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Bible Commentaries

Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Isaiah 44

Verse 1

My servant. The subject of these members. See note on Isaiah 37:35 .

chosen. See note on Isaiah 1:29 .

Verse 2

Thus saith, &c. Jehovah's first controversy with Israel closes with this member (p. 980); and the second closes with " N" (p. 984).

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .

formed = fashioned. Jesurun. This is a direct reference to the Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:15 ; Deuteronomy 33:5 , Deuteronomy 33:26 ), the only three places where this name occurs. See notes there and App-92 .

Verse 3

I will pour, &c. These promises all refer to the day of Israel's future restoration.

spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 . For this promise, see Ezekiel 36:25-30 ; Ezekiel 39:29 . Compare Isaiah 32:15 ; Isaiah 59:21 .Joel 2:28 . Zechariah 12:10 . It began at Pentecost (Acts 2:16 ); but the kingdom was then rejected (Acts 28:25 , Acts 28:26 ), and the promise is now in abeyance. Compare Joel 2:28 , "afterward".

Verse 4

as willows, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 24:6 ). App-92 .

water courses. See note on "streams", Isaiah 30:25 .

Verse 5

One . . . another . . . another. Hebrew. zeh = this one, that one, &c.

Verse 6

the King of Israel. Note this title (1) in connection with the O.T. manifestation of the kingdom; (2) the Gospels, the proclamation of the kingdom by the Son (Matthew 27:42 .Mark 15:32 . Joh 1:49 ; John 12:13 ). All were rejected, and the kingdom therefore is now in abeyance.

his Redeemer: i.e. his Kinsman-Redeemer. Reference to Pentateuch (See note on Isaiah 41:14 ).

the first, &c. See note on Isaiah 41:4 . Quoted in Revelation 1:17 .

beside Me. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 4:35 .Deuteronomy 32:39; Deuteronomy 32:39 ). the first, &c. See note on Isaiah 41:4 . Quoted in Revelation 1:17 , &c.

beside Me. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 4:35 ; Deuteronomy 32:39 ). App-92 .

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4 .

Verse 7

appointed = set, or established.

the ancient People = the everlasting Nation. The nation of Israel is everlasting, like the Covenant. The nations which oppressed Israel (Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Rome) have passed away; but Israel remains, and, when restored, will remain for ever. Note and compare the nine everlasting things in Isaiah: (1) covenant (Isaiah 55:3 ; Isaiah 61:8 ; compare note on Genesis 9:16 ); (2) kindness (Isaiah 54:8 ); (3) salvation (Isaiah 45:17 ); (4) excellency (Isaiah 60:15 ); (5) joy (Isaiah 51:11 ); (6) name (Isaiah 56:5 ); (7) light (Isaiah 60:19 , Isaiah 60:20 ); (8) sign (Isaiah 55:13 ); and (9) as the pledge of all, "the everlasting God" (Isaiah 40:28 ; Isaiah 63:12 ).

and shall come = and [which] shall come.

Verse 8

My witnesses. Note the Structures above).

no God = no Rock. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:4 . Compare Isaiah 26:4 ). App-92 .

Verse 9

make = fashion, or, form.

vanity = emptiness. Hebrew. tohu (without form), as in Genesis 1:2 . See note on Isaiah 24:10 .

their = the fashioners'.

delectable things. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for the things they have desired.

they: i.e. the makers and worshippers. See the Structure, above.

ashamed: as the Babylonians were when their city was taken by the Medo-Persians.

Verse 12

The smith with the tongs, &c. "The smith was more or less a sacred person, and the iron foundry was an annex of heathen temples. "Mounds of scorioe and iron slag are found near many heathen temples. Note the contrast exhibited (apparently on purpose) in 1 Kings 6:7 .

Verse 15

take thereof = take [of the wood] thereof.

Verse 16

with. Some codices in margin, with one early printed edition, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "and with".

Verse 17

maketh a = maketh into a.

Verse 18

not known = not taken note.

shut = smeared.

Verse 19

none considereth = none reflecteth; none bringeth back to his heart.

understanding = discernment.

the stock of a tree = a log of wood.

Verse 20

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .

a lie: i.e. the maker's vain fancy.

Verse 21

O Israel. Some codices, with one early printed edition (Rabbinic, 1517), read "And Israel", The reference is to Genesis 32:26 .

not be forgotten. Because of being the "everlasting Nation" (Isaiah 44:7 ).

Verse 22

I have blotted out. See Isaiah 43:25 .

transgressions = rebellions. Hebrew. pasha '.

redeemed. Hebrew. ga'al. See note on Exodus 6:6 .

Verse 23

Sing . . . shout. Figure of speech Poeanismos .

break forth into singing. See note on Isaiah 14:7 .

Verse 25

tokens = signs. See note on Isaiah 7:11 .

liars: i.e. the false prophets of the heathen.

diviners: i.e. the astrologers, &c, of Assyria. See note on Isaiah 47:13 .

wise. Figure of speech Antiphrasis ( App-6 ) = accounted wise.

Verse 26

His Servant: i.e. His prophet (Isaiah).

Jerusalem . . . cities, &c. These named first because first built. See Isaiah 44:28 .

built = rebuilt.

Verse 27

the deep: i.e. the Euphrates, on which Babylon was built.

I will dry up. Literally fulfilled, at the taking of Babylon, by Cyrus through his general, Gobryas. Compare Jeremiah 50:38 , &c.

rivers. Plural of Majesty for the great river Euphrates.

Verse 28

Cyrus. See note on Isaiah 45:1 .

even saying = and saying: i.e. Jehovah, the Speaker from Isaiah 44:24 , and in the preceding clause. It does not mean that Cyrus spoke of rebuilding Jerusalem (for he did not), but it records what Jehovah would say of Cyrus, and what He would say also to Jerusalem. Nehemiah must have obtained a copy of Isaiah on his visit to Jerusalem, or he could not have instructed Cyrus.

Jerusalem. Named before the temple, because the city and its walls were first built, before the temple foundations were laid. See notes on Nehemiah 7:4 , and also App-57 and App-58 .

temple. Named after Jerusalem, because the city walls were first built. See note above, and compare Nehemiah 7:4 with Haggai 1:1-4 .

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Isaiah 44". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.