the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #5030 - נָבִיא
1) spokesman, speaker, prophet
1b) false prophet
1c) heathen prophet
1301) bn (נב NB) AC: Flourish CO: Fruit AB: Prophecy: The pictograph n is a picture of a seed, the b is a picture of a tent or house representing what is inside. Combined these mean "seed inside". A fruit hides the seeds inside it.
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
1 genuine prophet of ׳י, נביא, anciently called רֹאֶה, 1 Samuel 9:9 (antiquarian note); change probably occurred in times of Elijah and is first reflected in Ehpraimitic source literally as applied to Abraham Genesis 20:7; Moses Deuteronomy 34:10, M. and other early prophets. Hosea 6:5; Hosea 12:11 (twice in verse); Hosea 12:14 (twice in verse); Amos 2:11,12; of prophets in ecstatic state Numbers 12:6 (E), Numbers 11:24 (JE). So in Judaic literature, of prophet like Moses Deuteronomy 18:15,18 (D), of Aaron (as mouthpiece of Moses) Exodus 7:1 (P), of Samuel 1 Samuel 3:20, an unknown Judges 6:8; in time of Samuel prophets were organized in bands: חֶבֶל נביאים 1 Samuel 10:5,10:10; ׳להקת הנ 1 Samuel 19:20; and in time of Elijah were בְּנֵי הַנְּבִיאִים = members of prophets' guilds 1 Kings 20:35; 2 Kings 2:3,5,7,15; 2 Kings 4:1,38 (twice in verse); נָבִיא of Genuine prophets (besides phrases), in Judaic prophets, only Jeremiah , Jeremiah 1:5; Ezekiel , Ezekiel 2:5 = Ezekiel 33:33; of ancient prophets Jeremiah 28:8,9 (3t. in verse); Zechariah 1:6; Zechariah 8:9; especially הנביאיםהראשׁנים Zechariah 1:4; Zechariah 7:7,12, compare הנביאיםעבדי(וׅ my ( his) servants the prophets 2 Kings 9:7; 2 Kings 17:13,23; 2 Kings 21:10; 2 Kings 24:2 (all R D) Ezra 9:11; Jeremiah 7:25; Jeremiah 25:4; Jeremiah 26:5; Jeremiah 29:19; Jeremiah 35:15; Jeremiah 44:4; Amos 3:7; Zechariah 1:6, compare Ezekiel 38:17; Daniel 9:6; ׳עבדוֺ הַנּ his servant the prophet 1 Kings 14:18; 2 Kings 14:25; הַנָּבִיא with proper name: Jerome, 2 Chronicles 36:12; Daniel 9:2 31t. Jeremiah (but ᵐ5 only 4t., the rest probably redactional, see Gie Jer. xxvii); Elijah 1 Kings 18:36 (om ᵐ5), 2 Chronicles 21:12; Malachi 3:23; Nathan 2 Samuel 7:2 10t. Samuel and Kings; 4t. Chronicles; Psalm 51:2 (title); Isaiah , 2 Kings 19:2; 2 Kings 20:1,14 = Isaiah 37:2; Isaiah 38:1; Isaiah 39:1; 2 Kings 20:11; 2 Chronicles 26:22; 32:20,32; Habakkuk Habakkuk 1:1; Habakkuk 3:1 (titles); Haggai , Haggai 1:1,3,12; Haggai 2:1,10; Zechariah , Zechariah 1:1,7 (titles); elsewhere several others in Samuel, Kings and Chronicles 15t.; נביא is used elsewhere of Genuine prophecy only 1 Samuel 9:9 34t. Samuel and Kings; 1 Chronicles 16:22 = Psalm 105:15, + 13t. Chronicles; Psalm 74:9 complains of absence of ׳נ; לַחְתֹּם חָזוֺן וְנָבִיא Daniel 9:24 see חתם
2 false prophets: prophets as official class, beside priests, character as false prophets: Isaiah 28:7; Jeremiah 2:26; Jeremiah 4:9; Jeremiah 6:13; Jeremiah 8:1,10; Jeremiah 13:13; Jeremiah 14:18; Jeremiah 18:18; Jeremiah 23:11,33,34; Jeremiah 26:7,8,11,16; Jeremiah 32:32; Zechariah 7:3, app. also 2 Kings 23:2; Nehemiah 9:32; Lamentations 2:20; Jeremiah 29:1; Ezekiel 7:26 (in these not characterized); always false (except of ancient and special prophets given above) in Amos 7:14; Hosea 4:5; Hosea 9:7,8; Micah 3:5,6,11; Isaiah 3:2; Isaiah 9:14; Isaiah 29:10; Jeremiah 2:8,30; Jeremiah 5:13,31; Jeremiah 14:13,14,15 (twice in verse); Jeremiah 23:9 16t. Jeremiah 27:9,14,15,16,18; Jeremiah 29:8,15; Jeremiah 37:19; Ezekiel 13:2 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 13:3,4,9,16; Ezekiel 14:4,7,9 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 14:10; Ezekiel 22:25,28; Zephaniah 3:4; Lamentations 2:9,14; Lamentations 4:13; especially discredited Deuteronomy 13:2; Deuteronomy 13:4; Deuteronomy 13:6; Deuteronomy 18:20 (twice in verse); Deuteronomy 18:22 (twice in verse); Zechariah 13:2,4,5; such a prophet Hananiah called הַנָּבִיא Jeremiah 28:1,5,10,12,15,17 ( ᵐ5 omits in all but Jeremiah 28:1, where ψευδοπροφήτης). Usage of prophets themselves gives such a bad flavour to נביא, that we are not surprised that it is absent from exilic Isaiah , the Wisdom Literature, and Psalm (except for special reasons in 3Psalm given under 1).
3 heathen prophets 1 Kings 18:20; 1 Kings 19:1; 2 Kings 3:13 (twice in verse); נביאיהאשׁדה 1 Kings 18:19; נביאי הבעל 1 Kings 18:19,22,25,40; 2 Kings 10:19; 1 Kings 22:6,10,12,13,22,23 2 Chronicles 18:5; 18:9; 18:11; 18:12; 18:21; 18:22.
נָבִיא m. Arab. نَبِىُّ for نَبِيىءُ Syr. ܢܒܺܝܐܳ a prophet, who as actuated by a divine afflatus, or spirit, either rebuked the conduct of kings and nations, or predicted future events (see the root נָבָא ) Deuteronomy 13:2; Judges 6:8; 1 Samuel 9:9; 1 Kings 22:7; 2 Kings 3:11; 2 Chronicles 28:9. With the idea of a prophet there was this necessarily attached, that he spoke not his own words, but those which he had divinely received (see Philo, t. iv. p. 116, ed. Pfeifferi, προφήτης γὰρ ἴδιον μὲν οὐδὲν ἀποφθέγγεται, ἀλλότρια δὲ πάντα ὑπηχοῦντος ἑτέρου· 2 Peter 1:20, 21 ), and that he was the messenger of God, and the declarer of his will; this is clear from a passage of peculiar authority in this matter, Exodus 7:1, where God says to Moses, נְתַתִּיךָ אֱלֹהִים לְפַרְעֹה וְאַהֲרוֹן אָחִיךָ יִהְיֶה נְבִיאֶךָ “I have constituted thee as God to Pharaoh, and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet,” i.e. in intercourse with Pharaoh, thou, as being the wiser [and the one with whom God communicated directly], shalt act as it were the part of God, and suggest words to thy brother; and thy brother, who is more fluent of speech, shall declare as a prophet what he receives from thee. In the same sense there is said, Exodus 4:16, הוּא יִהְיֶה לְךָ לְפֶה “he shall be to thee for a mouth,” compare Jeremiah 15:19 Sing. collect. appears to be used of prophets, [such an allegation would contradict the New Test., Christ our prophet is here spoken of], Deuteronomy 18:15, 18 Deuteronomy 18:18 (compare עֶבֶד יְיָ) see, however, Acts 3:22, 7:37, where those words are referred to Christ [and this ought to have hindered Gesenius from daring to apply them differently]. Those who were brought up for the prophetic office [rather, those who were taught by the prophets], are called בְּנֵי הַנְּבִאִים sons, i.e. disciples of the prophets, 1 Kings 20:35; 2 Kings 2:3, 2 Kings 2:5, 2 Kings 2:7, 15 2 Kings 2:15, 4:1, 38 2 Kings 4:38, 5:22 6:1 9:1 compare Pers. sons, i.e. disciples of the Magi.-Farther, there were also among the people of Israel false prophets, who pretending to be divinely inspired, pleased the ears of the people with soft words, and were therefore severely rebuked by the true prophets (see -Isa. 28:713 ; Jeremiah 14:13, seq. 27:9, seq. 28:10, seq.), and also there were soothsayers who prophesied in the name of Baal and Ashtaroth; נְבִיאֵי חַבַּעַל 1 Kings 18:19, 40 1 Kings 18:40; 2 Kings 10:19 and נְבִיאֵי הָאֲשֵׁרָה 1 Kings 18:19, even these are called נָבִיא simply Hosea 4:5, 9:7,, compare Isaiah 3:2. The idea of a prophet is sometimes more widely extended, and is applied to any one admitted to familiar intercourse with God, to whom God made known his will, e.g. Genesis 20:7 to the patriarchs, Psalms 105:15.
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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