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spake. See note on Numbers 1:1 .
Send thou. This was spoken in consequence of People's request. Compare Deuteronomy 1:19-22 , and "we will" of Numbers 13:22 . This was walking by "sight. "
search, for Jehovah had told them about it. See Deuteronomy 8:7-9 . Compare 1 Samuel 8:6 , 1 Samuel 8:22 , and Hosea 13:11 . Jehovah already espied it. Ezekiel 20:6 .
Canaan. Compare Deuteronomy 7:1 . The land of the seven mighty nations. See App-23 and App-25 .
children = sons.
ruler = prince.
by the commandment of the LORD. Compare Deuteronomy 1:19-22 .
commandment. Hebrew "mouth". Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6 , put for what is spoken by the mouth.
heads = captains over thousands. Exodus 18:25 .
names. For the order of the tribes here, see App-45 .
Oshea = salvation. Compare Numbers 13:16 . See note on Numbers 13:16 . Nun. 1 Chronicles 7:27 , "Non".
Sethur = hidden, or mystical: by Gematria = 666 ( App-10 ). Probably marking the ringleader of the Provocation.
names. Levi not named. No inheritance in the land.
Jehoshua. Name occurs over 250 times; see the first, Exodus 17:9 . Sometimes Jeshua (Nehemiah 8:17 ). Greek, Jesus (Matthew 1:21 .Acts 7:45 .Hebrews 4:8; Hebrews 4:8 ). In Deuteronomy 32:44 called Hoshea again: Hoshea = saviour, or salvation. Je, prefixed = he by whom Jehovah will save.
southward. For first nine miles, on account of the roads, then by the mountain passes eastward.
tents = camps.
went up. In the month Ab (our July).
south = the Negeb. Compare Genesis 12:9 ; Genesis 13:1 ).
Hebron. Ancient name, Kirjath-arba (or stronghold of Arba) (Genesis 23:2 , Genesis 23:19 ), because built by Anak and the sons of Arba. Joshua 14:15 ; Joshua 15:13 . The Tel-el-Amarna Tablets show that certain bands of Hittite condottieri are called " Khabiri", or "allies" (hence the name Hebron, which means "confederacy", or friendship, which is not met with till Ramases II), captured Kirjath-Arba. Ebed-Tob, king of Jerusalem (see note on Genesis 14:18 ), in his letters to Pharaoh frequently mentions these Khabiri (or confederates of Amorites and Hittites). God's confederacy with His people in Christ was " before the foundation of the world". Before Zoan the city of the wise was known.
Ahiman. Driven out by Caleb. Joshua 15:13 , Joshua 15:14 . Slain by Judah. Judges 1:10 .
children of Anak = home-born persons: usually of slaves. These were the result of a second irruption of the fallen angels. See Genesis 6:4 , "after that". These are called "Nephilim" in Numbers 13:33 . See App-23 and App-25 . The name "Anak" occurs here, and verses: Numbers 13:28 , Numbers 13:33 .Deuteronomy 9:2 .Joshua 15:14 .
built: i.e. rebuilt ( banah frequently has this meaning). Compare Joshua 6:26 . 1Ki 16:34 . 2 Kings 14:22 .Isaiah 44:28 . Amos 9:14 .
seven years before Zoan in Egypt. Built by the first kings of the nineteenth dynasty (see App-37 ). Ramases II made it his capital, compare Isaiah 30:4 (and is the first to mention Hebron). Zoan was the scene of the Exodus (see Psalms 78:12 , Psalms 78:13 ), and "the house of bondage"
Zoan. See note on Exodus 1:10 .
And. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ), calling attention to each of the three items.
grapes, &c. No mere accident that these three were brought. These symbolical of the "fruit" of our Land, even of Him Who is the true Vine. He comes first.
pomegranates. His worship comes next (largely used symbolically in tabernacle and temple, see Exo 27:28 , Exo 27:29 and 2 Chronicles 3:0 and 2 Chronicles 4:0 ).
figs. The common support of life in the East, next to bread. These symbolize the common duties of life. (The grapes and pomegranates its luxuries and spiritual privileges).
brook: or valley.
Eshcol = cluster.
cluster. Hebrew. 'eshcol.
forty. The number of Probation. See App-10 . At the end. of Elul (our August), exactly six months from setting up of the Tabernacle. See App-50 .
Kadesh = Kadesh-barnea. Deuteronomy 1:19 .
Nevertheless. In spite of the evidence produced. This is the conclusion of sight, not of faith. Note the words "we saw", verses: Numbers 13:28 , Numbers 13:32 , Numbers 13:33 .
very great. Great in size as well as in wickedness, abnormal, superhuman. See App-23 and App-25 .
we saw. This was "walking by sight, not by faith", 2 Corinthians 5:7 .
Caleb = whole-hearted.
stilled = silenced.
well able = the conclusion of faith.
men. Hebrew, plural of 'ish or 'enosh. App-14 .
not able = the conclusion of sight.
they are stronger than we = the conclusion of unbelief, which always leaves God out.
brought up an evil report = sent forth a slander. Compare Numbers 14:37 .
we saw. The language of unbelief.
giants. Hebrew. nephilim. Those mentioned in Genesis 6:4 were all destroyed in the Flood; these came from a second irruption of fallen angels, "after that": i.e. after "those days" = the days of Noah. See Genesis 6:4 , and App-23 and App-25 . See note on Numbers 13:22 .
sight. It is all "sight" where there is no faith 2 Corinthians 5:7 .
grasshoppers: or locusts.
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Numbers 13". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://studylight.org/
the Fourth Sunday after Epiphany