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an empty vine = a productive or luxurious vine. Hebrew a vine emptying or yielding its fruit. See notes on Judges 9:8-13 . Hebrew. gephen. Always feminine except here and 2 Kings 4:39 . Here because it refers to Israel: i.e. to the people.
fruit. Note the Figure of speech Polyptoton ( App-6 ) in the varying inflections of the words, "fruit", "multiply", and "good"; and the Figure of speech Synonymia in "altars" and "images"; all to increase the emphasis of the contrast. See note on Hosea 9:8 ("watchman").
unto himself = like himself: i.e. not for Me.
according to. Note the Figure of speech Anaphora ( App-6 ).
multitude . . . increased. The same word. images = pillars: i.e. 'Asherahs ( App-42 ). Hebrew. mazsebah = upright (erect) pillars.
Their heart is divided. Compare 1 Kings 18:21 . 2Ki 17:32 , 2 Kings 17:33 , 2 Kings 17:41 .
found faulty = held guilty. Referring back to Hosea 9:17 .
he shall, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 23:24 ; Exodus 34:13 .Deuteronomy 7:5 ; Deuteronomy 12:3 ).
do to us: do for us, or, profit us.
hemlock = poppy. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 29:18 ; Deuteronomy 32:32 , Deuteronomy 32:33 ). App-92 . Elsewhere only in Job, Psalms, Jeremiah, and Amos 5:7 ; Amos 6:12 .
in the furrows. Some codices, with four early printed editions (one Rabbinic, margin), read "all the furrows"
Samaria. See Hosea 10:7 ; Hosea 7:1 ; Hosea 8:5 , Hosea 8:6 ; Hosea 13:16 .
Beth-aven. See note on Hosea 4:15 .
priests. Hebrew. kemarim = priests of Baal, or black ones, from kamar = to be black, from the black dress (or cassocks) worn by them. Occurs only here and 2 Kings 23:5 .Zephaniah 1:4 .
rejoiced = leap, or exult. Compare 1 Kings 18:26 .
glory . . . departed. Reference to the history (1 Samuel 4:21 , 1 Samuel 4:22 ).
king Jareb. See note on Hosea 5:13 .
counsel: i.e. the policy of Jeroboam.
as the foam, &c. = on the face of the waters. Ref to Pentateuch (Genesis 1:2 ; Genesis 7:18 ). App-92 .
sin. Hebrew. chata. App-44 . Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , for the idols associated with it. Compare Deuteronomy 9:21 . 1 Kings 12:30 .
the thorn and the thistle. Ref to Pentateuch (Genesis 3:18 ). This combination of words occurs only in these two places. "Thorns" is found in Exodus 22:6 , &c.; "thistles", Hebrew. darda, only here, and Genesis 3:18 . Compare Hosea 9:6 .
mountains. Such was Beth-el in the hill country of Ephraim (Judges 4:5 ). Contrast Genesis 49:2 , Genesis 49:6 .
sinned. Hebrew. chata . App-44 .
from: or, beyond.
the days of Gibeah. See Hosea 9:9 and Judges 19:0 and Judges 20:0 . Note the Article.
there they stood. In battle array.
children = sons.
iniquity. Hebrew. 'alvah. Occurs only here, from Hebrew. 'avah. App-44 .
did not overtake them. Supply the Ellipsis: [and shall ye escape? ].
It is in My desire, &c. = I am resolved to. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:63 ).
people = peoples
when they shall bind = they being joined (or yoked) [in cohabitation. Put for idolatries] together in committing idolatry.
two furrows. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for being yoked together as oxen in committing the same sins of idolatry. See the interpretation in verses: Hosea 10:11-13 .
And Ephraim = i.e. the land of Ephraim. Here is the contrast. See note on "watchman", Hosea 9:8 .
an heifer. Compare Jeremiah 50:11 .Micah 4:13 .
passed over upon = put a yoke upon.
Jacob. Put here by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , for Ephraim.
to seek the LORD. Ref to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 4:29 ). App-92 .
rain righteousness, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:2 ).
Ye have plowed = Ye have sown. Heb, harashtem. Occurs, with this spelling, only here and Judges 14:18 . The Massorah ( App-30 and App-93 ) places it in an alphabetical list of words, occurring twice, with two different meanings (see Ginsburg's Massorah, vol. i, p. 498). It is therefore a Homonym with one meaning: ye have plowed (Judges 14:18 ); and another, ye have sown (Hosea 10:13 ).
wickedness = lawlessness. Hebrew. rasha'. App-44 .
trust = confide. Hebrew. batah. App-69 .
way. Septuagint reads "chariots". This corresponds with the next clause.
Shalman. Sayce thinks he is Salamanu, king of Moab, a tributary of Tiglath-Pileser III (Compare Hosea 1:1 ); therefore a contemporary of Hosea.
Beth-arbel. Hebrew. Beth-'arbeel = house of the ambush of GOD (Hebrew El. App-4 . IV). Hebrew margin reads Beth - 'arbel, so as to disguise the name El and avoid the supposed offensive expression.
the mother, &c. Compare Hosea 13:16 .
your great wickedness. Hebrew "evil of your evil". Note the Figure of speech P olypto t on ( App-6 ), Hebrew. ra'a'.
in a morning. Some codices, with two early printed editions (one Rabbinic, margin), read "like the dawn".
shall the king of Israel. Compare Hosea 10:7 , The king referred to may be Hoshea.
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Hosea 10". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://studylight.org/
the Third Week after Epiphany