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Bible Commentaries

Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Exodus 34

Verse 1

And . Moses must have descended for the fifth time. See note on Exodus 19:3 .

the LORD . Hebrew. Jehovah . App-4 .

the LORD said . See note on Exodus 3:7 , and compare note on Exodus 6:10 .

Hew thee . Moses makes these second tables; Jehovah made the first. See on Exodus 31:18 .

write. See note on Exodus 17:14 and App-47 .

Verse 3

man . Heb, 'ish. See App-14 .

Verse 4

went up . Moses' sixth and last ascent. See note on Exodus 19:3 .

as = according as.

Verse 5

proclaimed. As promised in Exodus 33:19 .

Verse 6

GOD . Hebrew. EL See App-4 .

longsuffering = slow to anger.

goodness = lovingkindness, or grace.

truth = faithfulness.

Verse 7

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.

forgiving = bearing away.

iniquity = perverseness. Hebrew. avah , App-44 .

transgression = rebellion. Heb, pasha. App-44 .

sin. Hebrew. chat'a. See App-44 .

by no means clear the guilty . Not even Christ, when our sins were imputed to Him: therefore, all now in Him are "cleared", Figure of speech Polyptoton ( App-6 ). Hebrew "clearing will not clear", emphasis on "by no means". unto the third and to the fourth generation. This refrain recurs in whole or in part in Ex. Exodus 20:5 . Compare also Numbers 14:18 . Deuteronomy 5:9 . Nehemiah 9:17 . Psalms 103:8 . Jeremiah 9:24 ; Jeremiah 30:11 ; Jeremiah 46:28 ; Daniel 9:4 .Nahum 1:3 . The visiting spread over in mercy, not extended in wrath.

Verse 8

worshipped . This is ever the effect of the manifestation of Jehovah in grace. Compare 2 Samuel 7:18 .

Verse 9

Lord . . . my Lord. Hebrew. Adonai, Adonai. But this is one of the 134 places where Jehovah was altered to Adonai by the Sopherim. See App-32 .

for , &c. The moment Jehovah speaks of grace, Moses turns the very charge of Jehovah, in Exodus 33:5 , . into a plea and ground for His presence.

Verse 10

He [Jehovah] said. See note on Exodus 3:7 , and Compare Exodus 6:10 .

Behold . Figure of speech Asterismos ( App-6 ) for emphasis.

covenant of marvels . This covenant finds its complete fulfilment in the Apocalypse.

Verse 12

it = they.

Verse 13

images = sacred pillars. Compare Exodus 23:24 ; Exodus 24:4 , and note on Leviticus 26:1 .

groves = Hebrew. 'asherah. First occurrence out of forty: always rendered "groves", but denotes a phallic image, worshipped by libidinous rites and lascivious practices See. App-42 .

Verse 14

is = "he [is]".

GOD = Hebrew El. App-4 .

Verse 15

sacrifice . Hebrew. zabah. App-43 .

Verse 18

as . Some codices, with Samaritan Pentateuch, The Targum of Onkelos, The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "according as".

time = appointed time.

Abib . See note on Exodus 13:4 , and App-51 .

Verse 20

redeem . Hebrew. padah. See note on Exodus 6:6 , and Exodus 13:13 .

appear before Me. This is an alteration (in pointing) made by the Sopherim to soften the Figure of speech Anthropopatheia ( App-6 ) of the primitive text, which was "see My face". See note on Exodus 23:15 , and compare the other passages where this change is made, viz. Exodus 34:20 , Exodus 34:23 , Exodus 34:24 .Deuteronomy 16:16 ; Deuteronomy 31:11 .Psalms 11:7 ; Psalms 17:15 ; Psalms 42:2 .Isaiah 1:12 ; Isaiah 38:1 Isaiah 38:1 . In this, therefore, there is no contradiction of Exodus 33:20 .

empty = empty-handed.

Verse 21

earing = ploughing. From A. S. erian, Latin. arare.

Verse 23

Thrice = the number of Divine perfection. ( App-10 .) Lord GOD, the God. Hebrew. the 'Adon, Jehovah Elohim. App-4 .

Verse 24

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4 .

Verse 25

offer = slay. Hebrew. zabach. Supply Ellipsis ( App-6 ), "slay [and pour out]". See App-43 .

Verse 27

Write thou. See note on Exodus 17:14 and App-47 .

Verse 28

He = Jehovah. See Exodus 34:1 .

tables . See on Exodus 31:18 .

Two episodes , concluding the ascents and descents preparatory to the other great event of this section (Exodus 15:22 - Exodus 40:38 ), viz. the setting up of the Tabernacle, and the command that none of the work was to be done on the Sabbath.

Verse 29

came down . Moses' sixth and last descent. Compare Exodus 19:3 .

wist not = knew not. Compare Moses: unconscious moral strength for testimony.

Samson : unconscious weakness for unfaithfulness (Judges 16:20 ).

Peter : unconscious deliverance for service (Acts 12:9 ).

shone = radiated, or was glorious, i.e. reflected as a mirror the Divine glory, see 2 Corinthians 3:7 ; and compare 1 Corinthians 15:41 .Revelation 18:1 .Matthew 17:2 .Acts 6:15 . The Vulgate mistook the Hebrew word karan = to radiate, for keren, a beam or horn of light (see Habakkuk 3:4 and note on the subscription to Psalms 21:0 ). Hence the traditional paintings of Moses with two horns.

while , &c. = through his having spoken with him. This interprets 1 John 3:2 . Compare Matthew 17:2 , and the "till " of Exodus 34:33 , and the "until" of Exodus 34:35 .

Verse 30

children = sons. afraid. See Exodus 20:18-21 .

Verse 32

gave them , &c. Charged them with.

Verse 34

went in: i.e. into the tent.

he took the vail off . And, when Israel turns thus to Jehovah, He will take the vail from their heart, as Moses did from his face, 2 Corinthians 3:16 . We, now, are "not as Moses", Exodus 34:13 .

Verse 35

again . So 2 Corinthians 3:13 . Greek = kept putting a vail on his face" (imperfect tense). They could not see "the end of the Law", which is Christ. Romans 10:4 .

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Exodus 34". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/exodus-34.html. 1909-1922.