Acts 9:2 . Compare verses: Proverbs 19:3-9 , &c.); Herod (Acts 12:1-3 . Compare verses: Proverbs 19:5-19 ); the forty Jews (Acts 23:12-15 ).

Verse 22

man. Hebrew. 'adam. App-14 . This word stands in relation to 'ish in Proverbs 19:21 , and to a poor man in next clause = here, the commonest sort of man, or ordinary man.

is, &c. = is [measured by] his kindness.

better. See note on Proverbs 8:11 .

a liar. Hebrew an 'ish [a man of the better sort who is] a liar. This proverb does not "remain a riddle".

The structure above is addressed to "My Son" Proverbs 19:27 , Proverbs 23:15 , Proverbs 23:19 , Proverbs 23:26 ; Proverbs 24:13 , Proverbs 24:21 ); and is all in the Second Person: "THOU" (Proverbs 19:20 ; Proverbs 22:24 , Proverbs 22:25 , Proverbs 22:26 , Proverbs 22:27 ; Proverbs 23:1 , Proverbs 23:5 , Proverbs 23:6 , Proverbs 23:13 , Proverbs 23:14 , Proverbs 23:19 , Proverbs 23:31 , Proverbs 23:34 ; Proverbs 24:1 , Proverbs 24:10 , Proverbs 24:11 , Proverbs 24:12 ); "THEE" (Proverbs 22:19 , Proverbs 22:20 , Proverbs 22:21 , Proverbs 22:27 ; Proverbs 23:7 ); "THY" (Proverbs 22:18 ; Proverbs 23:16 , Proverbs 23:22 , Proverbs 23:25 ; Proverbs 24:10 , Proverbs 24:27 , Proverbs 24:34 ); "THINE" (Proverbs 23:12 , Proverbs 23:15 , Proverbs 23:17 , Proverbs 23:18 , Proverbs 23:19 , Proverbs 23:33 ); "THYSELF" (Proverbs 24:27 ).

Verse 23

The fear of the LORD . See note on Proverbs 1:7 .

life. Hebrew, plural implying resurrection and eternal life.

evil. Hebrew. ra'a'. App-44 .

Verse 24

bosom = bowl or wide dish. 2 Kings 21:13 . Compare Matthew 26:23 .

Verse 25

scorner = scoffer.

will beware = will be made wise (note the force of the Hiphil). Illustrations: Israel (Exodus 14:31 ); the stubborn (Deuteronomy 21:21 ); Gibeonites (Joshua 9:3 ); Sergius Paulus (Acts 13:6-12 ).

reprove = set right.

and he will understand knowledge = will cause teaching to be discerned. Compare Proverbs 22:17 .

Verse 26

wasteth = preyeth upon.

Verse 27

my son. The presence of this word here and in Proverbs 23:15 , Proverbs 23:19 , Proverbs 23:26 ; Proverbs 24:13 , Proverbs 24:21 , together with the employment of the second person, shows that these are proverbs for Solomon. See note under Structure above.

words = sayings. Hebrew. imrah. App-73 .

Verse 28

An ungodly witness. Hebrew "A witness of Belial": i.e. a false witness.

mouth. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6 , for the witness given by it.

the wicked = lawless ones. Hebrew. rasha'. App-44 .

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Proverbs 19". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/proverbs-19.html. 1909-1922.