the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
Click to donate today!
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #3802 - כָּתֵף
1) shoulder, shoulder-blade, side, slope
1a) shoulder, shoulder-blade (of man)
1b) shoulder, shoulder-pieces (of animals)
1c) side, slope (of mountain)
1d) supports (of laver)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
1. a. of man, shoulder, shoulder-blade (while שְׁכֶם, q. v. = neck and shoulders), כְּידוֺן נְחשֶׁת בֵּין כְּתֵפָיו 1 Samuel 17:6; compare figurative of ׳י's dwelling between the shoulders of Benjamin Deuteronomy 33:12 (see Dr); כְּתֵפִי מִשִּׁכְמָה תִמּוֺל Job 31:22 my shoulder-blade, from the shoulder let it fall; as support for burdens Judges 16:3; Ezekiel 12:6,7,12; Isaiah 46:7; Isaiah 49:22 (in figurative), Exodus 28:12; Numbers 7:9 (both P), 1 Chronicles 15:15; 2 Chronicles 35:3; compare מְרוּטָה׳כָּלכֿ Ezekiel 29:18 every shoulder was rubbed bare (of Nebuchadnezzar's soldiers chafed by armour and toil); as aim of bird of prey Isaiah 11:14 (figurative); compare shoulder of Moab Ezekiel 25:9 (figurative, i.e. the side of M. exposed to invasion): Ezekiel 29:7b read probably כַּף (ᵐ5. ᵑ6 Sm Co, compare v a).
b. of beasts, Isaiah 30:6 (carrying), Ezekiel 34:21 (thrusting, in figure), סֹרָ֑רֶת׳כ Zechariah 7:11 a refractory shoulder (refusing the yoke, figurative), so Nehemiah 9:29; of choice meat Ezekiel 24:4 ("" יָרֵךְ).
c. = shoulder-pieces (always plural) of ephod Exodus 28:7,12,25,27 = Exodus 39:4; Exodus 39:7; Exodus 39:18; Exodus 39:20 (P).
2. a. slope side, of mountain, כֶּתֶף יָםכִּֿנֶּרֶת Numbers 34:11, i.e. the mountain-slopes northeast of the lake, compare Joshua 15:8,10,11; Joshua 18:12,13,16,18,19 (all P).
b. opposite side (s), that Isaiah , of door or entrance, of tabernacle-court Exodus 27:14,15 = Exodus 38:14,15 (all P), of temple 1 Kings 6:8; 1 Kings 7:39 (3t. in verse) = 2 Chronicles 4:10; 2 Kings 11:11 (twice in verse) = 2 Chronicles 23:10 (twice in verse); compare Ezekiel 40:18,40 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 40:41,44 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 41:2,26; Ezekiel 46:19; Ezekiel 47:1,2.
3 supports of the bases for the lavers beside the temple 1 Kings 7:30 (twice in verse); 1 Kings 7:34 (twice in verse).
כָּתֵף [Derived in Thes. from the unused root כָּתַף], const. כֶּתֶף f.
(1) the shoulder; as to the difference of this from שְׁכֶם, see that word. (Arab. كِتْفُ, كَتِفَةُ id.; whence is formed the denominative verb كتف to wound in the shoulder, etc.) On the shoulder (עַל כָּתֵף Isaiah 46:7, 49:22 בְּכָתֵף Numbers 7:9) burdens are spoken of as being carried (also by beasts, Isaiah 30:6); whence metaph. Nehemiah 9:29, וַיִּתְּנוּ בָתֵף סוֹרֶרֶת “and they gave a revolting shoulder,” i.e. refused to bear that which was appointed; prop. refused to carry; compare Zechariah 7:11. בֵּין כְּתֵפָיו between the shoulders, i.e. upon the back, 1 Samuel 17:6.
(2) Applied to inanimate things, as the side of a building, 1 Kings 6:8, 7:39 of the sea, Numbers 34:11 of a city and country, Joshua 15:8, 10 Joshua 15:10, 11 Joshua 15:11, 18:12, seq. Hence poetically Deuteronomy 33:12, “(Benjamin) shall dwell between his shoulders (Jehovah’s),” i.e. between the mountains sacred to him, Zion and Moriah. Isaiah 11:14, “they shall fly upon the shoulder of the Philistine;” they shall attack their borders, an image taken from birds of prey.
Plur. כְּתֵפוֹת, const. כִתְפוֹת, with suff. כְּתֵפָיו (both fem.).
(1) the shoulder pieces of the high priest’s dress (אֵפוֹד), Exodus 28:7, 12 Exodus 28:12, 39:4, Exodus 39:7, 18 Exodus 39:18, 20 Exodus 39:20.
(2) the sides of a gate, i.e. spaces at each side of a gate, Ezekiel 41:2, 26 Ezekiel 41:26.
(3) bearings of an axle, 1 Kings 7:30, 34 1 Kings 7:34.