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1:1-4:31 PREPARATION OF MOSES
Egypt’s oppression of Israel (1:1-22)
The small community of Israelites who first settled in Egypt were all members of one family, the family of Jacob, and their early days were ones of happiness and prosperity (Genesis 46:1-7; Genesis 47:11-12). God had promised they would grow into a nation, and over the following centuries they increased in numbers and influence till they dominated the whole of the north-east corner of Egypt (1:1-7; cf. Genesis 13:16; Genesis 17:2; Genesis 47:27).
By this time the Egyptian rulers no longer showed friendship to the Israelites (or Hebrews, as the Egyptians called them). Pharaoh feared that if an enemy invaded from the north-east, the Israelites might join them, so he decided to act. He took control of the Israelites and forced them into slavery, using them to build fortified cities where he could keep supplies for his army (8-14). Pharaoh also tried to control the Hebrews’ population growth by introducing a policy of child slaughter. But his plan failed, largely because of the courage of the Hebrew midwives, who feared God more than they feared him. Through it all God was at work, preserving his people according to his covenant promise (15-22).
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Flemming, Donald C. "Commentary on Exodus 1". "Fleming's Bridgeway Bible Commentary". https://studylight.org/
the Second Week of Advent