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Jeremiah's Sixteenth Prophecy (see book comments for Jeremiah).
to. Hebrew "upon". Some codices, with two early printed editions, Septuagint, and Vulgate, read "unto".
all the People = the People at large.
the fourth year of Jehoiakim. An important date, being the first year of Nebuchadnezzar. See App-83 and App-86 .
the first year, &c. See App-86 .
Nebuchadrezzar. Compare Jeremiah 21:2 .
Babylon. Assyria not mentioned, for it had already fallen.
Jeremiah the prophet spake. This is the first occurrence of the expression. We find "said" later; and "prophet" in Jeremiah 1:5 ; Jeremiah 20:2 ; Jeremiah 28:5 , Jeremiah 28:6 , Jeremiah 28:10 , Jeremiah 28:11 , Jeremiah 28:12 , Jeremiah 28:12 , Jeremiah 28:15 ; Jeremiah 29:1 , Jeremiah 29:29 ; Jeremiah 32:2 ; Jeremiah 36:8 , &c, Jeremiah 34:6 ; Jeremiah 45:1 .
spake. In Ch. Jeremiah 36:2 he is told to "write", because "Israel" (being dispersed), could not be spoken to, as Judah was here.
thirteenth year of Josiah. Compare Jeremiah 1:2 .
the three and twentieth year: i.e. of Jeremiah's prophesying: 18 years under Josiah + 3 months under Jehoahaz + 4 years under Jehoiakim.
the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .
rising early and speaking. See note on Jeremiah 7:13 .
evil = calamity. Hebrew. ra'a. App-44 .
in the land = on the soil. Hebrew. 'adamah.
for ever and ever = from age to age. This must be read with "given", and refers to God's counsel. See note on Isaiah 44:7 ("ancient").
do you no hurt = bring no calamity upon you.
hurt. Hebrew. ra'a'. App-44 . Compare Jeremiah 25:5 .
saith the LORD = [is] Jehovah's oracle.
provoke Me to anger, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:21 ).
the LORD of hosts. See note on Jeremiah 6:6 , and 1 Samuel 1:3 .
My servant. Compare Isaiah 45:1 .
and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton. App-6 .
astonishment. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:37 ). Compare Jeremiah 25:18 .
perpetual = age-abiding. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Whole), for a long time.
I will take from them. Quoted in Revelation 18:23 . Compare Jeremiah 7:34 ; Jeremiah 16:9 ; Jeremiah 33:11 .
candle = lamp.
and. Some codices, with three early printed editions, Syriac, and Vulgate, read this "and" in the text.
seventy years. From 496 to 426. See the special note on 2 Chronicles 36:21 .
when. No necessary sequence with Jeremiah 25:11 .Jeremiah 25:12; Jeremiah 25:12 commences a fresh paragraph about the seventy years.
punish = visit upon, exactly seventy years later.
iniquity. Hebrew. 'avah. App-44 .
it. Hebrew masculine = the People rather than the land.
of them: i.e. of the Chaldeans.
the LORD God of Israel. See note on Jeremiah 11:3 .
wine. Hebrew. yayin. App-27 .
be moved = reel to and fro.
because of the sword, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:25 , Leviticus 26:33 ). App-92 .
Jerusalem. Comes first (Compare Jeremiah 25:29 ), because of 1 Peter 4:17 . Amos 3:2 .
and. So some codices, with five early printed editions, Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate. Others omit this "and".
as it is this day. Probably added by Jeremiah when this prophecy had been fulfilled.
mingled people. Hebrew. 'ereb. Compare Jeremiah 50:37 . Ezekiel 30:5 .Daniel 2:43 .Ezra 9:2 .Psalms 106:35 . In the inscription of Sennacherib (Bellino's Cylinder, line 13) the Urbi are joined with the Arameans (nomad tribes west of the Euphrates). Sennacherib says that Hezekiah had some " Urbi" soldiers with him in Jerusalem.
Uz. Job's country near Idumea (Lamentations 4:2 .)
Philistines, &c. Compare Jeremiah 47:0 .
Ashkelon. Now 'Askalan. Azzah. Hebrew ' Azz ah = Gaza.
Ekron. Now ' Aki r.
Ashdod. Now 'Esdud.
children = sons.
and the kings. So in the Mugah Codex (quoted in the Massorah) ; but other codices, with one early printed edition, read "and all the kings".
isles = coast-land, or maritime country.
are. Supply "is", referring to coast-land.
Dedan. On the borders of Edom (Jeremiah 49:8 . Ezekiel 25:13 ).
Tema, and Buz. The country of Elihu. See Job 32:2 and note on p. 666.
that are in the utmost corners = all with their hair clipped at the corners.
the world. Hebrew. 'erez (with Art.), the earth.
the earth = the ground, or soil. Hebrew. 'adamah (with Art.)
Sheshach. The Massorah explains that this word is "Babel", being a cypher by which the last letter of the alphabet is put for the first, and the next to the last for the second, &c., by which Sh. Sh. Ch. becomes B. B. L. "Babel" (CompareJeremiah 51:41; Jeremiah 51:41 , where both words are used). There is another example in Jeremiah 51:1 . See note there. Four classes of nations are to drink of this cup of the fury of Jehovah Elohim of Israel (Jeremiah 25:15 ): (1) Jerusalem and Judah (Jeremiah 25:18 ); (2) Egypt, &c. (Jeremiah 25:19 ); (3) the mingled nations (verses: 20-22); and (4) the more distant nations (vv- 23-25). Daniel fills in these "times of the Gentiles", which are not within the scope of Jeremiah and Ezekiel. But the point here is that the final judgment of the nations is yet future: when "Great Babylon" comes into remembrance, it will "drink after them". Compare Jeremiah 49:12 . For this, "Sheshach" must be rebuilt and restored.
the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel. See note on Jeremiah 7:3 .
which is called by My name = upon which My name is called.
unpunished = held guiltless. Compare 1 Peter 4:17 . Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 20:7 ; Exodus 34:7 . Numbers 14:18 ).
the earth. Hebrew. ha'arez. Same word as "the world" in Jeremiah 25:26 .
roar. Compare Jeremiah 25:38 , "as a lion".
holy. See Exodus 3:5 .
upon His habitation = against His fold.
the grapes = the winepress. Compare Isaiah 63:1-6 .
plead with = judge.
wicked = lawless. Hebrew. rasha'. App-44 .
coasts = sides: i.e. uttermost parts. earth. Hebrew. 'arez. Compare Jeremiah 25:29 .
the slain. By the sword. Compare Isaiah 66:16 .
shepherds = rulers (of all kinds). Compare Jeremiah 2:8 ; Jeremiah 6:3 . All three had miserable ends: Jehoiakim (Jeremiah 22:18 ; Jeremiah 36:30 ); Jehoiachin, taken to Babylon; and Zedekiah, after his eyes were put out.
principals = strong ones.
of your dispersions: or, when ye are dispersed. So in the Mugah Codex (quoted in the Massorah), with three early printed editions.
pleasant = precious (i.e. fair, but fragile).
peaceable habitations = pastures of peace.
cut down = silenced.
as the lion. Figure of speech Simile ( App-6 ). Compare Jeremiah 25:30 .
the fierceness of the oppressor. Some codices, with one early printed edition, Aramaean, and Septuagint, read "the (Septuagint "great") sword of oppressors". Compare Jeremiah 46:16 ; Jeremiah 50:16 .
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Jeremiah 25". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 15 / Ordinary 20